Farsi and Persian are two separate languages

Persian language

The p. S. belongs to the group of iran. Languages ​​which in turn are part of Indo-European. Form languages. More living Iran. The languages ​​are Pashto (Afghanistan) and Ossetian (Caucasus). New Persian, which occurs today in three main variants (Dari, the official language of Afghanistan, Tajik in Tajikistan and Farsi in Iran), is derived from Old Persian (up to the 4th / 3rd century BC) and the Middle Persian Pahlawi (250 BC) based on it. Chr - 700 AD), the main language of the Sassanid Empire, which was destroyed by the Muslims. The arab. Conquest led to a dominance of the arab. Language, since this was not only the idiom of the rulers, but also sacred language and with the arab. Scripture possessed a form of fixation that Muslims also regarded as sacred. The older p. However, S. was able to assert herself by Islamizing herself and thus transforming herself into a neo-Persian. An obvious aspect of this change was the takeover of the arab. Font that has been given new characters to match the phonetic structure of the p. S. take into account. Second, the adoption of many religious terms took place that their orthograph. Maintained shape. The inclusion of foreign words made possible the p. S. through its own phenomenon of complex verbs. An auxiliary verb like kardan ("to make") can be combined with any noun. At first it was arab. Terms, so a number came to Mongol in the 13th - 16th centuries. and Turkish terms as well as European words since the 19th century. However, the p. S. a high degree of independence. Some islam. Terms like "prayer" (Arabic ṣalāt, pers. Namāz) were not Arabicized. Furthermore, the p. S. by the of the semit. Arabic strongly differing grammar separated. In this respect it is more similar to the roman. or german. Languages. An early neo-Persian text is the interlinear translation of the Koran from Mashhad (10th century). Later great works of Persian literature emerged, but p. S. the prestige of the arab. Language as a carrier of islam. Culture not achieved but was recognized as a second language. The New Persian achieved a model character for the Islamization z. B. the Turkish Ottoman and the formation of Urdu (Pakistan), both in addition to the arab. have a large Persian vocabulary. The spoken p. S. as the lingua franca in the east of islam for centuries. World spread. Many non-native speakers mastered it, which among other things. was facilitated by their simple morphology, nominal and verbal inflection. The major problems of syntax primarily affect the higher-level written language. The p. S. also because it advanced to the court language (Dari, «courtly») of important dynasties. The Samanids of Persian descent (819-1005) in particular helped it flourish in eastern Iran. Room. The p. S. then since the 13th century in the Mongol Empire. It was an official language on the Indian subcontinent until 1835, when English became the official language. In the Caucasus it was only superseded by the language of the Russian conquerors and various Turkic languages, in Xinjiang by Chinese.

Literature:
Fragner, B .: The «Persophonie». Regionality, Identity and Language Contact in the History of Asia, 1999.

Author:
Prof. Dr. Ralf Elger, University of Halle, Oriental Studies

Source: Elger, Ralf / Friederike Stolleis (eds.): Kleines Islam-Lexikon. History - everyday life - culture. Munich: 6th, updated and expanded edition 2018.