What onomatopoeia are used in Mandarin

Onomatopoeia - Onomatopoeia

Word whose pronunciation mimics the sound of its name
A sign in a shop window in Italy proclaims that these silent clocks are doing "No Tic Tac", reminiscent of the sound of a clock.

Onomatopoeia (also Onomatopeia in American English) is the process of creating a word that phonetically mimics, resembles, or suggests the sound it describes. Such a word itself is also known as onomatopoeia. Common onomatopoeia are animal noises like "oink", "meow" (or "miaow"), "roar" and "chirp". Onomatopoeia can distinguish between languages: to some extent it fits the broader language system; Therefore, the sound of a clock can be "tick tock" in English, "tic tac" in Spanish and Italian, "dī dā" in Mandarin, "katchin katchin" in Japanese, or "katchin katchin" in Japanese. tik- "can be expressed. tik "in Hindi.

Although in the English language the term Onomatopoeia "Imitation of a sound" means the compound word means Onomatopoeia (ὀνοματοποιία) in the Greek language "make or create names". For words that imitate sounds, the term ὴχομιμητικό (ēchomimētico) or echomimetic) is used. The word ὴχομιμητικό (ēchomimētico) is derived from "ὴχώ", which means "echo" or "sound", and "μιμητικό", which means "mimetic" or "imitate".

Uses

In the case of a croaking frog, the spelling may be different because different species of frogs around the world make different sounds: Ancient Greek brekekekex coax coax (only in Aristophanes' comic play The frogs ) likely for swamp frogs; English Ribbit for species of frogs found in North America; English verb croak for the common frog.

Some other very common examples in English are hiccup , zoom , Bang , Beep , Moo and Splash . : Machines and their noises are also often described as onomatopoeia honk or Peep peep for the horn of an automobile, and vroom or Brum for the engine. When referring to an audible arcing mishap, the word "zap" is often used (and its use has been expanded to describe non-auditory effects, which generally mean the same type of localized but profound disturbance or destruction, which are similar to those generated in short circuit sparking).

Human sounds sometimes represent cases of onomatopoeia, such as when Mwah used to represent a kiss.

Be for animal sounds usually Words like Quack (Duck), Moo (Cow), bark or shot (Dog), Roar (Lion), Meow / Meow or purr (Cat), Luck (Chicken) and Baa (Sheep) uses English (both as nouns and verbs).

Some languages ​​flexibly integrate onomatopoeic words into their structure. This can develop into a new word until the process is no longer recognized as onomatopoeia. An example is the English word "bleat" for sheep noise: In the Middle Ages it was pronounced roughly as "blairt" (but without the R component) or "blet" with a drawn vowel, which is more like sheep noise than the modern pronunciation.

An example of the reverse case is the "cuckoo", which due to its constant familiarity with the sound of birds has maintained roughly the same pronunciation over the centuries as in Anglo-Saxon times and whose vowels have not changed as in the word furrow .

Verba dicendi ("Words of Proverb") are a method of integrating onomatopoeic words and ideophones into grammar.

Sometimes things are named for the sounds they make. For example, in English there is the universal fastener named for the sound it makes: the zipper (in the UK) or the zipper (in the US). Many birds are named for their calls, such as the Bobwhite quail, the weero, the morepork, the killdeer, chickadees and jays, the cuckoo, the chiffchaff, the whooping crane, the whip-poor will and the kookaburra. In Tamil and Malayalam, the word for crow is kaakaa . This practice is particularly common in certain languages ​​such as Māori and therefore in names of animals borrowed from these languages.

Cross-cultural differences

Although a particular sound is heard similarly by people of different cultures, it is often expressed through the use of different consonant sequences in different languages. For example is the Cutout a pair of scissors Cri-Cri in Italian, Riqui-Riqui in Spanish, Terre-Terre or Treque-Treque in Portuguese, Krits-Krits in modern Greek, Cëk-Cëk in Albanian and Katr-Katr in Hindi. Similar is the "honking" of a car horn ba-ba (Han: 叭叭) in Mandarin, Tut tut in French, pu-pu in Japanese, bbang-bbang in Korean, bært-bært in Norwegian, fom-fom in Portuguese and Bim-Bim in Vietnamese.

Onomatopoeic effect without onomatopoeic words

An onomatopoeic effect can also be created in a phrase or phrase using alliteration and consonance alone, without the use of onomatopoeic words. The most famous example is the expression "Furrow follows freely" in Samuel Taylor Coleridges " The Rime of the Ancient Mariner " . The words "followed" and "free" are not onomatopoeic in themselves, but when used in conjunction with "furrow" they reproduce the sound of waves following after a fast moving ship. Similarly, alliteration was on the line "When the surf swept up the sun ..." used to reproduce the sound of crashing waves in the poem "Me, You and the Sea".

Comics and advertising

A sound effect when a door is broken

Comics and comics make extensive use of onomatopoeia. Popular cultural historian Tim DeForest noted the impact of the writer and artist Roy Crane (1901–1977), the creator of Captain Easy and Buz Sawyer :

It was Crane who pioneered the use of onomatopoeic sound effects in comics, adding "bam", "pow" and "wham" to the almost exclusively visual vocabulary. Crane had fun with it and occasionally threw in a "ker splash" or "lickety wop" along with the standard effects. Words as well as images became vehicles to take away his ever faster storylines.

In 2002, DC Comics introduced a villain named Onomatopoeia, an athlete, martial artist, and weapons expert who often speaks pure sounds.

Promotional use of onomatopoeia for mnemonic purposes so that consumers remember their products, as in Alka-Seltzer's "Plop, plop, gush, hiss. Oh what a relief it is!" Jingle recorded in two different versions (big band and rock) by Sammy Davis, Jr.

Rice Krispies (USA and Great Britain) and Rice Bubbles (AU) make a "crack, crackle, pop" when you pour milk. In the 1930s, illustrator Vernon Grant - Snap developed crackle and pop like gnome-like mascots for the Kellogg Company.

Sounds appear in the traffic safety ads: "Click, click, every trip" (click the seat belt after clunking the car door closed; UK campaign) or "Click, click, front and back" (click, click of the seat belts connecting; AU campaign) or "Click it or Ticket" (clicking on the lanyard with the implicit penalty of a traffic ticket for not using a seat belt; US Department of Transportation (DOT) campaign).

The sound of opening and closing the container gives Tic Tac its name.

Way imitation

In many languages ​​around the world, onomatopoeic words are used to describe phenomena that go beyond the purely auditory. Japanese often uses such words to describe feelings or figurative expressions about objects or concepts. For example, Japanese becomes Barabara used to reflect the state of disorder or separation of an object, and Shiiin is the onomatopoeic form of absolute silence (used at the time when an English speaker might expect a cricket to chirp or a pin to fall into a silence room or someone to cough). In Albanian will Tartarec used to describe someone who is rash. It is also used in English with terms such as used bling that describe the glitter of light on things like gold, chrome or precious stones. In Japanese will Kirakira used for glittering things.

Examples in the media

  • James Joyce in Ulysses (1922) coined the onomatopoeic Tattarrattat, to knock on the door. It is considered the longest palindromic word in the Oxford English Dictionary listed .
  • Whaam! (1963) by Roy Lichtenstein is an early example of pop art that shows a reproduction of comic art depicting a fighter plane striking another with rockets with blinding red and yellow explosions.
  • TV series in the 1960s Batman , Comic style onomatopoeic words like wham! , pow! , biff! , crunch! and Zounds! appear on the screen during battle scenes.
  • Ubisoft's XIII the use of comic - onomatopoeic words like busy bam! , Boom! and No! during the game for shots, explosions or kills. The comic style is recognizable throughout the game and is a core theme. The game is an adaptation of a comic book of the same name.
  • Popular American songwriter John Prine's chorus "Onomatopoeia" cleverly includes onomatopoeia words: "Bang! Went the gun. | Crash! Went the window. | Ouch! Went the son of a gun. | Onomatopoeia | Not me I want to see you. In. In speak a foreign language. "
  • The marble game KerPlunk has an onomatopoeic word for a title, from the sound of marbles falling when too many sticks are removed.
  • The title of the Nickelodeon cartoon KaBlam! is implied to be onomatopoeic to a crash.
  • Every episode of the TV series Harper's Island receives an onomatopoeic name that mimics the sound of this episode when a character dies. For example, the episode is titled "Bang" shot and fatally wounded a character, with "Bang" mimicking the sound of the shot.
  • The Caricaturist des Mad Magazine, Don Martin, already known for his exaggerated artwork, often used onomatopoeic comic-style "sound effects" in his drawings (for example, "thwizzit" is the sound of a sheet of paper pulled out of a typewriter). Fans have that Don Martin Dictionary compiled and catalogs every "sound" and its "meaning".

Cross-language examples

In linguistics

A key component of language is its arbitrariness and what a word can represent, since a word is a sound made by people with a meaning attached to it. Nobody can determine the meaning of a word just by how it sounds. In onomatopoeic terms, however, these noises are much less arbitrary; They are connected in their imitation of other objects or sounds in nature. Vocal sounds when imitating natural sounds do not necessarily gain in importance, but can acquire symbolic meaning. An example of this phonetic symbolism in the English language is the use of words beginning with sn- . Some of these words symbolize concepts related to the nose ( Sneeze , snot , snoring ). This does not mean that all words with this sound are related to the nose, but at some level we do recognize some kind of symbolism associated with the sound itself. While onomatopoeia is a facet of language, it is also in a sense outside the boundaries of language.

In linguistics, onomatopoeia is described as the association or symbolism of a sound that is interpreted and reproduced in the context of a language, usually out of the imitation of a sound. In a sense, it's a phrase. As a vague term in itself, there are several different defining factors in the classification of onomatopoeia. In one way, it is defined simply as imitating some type of non-vocal sound using the vocal sounds of a language, like the hum of a bee, mimicked with a "hum". In another sense, it is described as the phenomenon of making a new word complete.

Onomatopoeia works by symbolizing an idea in a phonological context and not necessarily forming a direct meaningful word. The symbolic properties of a sound in a word or phoneme are related to a sound in an environment and are partially constrained by a language's own phonetic inventory, which is why many languages ​​can have different onomatopoeia for the same natural sound. Depending on the association of a language with the meaning of a sound, the onomatopoeia inventory of that language can vary proportionally. For example, a language like English generally has little symbolic representation when it comes to sounds. This is why English tends to have a lower representation of sound mimicry than a language like Japanese, which has much higher overall symbolism in relation to the sounds of the language.

The development of language

In ancient Greek philosophy, onomatopoeia was used as evidence of how natural a language was: it was theorized that language itself was derived from natural sounds in the world around us. The symbolism in sounds was seen as derived from it. Some linguists believe that onomatopoeia may have been the first form of human language.

Role in early language acquisition

When people are first exposed to sounds and communication, they have a biological tendency to mimic the sounds they hear, whether they are actual pieces of speech or other natural sounds. At the beginning of development an infant will vary his utterances between sounds well established within the phonetic range of the language (s) most widely spoken in his environment, which can be described as "tame" onomatopoeia, and the entire range of sounds, which the vocal apparatus can produce, or "wild" onomatopoeia. As one begins to learn their mother tongue, the proportion of "wild" onomatopoeia diminishes in favor of sounds that match those of the language they are learning.

During the acquisition of the mother tongue, it has been documented that infants may react strongly to the wilder language characteristics to which they are exposed compared to tamer and familiar language characteristics. However, the results of such tests are inconclusive.

In connection with language acquisition, it has been shown that tone symbolism plays an important role. The assignment of foreign words to subjects and their relationship to general objects, such as B. The assignment of the words takete and baluma to a round or square shape was tested to determine how languages ​​symbolize sounds.

In other languages

Japanese

The Japanese language has a large body of ideophonic words that are symbolic sounds. These are used in contexts ranging from everyday conversations to serious news. These words fall into four categories:

  • Giseigo : imitates people and animals. (e.g. Wanwan for the bark of a dog)
  • Giongo : mimics general sounds in nature or inanimate objects. (e.g. Zaazaa for rain on a roof)
  • Gitaigo : describes states of the outside world
  • Gijōgo : describes mental states or physical feelings.

The former two correspond directly to the concept of onomatopoeia, while the latter two are similar to onomatopoeia in that they are intended to represent a concept more mimetic and performative than referential, but differ from onomatopoeia in that they not only imitate sounds. For example, "shiinto" stands for something quiet, like an Anglophone could say "rattle, crack, bang!" to represent something loud. This "representative" or "performative" aspect is similar to onomatopoeia.

Sometimes the Japanese onomatopoeia produces reduced words.

Hebrew

As in Japanese, onomatopoeia in Hebrew sometimes results in reduced verbs:

    • שקשק shikshék "Make noise, rustle".
    • רשרש rishrésh "Make noise, rustle".

Malay

There is a documented correlation within the Malay language of onomatopoeia that begins with the sound of bu- and the implication of something rounded, as well as the sound of -lok within a word, the curvature in such words as loc , kelok and telok mediates ('Locomotive', 'Bay' or 'Curve').

Arabic

The Quran, written in Arabic, documents cases of onomatopoeia. Out of approximately 77,701 words, there are nine words that are onomatopoeic: three are animal sounds (e.g., "mooing"), two are sounds of nature (e.g., "thunder"), and four are human sounds (e.g. "Whisper"). or "moaning").

Albanian

The Albanian language has a wide variety of objects and animals named for the sound they make. Such onomatopoeic words are shkrepse (Matches), named for the distinct sound of friction and ignition of the match head; take-tuke (Ashtray) mimics the sound it makes when placed on a table; shi (Rain), which resembles the lingering sound of pouring rain; kukumjaçkë (little owl) after her "cuckoo scream"; furçë (Brush) for its rustling; Shapka (Slippers and flip flops); pordhë (Rumors of gas) and fëndë (silent flatulence).

Urdu

In Urdu, onomatopoeic words such as Bak-Bak , Churh-Churh used to indicate a silly conversation. Other examples of onomatopoeic words used to represent actions are Fatafat (to do something quick) Dhak-Dhak (to represent fear with the sound of a heart beating quickly) Tip-tip (around a leaky Display knocking ) etc. Movement of animals or objects is sometimes also used with onomatopoeic words such as bhin-bhin (for a housefly), sar-sarahat (the sound of a fabric being pulled onto or off a piece of furniture) etc.

See also

References

Remarks

General information

External links

Search Wiktionary, the free dictionary onomatopoeia .