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XI. Chronology of the Dutch drug legislation

17th century

The United East India Company () receives the monopoly on the import of opium to the island of Java. The deals the opium for herbs in the Indian archipelago.

19th century

The Dutch state regulates the sale of opium in Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) by introducing a leasing system. In return for a large sum of money, private individuals can acquire monopoly rights in a certain area and they are obliged to buy their opium from the Dutch state.

at the end of the 19th century

At the end of the 19th century, the so-called “opium line” was introduced. The state controls the import, processing and sale of opium in the Dutch East Indies. In doing so, the state wants to reduce crime and health risks.

1919

In the Netherlands, the Opium Act is passed, which is still in force today.

1928

Revision of the Opium Act: possession of drugs is made a criminal offense.

1942

Japan occupies the Dutch East Indies and thereby also brings down the opium administration.

1967

The first social science studies on the mode of action of drugs are published.

1969

The Dutch Public Prosecutor's Office distinguishes between users and dealers of soft and hard drugs in criminal prosecution.

1970

During a pop concert in Rotterdam, the police tolerate the consumption of soft and hard drugs and limit their use to taking down personal details.

1976

The opium law is being revised. The state now differentiates between soft and hard drugs. Hashish and marijuana are classified as soft drugs. Hard drugs are heroin, cocaine, and speed. Since 1976 the consumption of small amounts of soft drugs has also been tolerated. The 30 gram rule defines the line between legality and crime.

1977

The Werkgroep Officiersoverleg Drugs agrees that drug dealers will only be prosecuted once the mayor, police and public prosecutor have agreed to this.

1985

The Schengen Agreement comes into force. This also regulates that negative cross-border effects of a national drug policy are avoided.

1986

First reports about.

1987

The Dutch public prosecutor's office lays down its criteria for prosecution: trafficking in excess of 30 grams, public billing, provocative trafficking and sales to minors.

1988

is added to the list of hard drugs.

1991

Nationwide AHOJ-G criteria for running a coffee shop are introduced: no advertising (A = Affichering), no trade in hard drugs (H = hard drugs), no disturbance of public order (O = Overlast), no sale to minors (J = Jongeren) and no sales over 30 grams (G = grams).

1995

The law Voorkoming Misbruik Chemicals it is assumed. This places the raw materials for the production of drugs under a strict approval process.

1995

New Drug nota: Securing public health is the most important starting point for Dutch drug policy.

1996

Municipalities can now run a local coffee shop policy. You can grant or withdraw permits yourself. Coffee shops are only allowed to sell five grams of hashish per customer per day.

1996

A large-scale advertising campaign against the use of cannabis is started.

1998

Start of the first forensic drug clinic.

2000

begin Bureau Medicinale Cannabis ().

2001

Start of the anti-drug project Hector in Venlo.

2003

Dispensing of cannabis for medical purposes in pharmacies.

2004

Im so called Cannabis letter gives the government to understand that the regulations regarding cannabis should be tightened. The use of cannabis needs to be stopped more and prevention plans need to be developed for risk groups.

2006

Heroin is officially recognized as a medical remedy in the treatment of heroin addicts.

2008

The mayors of the municipalities of Roosendaal and Bergen op Zoom are closing all coffee shops in their municipality. Drug tourism from Belgium and France created too much of a problem.

2008

Judgment of the Hoge Raad: The cultivation of cannabis in one's own home is permitted in justified individual cases (e.g. with patients).

2008

The sale and cultivation of hallucinogenic mushrooms (paddos) are prohibited.

2010

The European Court of Justice ruled: The planned introduction of rules that exclude foreigners from buying soft drugs does not violate the prohibition of discrimination.

2012

In the southern Dutch provinces of Zeeland, North Brabant and Limburg, the Wietpas introduced: Coffee shops become closed societies with a maximum of 2,000 members who have to register. After the parliamentary elections in September, however, the new government declares that the Wietpas will be abolished again - but foreigners should continue to be excluded. Amsterdam's mayor promptly announces: We will continue as before!

2013

In the Netherlands, dealing with coffee shops and cannabis has become a matter for local authorities. Legal disputes are raging in several places.

Author: Andreas Gebbink
Created:
December 2009
Updated: January 2014, Jeanette Goddar