What does Squillo mean while singing

Great singers answer questions about vocal technique:

The right breathing support when singing:

In an interview with Jerome Hines, Nicolai Gedda, the renowned bass of the Metropolitan Opera Ensemble, gave the following answer to Appoggio, who is singing with the breathing aid:

Have you ever asked yourself what breathing technique or support the best singers of the century used to sing?

Singers from Fritz Wunderlich to Maria Callas and from Enrico Caruso to Luciano Pavarotti explain the breathing support (also called support) on this page. The breathing support is known by the following names: Appoggio, abdominal breathing, diaphragmatic breathing, flank breathing, Appoggiare la voce, Appoggiarsi in testa, Appoggiarsi in petto, chest breathing or Costo-Abdominal breathing, a mixture of diaphragmatic breathing and chest breathing.

Nicolai Gedda via breathing support, appoggio, abdominal breathing.

With the breathing support, the Appoggio, I do NOT use the abdominal muscles when singing, I support the tone with the diaphragm directly under the ribs. I neither tense the abdominal muscles while breathing nor do I care about any lower abdominal muscles when supporting. "Nicolai Gedda

The following reported Joan Sutherland about the breathing support, the use of the Appoggio or diaphragmatic breathing while singing

How do I use the breathing support? I do NOT sing on the breath with the breath. My tone hovers on the breath. I control the flow of breath and make sure that the breath flows out slowly and evenly while singing. Joan Sutherland

Note: Joan Sutherland as well as Maria Callas below give a trend-setting answer for the support in the sense of sul fiato. The support of the col fiato, which is predominantly taught nowadays, is categorically not recognized as a belcanto breath support by the two exemplary bel canto sopranos, but rather vehemently rejected.

Fritz Wunderlich Statements about Appoggio and breathing support.

The right breathing technique when singing is important but is overrated. I sing easily, naturally and without pressure. I start the tone from above and support it from above, which I value when singing. Fritz Wunderlich

Note: Fritz Wunderlich probably uses this symbol to clarify his form of the correct breathing technique, the Appoggiarsi in testa. The Appoggiarsi in testa is an old Italian Belcanto breath support method that seeks to support the tone in the head. The term support comes from the Italian appoggio or appogiare la voce, which means more to lean on something than to support. With the Appoggiarsi in testa one tries to support the tone in the head by leaning the tone into the head at the beginning of the tone.

Enrico Caruso: this is how he described the appoggio, the breathing aid.

To his voice doctor, Dr. Mario Marafioti, Caruso wrote the following instructions in a letter about the Appoggio, the breathing support: "The breathing technique is an indispensable factor in sound production. The breathing support is taught nowadays as the most important driving force in singing and voice training. The Appoggio is by no means the driving force Power when singing. On the contrary, functionally correct singing with the correct vocal position produces the correct breathing support. My principle is therefore that the correct vocal position when singing produces the correct breathing support and not the other way round. The breathing support, on the other hand, can NOT produce correct singing

Lili Lehmann and abdominal breathing, breathing support + appoggio.

After 25 years of singing, I changed my breathing technique. How I breathe now: I let the breath flow freely and do not tense the diaphragm or stomach as I used to do. I avoid any unnecessarily disturbing pressure. Anyone who sings, breathes and exhales carefully and with knowledge of the physiological causes will always feel a sense of comfort. The emergence of neck veins when singing high notes or supporting forte tones is not without danger. Lilli Lehmann

Luciano Pavarotti explains the breath support, the appoggio.

Even while breathing, I set the tone at the front of the hard palate. So I sing with squillo the shiny, metallic, radiant sound quality of the voice. During Appoggio, when breathing abdominally or breathing support, I have a feeling as if a balloon is filling up. How I breathe is as follows: I let the breath freely and evenly fill the balloon (the diaphragm) and make sure that I do not draw in the diaphragm, because then it rises. The diaphragm rises by itself when the breath flows out while singing. My secret is that I let the breath flow out slowly and at the end of a long phrase when I run out of air while singing, I wait until I have relaxed breathing again. The balloon, i.e. the diaphragm, must have enough time to relax and move back down from above. Luciano Pavarotti

Maria Callas: her breathing technique her appoggio, the breathing support!

When Maria Callas taught at the Julliard School of Art in New York, she repeatedly explained the principles of breathing support in bel canto to the singing students. Her breathing technique was not to push or press the sound with the breathing support, but rather to let the sound float on the breath. In several excerpts from masterclass recordings, she said repeatedly: When singing, please do not push the sound with your breath, but let it float on your breath. Bring the vocal seat into the head and support the tone from the head, but sing without breath pressure. Maria Callas

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As the Flank breathing Flank support is used by some singers when singing as a breath support or appoggio will be discussed further here shortly.

Singing professor Vitort

I sing dramatic bel canto roles like Othello at international opera houses.

Singing mezza voce or a diminuendo became increasingly difficult for my voice. Decrescendos were almost impossible at altitude.

The treatment at the Phoniater of the State Opera did not produce any results. Without the singing lessons in Munich with tenor + vocal researcher Max Wagner, I would have ended my career early. Thank goodness his voice balancing exercises were able to solve my voice problems! "To read more, please click on references from professional singers

Opera chorister

As a baritone and former member of the opera choir of the Stuttgart State Opera, the looseness of my tone approach suffered with high top notes, and ultimately the timbre in the tone flow of my voice sounded stiffer and became significantly slower.

The tenor and vocal researcher Wagner was able to solve my voice problems as follows. (See references from professional singers)