Haryanvi is mostly spoken in Panipat Haryana

Kauravi dialect - Kauravi dialect

Dialect of the Hindustani language
This article is about the rural dialect outside of Delhi. For the Dehlavi dialect of Delhi, see Hindustani language.

The Kauravi (Hindi: कौरवी, Urdu: کؤروی), also known as Khariboli or the Delhi dialect , is one of several Central Indian Aryan dialects spoken in and around Delhi. It is believed that it originally developed at the same time as the neighboring dialects Awadhi, Bhojpuri and Braj in the period from AD 900 to 1200. Kauravi includes some features such as: B. Gemination, which give it a distinctive sound and differentiate it from standard Hindustani, Braj and Awadhi. An early form of Kauravi became the main source of ancient Hindi, which later evolved into Hindustani and then Urdu and Hindi.

Geographical distribution

Khariboli is spoken in rural Delhi and northwest Uttar Pradesh, as well as Haryana and Uttarakhand in some neighboring areas. The geography of this part of northern India is traditionally called Doabs called .

In Haryana, the following districts speak Khari:

In Uttar Pradesh, the following districts of the Yamuna Ganges DOAB are Khari speakers:

In the trans-gang area it is spoken in the following districts of Rohilkhand Region in Uttar Pradesh:

In Uttarakhand, the following districts of the Yamuna Gang DOAB is partly Khari room:

In the trans-gang area it is partly spoken in the following districts of Uttarakhand:

Khariboli in Hindustani popular culture

Khariboli is often viewed as rustic by speakers of standard Hindustani, and elements of it have been used in Hum Log , India's first television soap opera, portraying the main family as rooted in West Uttar Pradesh.

As the two main Hindustan dialects of West Uttar Pradesh and the Delhi area, Khariboli and Braj Bhasha are often compared. A hypothesis like Khariboli as Khari (standing) has been described, said that they focus on the " stiff and rustic blur "of the dialect compared to" Mellifluosity and gentle fluidity "from Braj Bhasha. On the other hand, Khariboli followers sometimes disparagingly referred to Braj Bhasha and other dialects as" Pariboli "(Hindi: पड़ी बोली, Urdu: پڑی بولی, literally "fallen / supine dialects").

Suggestion from Kauravi and Sankrityayan

Although most linguists acknowledge that Modern Standard Hindustani derives from Khariboli, the exact mechanism of dialectical changes from Khari to prestige dialect (like the loss of gemination so widespread in Khari) is inconsistent. There are also differences within khari itself in the realm in which it is spoken. In the middle of the 20th century, the Indian scholar and nationalist Rahul Sankrityayan suggested redrawing the language map of the Hindustani zone. He distinguished between the Khari of Delhi and the Khari of the extreme western parts of western Uttar Pradesh and advocated that the former use the name Khariboli retained, while the latter is after the Kuru Kingdom of ancient India in Kauravi be renamed. Although the term Khariboli continue like is used as usual , some linguists have the term Kauravi too accepted and Respectively focus on the language im Speech arc spoken from Saharanpur to Agra (i.e. in the Middle East and Northeast of Delhi). Sankrityayan postulated that this one Kaurvi Dialect is the mother of Delhi's specific Khari dialect. Sankrityayan had also advocated that all Hindustani should be standardized in the Devanagari script and that Perso-Arabic should be completely abandoned.

Other dialects of Hindustani

Khariboli is related to four registers of Hindustani, the lingua franca of northern India and Pakistan: Standard Hindi, Standard Urdu, Dakhini, and Rekhta. Standard Hindi (also High Hindi, Manak Hindi) is the government language and one of the official languages ​​of India, Standard Urdu is the state language and national language of Pakistan, Dakhini is the historical literary dialect of the Deccan region and Rekhta is the "mixed" Hindustani of medieval poetry. Together with Sansiboli, these registers form the Hindustani dialect group. Together with Haryanvi, Braj Bhasha, Kanauji and Bundeli, this group forms the western dialect set of the Hindi languages.

Early influences

The Delhi area has long been the center of power in North India, and of course it became the Khari boli- Dialect considered urban and of a higher standard than the other dialects of Hindi. This view gradually gained ground during the 19th century; Before that time, other dialects such as Awadhi, Braj Bhasha and Sadhukaddi were the dialects preferred by Littérateurs. Standard Hindustani first developed with the migration of Persian Khari Boli speakers from Delhi to the Awadh region - particularly Amir Khusro - mixing the "roughness" of Khari Boli with the relative "softness" of Awadhi to form a new language, which they called "Hindavi". "This was also known as Hindustani, which later broke up into Hindi and Urdu.

Although Khari Boli belongs to the Upper Doab as a dialect, "Hindavi" developed in the cultural spheres of Allahabad and Varanasi.

Rise as the basis for standard Hindustani

The earliest examples of khariboli can be seen in the compositions of Amir Khusro (1253–1325).

Before the rise of Khariboli, the literary dialects of Hindi were those adopted by the Bhakti saints: Braj Bhasha (Krishna followers), Awadhi (adopted by the Rama followers), and Maithili (Vaishnavites of Bihar). However, after the bhakti movement degenerated into ritual cults, these languages ​​were viewed as rural and unrefined. Khariboli, on the other hand, was spoken in the urban area around the Mughal courts, where Persian was the official language. Persian-influenced Khariboli was therefore gradually seen as a dialect of prestige, although hardly any literary works had been written in Khariboli before the British era in India.

The British administrators of India and Christian missionaries played an important role in creating and promoting the Khariboli-based Modern Standard Hindustani. In 1800 the British East India Company established a college for higher education in Calcutta called Fort William College. John Borthwick Gilchrist, a president of that college, encouraged its professors to write in their native language; Some of the resulting works were in the literary form of the Khariboli dialect. These books contained Premium agar by Lallu Lal, Nasiketopakhyan from Sadal Mishra; Sukhsagar from Sadasukh Lal from Delhi and Rani Ketaki Ki Kahani by Inshallah Khan. More developed forms of khariboli can also be seen in mediocre literature produced in the early 18th century. examples are Chand Chhand Varnan Ki Mahima from Ganga Bhatt, Yogavashishtha by Ram Prasad Niranjani, Gora Badal Ki Katha from Jatmal, Mandovar Ka Varnan by Anonymous, a translation by Ravishenacharyas Jain Padmapuran by Daulat Ram (dated 1761). With government patronage and literary popularity, the khariboli flourished, although the use of earlier literary languages ​​such as Awadhi, Braj, and Maithili in literary vehicles decreased. The literary works in Khariboli gained momentum from the second half of the 19th century. A well-known Indian historian, Raja Sivaprasad, was a promoter of the Hindi language, particularly the Khariboli version. In the years that followed, khariboli gradually became the basis for standard Hindustani taught in schools and used in government functions.

Urdu, the strongly Persianized version of Khariboli, had replaced Persian as the literary language of northern India at the beginning of the 20th century. However, Urdu's association with Muslims prompted Hindus to develop their own Sanskritized version of the dialect, which led to the formation of Modern Standard Hindi. After India gained independence in 1947, the Khariboli-based dialect was officially recognized as a recognized version of the Hindi language, which was declared one of the official languages ​​for the functioning of central government.

See also