What is the Hindi word for housekeeping

Gibberish. Hindi word for word [PDF]

DownloadEmbed
This document was uploaded by our user. The uploader already confirmed that they had the permission to publish it. If you are author / publisher or own the copyright of these documents, please report to us by using this DMCA report form. Report DMCA

E-Book Overview

Publisher: REISE KNOW-HOW Verlag Peter Rump GmbH,
Date: 2004
Pages: 128
ISBN: 3-8317-6041-1
The speaking guides of the gibberish series are based on the typical everyday travel and convey the necessary tools in a stimulating way to be able to start speaking as quickly as possible without annoying buffalos, even if not always ready for printing. The word-for-word translation is particularly helpful here, as it makes it possible to see through the structure and "way of thinking" of the respective language at a glance. This has happened to me countless times in India: The taxi drivers did not try to rip me off The bazaar traders sold me their wares at local prices, the waiters served me with the utmost courtesy, and in long queues I was willingly admitted. All because I spoke Hindi, which most Indians use. Well, I could have progressed differently in the queue: after all, there is an ordinance in the Indian state of Rajasthan that says that anyone who has been sterilized in the course of family planning can move up to the top of each queue. To be honest - I preferred the Hindi route. And the Hindi is not as difficult as it may appear due to its lively, alien characters. During my travels through India, one thing always struck me: if I spoke English, I was respected as a Sahib from distant Europe, which was very good when I had to fight my way through dangerous situations. If, on the other hand, I spoke Hindi, my faces opened up in a big smile and I was accepted as a "dost" (friend)!

E-book content

gk¡

nahíiñ. No.

ugÈ

agree press

en:

mera naam ... my name is ...

esjk uke ...

Leader, language works. ... "s et l icht" ... End the comprehensible magazine n e rau n chfibeln with the critical ver New! n Spra e ll tseand entio concept DM vsnao About this book is a dk, n ß u fun this se. ... ”Learn pronunciation trainer is snabd“ ... With r le u er not n success available on audio CD makes quick hcuat ie ISBN 3-8317-6041-1 hd ic, rnpes eleven e ver have, the whole book incl. business trip hhccs li ek ir G w TIten pronunciation trainer rer, the gen to o uss. ” achfüh m und thines are also available on s "... Spr waepdree R och rbüch he CD-Rom L e also nlich comes ISBN 3-8317-6070-5 where the e Brigitt nder W clearly, egarro eit her v tik as well in. ... ”ramma“ ... ma G ötig ist nre is dnedgn ü ä ztsdr Grun re rachve zum Sp et, ih draws like it sua ik etam bil Reih Promo e Gram er the perfect oß-like e book ll, tau M r “... W the greatest day, de um All en, and re: e closeness is to be striven for b ally, no sentence in two places for word, Whatever idea, s German is surprised il or in k biswe luss de h man r den F fü l where fü mt. " a quick conversation getting e S Z n a strange general

maaf kíijiye! Sorry!

ekQ dhft; s

REISE KNOW-HOW Verlag, Bielefeld

sáhii baat hai. Yes, that's right.

lgh ckr gš

yáh gálat baat hai. No, that's not right.

; g xYkr ckr gS

kripayáa please (offer / request)

—I; k

máangnaa (to ask for something)

ek¡xuk

madád máangnaa ask for help

enn ek¡xuk

dhanyawáad ‡ Thank you.

/ kU; okn

koí baat nahíiñ. d¨Ã never mind !, don't worry!

ckr ugÈ

namasté! ueLrs good afternoon !, goodbye! sab thÞiik hai? I'm fine? (among friends)

lc Bhd gS

aap káise / káisii haiñ? How are you (male / female)?

vki dSls @ dSlh gSa

thÞiik huuñ. I'm good, thank you.

Bhd gw¡

maiñ jaa ráhaa / ráhii huuñ. eSa I'm going now !, bye!

tk jgk @ jgh gw¡

rter Frankfu

ISBN 3-89416-084-5

and B h lsc e w r e Kaud d

⁄ 7.90 [D]

Hindi - word for word

haañ. Yes.

What distinguishes the phrasebooks in the gibberish series is on page 5 of this book.

Gibberish Volume 17

The most important phrases and phrases

H

i

17

i

only f t wo r

numbers

t r o W

Π0 2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 1Π10

schúunya do tschaar tschäh aathÞ

1 3 5 7 9

1

ek

3

tiin

5

paañtsch

7

seed

9

exactly

the

11 13 15 17 19

gyáarah térah pándrah sátrah unníis

12 14 16 18 20

báarah tchaudah sólah athÞáarah biis

21 23 25 27 29

ikkíis té-iis patschíis sattáaiis uñtiis

22 24 26 28 30

báaiis tscháubiis tschä £ bbiis at ‡ tháaiis tiis

40 60 80

cháaliis saathÞ ássii

50 70 90

patscháas sáttar návve, nábbe

100 sau 101 ek sau ek 111 ek sau gyáarah 1000 2000 100,000 10,000,000

hasáar do hasáar ek laakh ek kror ‡

gk¡

nahíiñ. No.

ugÈ

agree press

en:

mera naam ... my name is ...

esjk uke ...

Leader, language works. ... "s et l icht" ... End the comprehensible magazine n e rau n chfibeln with the critical ver New! n Spra e ll tseand entio concept DM vsnao About this book is a dk, n ß u fun this se. ... ”Learn PronunciationTrainer is snabd“ ... With r le u er not n success available on audio CD makes quick hcuat ie ISBN 3-8317-6041-1 hd ic, rnpes eleven e ver have, the whole book incl. business trip hhccs li ek ir G w TIten pronunciation trainer rer, the gen to o uss. ” achfüh m und thines are also available on s "... Spr waepdree R och rbüch he CD-Rom L e also nlich comes ISBN 3-8317-6070-5 where the e Brigitt nder W clearly, egarro eit her v tik as well in. ... ”ramma“ ... ma G ötig ist nre is dnedgn ü ä ztsdr Grun re rachve zum Sp et, ih draws like it sua ik etam bil Reih Promo e Gram er the perfect oß-like e book ll, tau M r “... W the greatest day, de um All en, and re: e closeness is to be striven for b ally, no sentence in two places for word, Whatever idea, s German is surprised il or in k biswe luss de h man r den F fü l where fü mt. " a quick conversation getting e S Z n a strange general

maaf kíijiye! Sorry!

ekQ dhft; s

REISE KNOW-HOW Verlag, Bielefeld

sáhii baat hai. Yes, that's right.

lgh ckr gš

yáh gálat baat hai. No, that's not right.

; g xYkr ckr gS

kripayáa please (offer / request)

—I; k

máangnaa (to ask for something)

ek¡xuk

madád máangnaa ask for help

enn ek¡xuk

dhanyawáad ‡ Thank you.

/ kU; okn

koí baat nahíiñ. d¨Ã never mind !, don't worry!

ckr ugÈ

namasté! ueLrs good afternoon !, goodbye! sab thÞiik hai? I'm fine? (among friends)

lc Bhd gS

aap káise / káisii haiñ? How are you (male / female)?

vki dSls @ dSlh gSa

thÞiik huuñ. I'm good, thank you.

Bhd gw¡

maiñ jaa ráhaa / ráhii huuñ. eSa I'm going now !, bye!

tk jgk @ jgh gw¡

rter Frankfu

ISBN 3-89416-084-5

and B h lsc e w r e Kaud d

⁄ 7.90 [D]

Hindi - word for word

haañ. Yes.

What distinguishes the phrasebooks in the gibberish series is on page 5 of this book.

Gibberish Volume 17

The most important phrases and expressions

H

i

17

i

only f t wo r

numbers

t r o W

Π0 2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 1Π10

schúunya do tschaar tschäh aathÞ

1 3 5 7 9

1

ek

3

tiin

5

paañtsch

7

seed

9

exactly

the

11 13 15 17 19

gyáarah térah pándrah sátrah unníis

12 14 16 18 20

báarah tchaudah sólah athÞáarah biis

21 23 25 27 29

ikkíis té-iis patschíis sattáaiis uñtiis

22 24 26 28 30

báaiis tscháubiis tschä £ bbiis at ‡ tháaiis tiis

40 60 80

cháaliis saathÞ ássii

50 70 90

patscháas sáttar návve, nábbe

100 sau 101 ek sau ek 111 ek sau gyáarah 1000 2000 100,000 10,000,000

hasáar do hasáar ek laakh ek kror ‡

Understood nothing? - Keep learning!

Phonetic transcription Here those phonetic characters are listed whose pronunciation differs from German: voiced sch like j in "journalist" voiced dsch like in "jungle" like j in "ja" or "boy" is spoken like English r deep in the throat, eg like in “round”, “cry” s sharp, voiceless s as in “Gasse” z soft, voiced s as in “soap” j dj yr

gh

century

th

ie

ph

bra

chh

The retrofits are marked with a point underneath. To pronounce them, the tongue is rolled up and pressed against the roof of the mouth. Three retroflexes are also breathed at the same time: t ‡

thÞ

d ‡

dhÞ

n ‡

r ‡

rhÞ

Hindi also features nasal self-voices. These are then provided with a tilde: ñ An accent above a vowel indicates stress: á, é, í, ó, ú

Abbreviations & grammatical terms male / male vowel vowel verb activity word

eq> d¨ fganh fl [cow pkfg; s

mujh ko híndii nahíiñ áatii. I can't learn Hindi. I can't speak Hindi.

mujh ko híndii siikhnii tschahiyé. I wanted to learn Hindi I would like to learn Hindi.

th D; k gqvk

vki le> [email protected] gš

jii ?? kyaa huaa? aap samájh ráhe / ráhii haiñ? Dear? what was? You understand (m / f) I beg your pardon? What happened? Do you understand?

le> k ugÈ

le> k

samjháa nahiiñ. samjháa. understood not understood I did not understand. I have understood.

With the breathed (aspirated) sounds, the following h is clearly audible: kh

eq> d¨ fganh ugÈ vkrh

feminine / w feminine consonant consonant infinitive basic form of the verb ("to go")

—I; k n¨ckjk c¨fYk; s

kripayaa dobáara bóliye. please repeat - please repeat.

; gk¡ fganh esa dSls c¨Yks

/ khjs / khjs

yaháa híndii meñ káise bolé? this Hindi in how should-one-say? What's that called in Hindi?

dhiire-dhiire. slow-slow moment, a little slower, please.

... vaXkzsth esa D; k erYkc g

... angrézii meñ kyaa matláb hai? English in what meaning? What does "..." mean in English?

vki bl dk vuqokn dj [email protected] gSa

Know the most important question words? kyaa? kaháañ / kídhar? kaháañ / kídhar se? kab? kyoñ / kyuuñ? káise? kítnii the tak? kítnaa?

who? What? where to where? where from? when? Why? how? how long? how much?

The most important questions

d © u D; k [email protected] / kj [email protected] / kj ls dc D; ¨a dSls fdruh nsj rd fdruk

d¨Ã ... gš

kooii ... shark? Is there ...?

eq> d¨ ... pkfg; s

mujhko ... tscháahiye. I would like to have.

... dgka feY®xk

... kaháañ milégaa? Where can you get ...?

... nhft;

... díidjiye. Please give me ...

; g D; k gS

The most important directions

dáhinii or

(To the right

baaíiñ or

(to the left

síidhaa

straight

wáapás

back

ke sáamne

opposite, before

báajuu

Next

ke píitschhe

behind, behind

yaháañ

here

aap is kaa anuwáad kar sakte / sakti haiñ? Are you able to do this by translation? Can you translate (for me)?

waháañ

There

Tschaar ráastaa

crossing

; g ‘kCn fYkf [k; sxk

sháhar se báahar

outside the city

kóne par dúur

at the corner far

nazdíik

close

yah shabd líkhiyegaa. Please write this word Please write this word down for me.

Meaningful nouns from the word lists can be used in the following sentences.

scháhar ke kendra meñ in the center

yah kyaa hai? What's this?

nfguh v¨j ckÃa v¨j lh / kk okil ds lkeus cktw ds ihNs; gka ogk¡ pkj jkLrk ‘kgj ds dsUnª esa‘ kgj ls ckgj d¨us ij nwj utnhd

bldh dher D; k gš

iskii kíimat kyaa hai? How much is it?

... dgka gS

... kahaáñ shark? Where is ...?

... tkuk pkfg; s

... djáanaa tschaahíye. I want to go to ... (go).

tkus dk fdruk Ykxrk gš

... djáane kaa kítnaa lágtaa hai? What is the cost of the trip to ...?

... dSls tkš

... káise djauuñ? How do I get to / to ...?

eq> d¨ ... rd igq¡pk nhft; mujh ko ... tak pahuñtscháa díidjiye. Please bring me to ...

—I; k enn dhft;

kripayáa madad kíidjiye! Please help me!

Understood nothing? - Keep learning!

Phonetic transcription Here those phonetic characters are listed whose pronunciation differs from German: voiced sch like j in "journalist" voiced dsch like in "jungle" like j in "ja" or "boy" is spoken like English r deep in the throat, eg like in “round”, “cry” (to cry) s sharp, voiceless s as in “Gasse” z soft, voiced s as in “soap” j dj yr

gh

century

th

ie

ph

bra

chh

The retrofits are marked with a point underneath. To pronounce them, the tongue is rolled up and pressed against the roof of the mouth. Three retroflexes are also ventilated at the same time: t ‡

thÞ

d ‡

dhÞ

n ‡

r ‡

rhÞ

The Hindi also features nasal self-noises. These are then provided with a tilde: ñ An accent above a vowel indicates stress: á, é, í, ó, ú

Abbreviations & grammatical terms male / male vowel vowel verb activity word

eq> d¨ fganh fl [cow pkfg; s

mujh ko híndii nahíiñ áatii. I can't learn Hindi. I can't speak Hindi.

mujh ko híndii siikhnii tschahiyé. I wanted to learn Hindi I would like to learn Hindi.

th D; k gqvk

vki le> [email protected] gš

jii ?? kyaa huaa? aap samájh ráhe / ráhii haiñ? Dear? what was? You understand (m / f) I beg your pardon? What happened? Do you understand?

le> k ugÈ

le> k

samjháa nahiiñ. samjháa. understood not understood I did not understand. I have understood.

With the breathed (aspirated) sounds, the following h is clearly audible: kh

eq> d¨ fganh ugÈ vkrh

feminine / w feminine consonant consonant infinitive basic form of the verb ("to go")

—I; k n¨ckjk c¨fYk; s

kripayaa dobáara bóliye. please repeat - please repeat.

; gk¡ fganh esa dSls c¨Yks

/ khjs / khjs

yaháa híndii meñ káise bolé? this Hindi in how should-one-say? What's that called in Hindi?

dhiire-dhiire. slow-slow wait, a little slower, please.

... vaXkzsth esa D; k erYkc g

... angrézii meñ kyaa matláb hai? English in what meaning? What does "..." mean in English?

vki bl dk vuqokn dj [email protected] gSa

Know the most important question words? kyaa? kaháañ / kídhar? kaháañ / kídhar se? kab? kyoñ / kyuuñ? káise? kítnii the tak? kítnaa?

who? What? where to where? where from? when? Why? how? how long? how much?

The most important questions

d © u D; k [email protected] / kj [email protected] / kj ls dc D; ¨a dSls fdruh nsj rd fdruk

d¨Ã ... gš

kooii ... shark? Is there ...?

eq> d¨ ... pkfg; s

mujhko ... tscháahiye. I would like to have.

...dgka feY®xk

... kaháañ milégaa? Where can you get ...?

... nhft;

... díidjiye. Please give me ...

; g D; k gS

The most important directions

dáhinii or

(To the right

baaíiñ or

(to the left

síidhaa

straight

wáapás

back

ke sáamne

opposite, before

báajuu

Next

ke píitschhe

behind, behind

yaháañ

here

aap is kaa anuwáad kar sakte / sakti haiñ? Are you able to do this by translation? Can you translate (for me)?

waháañ

There

Tschaar ráastaa

crossing

; g ‘kCn fYkf [k; sxk

sháhar se báahar

outside the city

kóne par dúur

at the corner far

nazdíik

close

yah shabd líkhiyegaa. Please write this word Please write this word down for me.

Meaningful nouns from the word lists can be used in the following sentences.

scháhar ke kendra meñ in the center

yah kyaa hai? What's this?

nfguh v¨j ckÃa v¨j lh / kk okil ds lkeus cktw ds ihNs; gka ogk¡ pkj jkLrk ‘kgj ds dsUnª esa‘ kgj ls ckgj d¨us ij nwj utnhd

bldh dher D; k gš

iskii kíimat kyaa hai? How much is it?

... dgka gS

... kahaáñ shark? Where is ...?

... tkuk pkfg; s

... djáanaa tschaahíye. I want to go to ... (go).

tkus dk fdruk Ykxrk gš

... djáane kaa kítnaa lágtaa hai? What is the cost of the trip to ...?

... dSls tkš

... káise djauuñ? How do I get to / to ...?

eq> d¨ ... rd igq¡pk nhft; mujh ko ... tak pahuñtscháa díidjiye. Please bring me to ...

—I; k enn dhft;

kripayáa madad kíidjiye! Please help me!

Understood nothing? - Keep learning!

Phonetic transcription Here those phonetic characters are listed whose pronunciation differs from German: voiced sch like j in "journalist" voiced dsch like in "jungle" like j in "ja" or "boy" is spoken like English r deep in the throat, eg like in “round”, “cry” (to cry) s sharp, voiceless s as in “Gasse” z soft, voiced s as in “soap” j dj yr

gh

century

th

ie

ph

bra

chh

The retrofits are marked with a point underneath. To pronounce them, the tongue is rolled up and pressed against the roof of the mouth. Three retroflexes are also ventilated at the same time: t ‡

thÞ

d ‡

dhÞ

n ‡

r ‡

rhÞ

The Hindi also features nasal self-noises. These are then provided with a tilde: ñ An accent above a vowel indicates stress: á, é, í, ó, ú

Abbreviations & grammatical terms male / male vowel vowel verb activity word

eq> d¨ fganh fl [cow pkfg; s

mujh ko híndii nahíiñ áatii. I can't learn Hindi. I can't speak Hindi.

mujh ko híndii siikhnii tschahiyé. I wanted to learn Hindi I would like to learn Hindi.

th D; k gqvk

vki le> [email protected] gš

jii ?? kyaa huaa? aap samájh ráhe / ráhii haiñ? Dear? what was? You understand (m / f) I beg your pardon? What happened? Do you understand?

le> k ugÈ

le> k

samjháa nahiiñ. samjháa. understood not understood I did not understand. I have understood.

With the breathed (aspirated) sounds, the following h is clearly audible: kh

eq> d¨ fganh ugÈ vkrh

feminine / w feminine consonant consonant infinitive basic form of the verb ("to go")

—I; k n¨ckjk c¨fYk; s

kripayaa dobáara bóliye. please repeat - please repeat.

; gk¡ fganh esa dSls c¨Yks

/ khjs / khjs

yaháa híndii meñ káise bolé? this Hindi in how should-one-say? What's that called in Hindi?

dhiire-dhiire. slow-slow wait, a little slower, please.

... vaXkzsth esa D; k erYkc g

... angrézii meñ kyaa matláb hai? English in what meaning? What does "..." mean in English?

vki bl dk vuqokn dj [email protected] gSa

Know the most important question words? kyaa? kaháañ / kídhar? kaháañ / kídhar se? kab? kyoñ / kyuuñ? káise? kítnii the tak? kítnaa?

who? What? where to where? where from? when? Why? how? how long? how much?

The most important questions

d © u D; k [email protected] / kj [email protected] / kj ls dc D; ¨a dSls fdruh nsj rd fdruk

d¨Ã ... gš

kooii ... shark? Is there ...?

eq> d¨ ... pkfg; s

mujhko ... tscháahiye. I would like to have.

... dgka feY®xk

... kaháañ milégaa? Where can you get ...?

... nhft;

... díidjiye. Please give me ...

; g D; k gS

The most important directions

dáhinii or

(To the right

baaíiñ or

(to the left

síidhaa

straight

wáapás

back

ke sáamne

opposite, before

báajuu

Next

ke píitschhe

behind, behind

yaháañ

here

aap is kaa anuwáad kar sakte / sakti haiñ? Are you able to do this by translation? Can you translate (for me)?

waháañ

There

Tschaar ráastaa

crossing

; g ‘kCn fYkf [k; sxk

sháhar se báahar

outside the city

kóne par dúur

at the corner far

nazdíik

close

yah shabd líkhiyegaa. Please write this word Please write this word down for me.

Meaningful nouns from the word lists can be used in the following sentences.

scháhar ke kendra meñ in the center

yah kyaa hai? What's this?

nfguh v¨j ckÃa v¨j lh / kk okil ds lkeus cktw ds ihNs; gka ogk¡ pkj jkLrk ‘kgj ds dsUnª esa‘ kgj ls ckgj d¨us ij nwj utnhd

bldh dher D; k gš

iskii kíimat kyaa hai? How much is it?

... dgka gS

... kahaáñ shark? Where is ...?

... tkuk pkfg; s

... djáanaa tschaahíye. I want to go to ... (go).

tkus dk fdruk Ykxrk gš

... djáane kaa kítnaa lágtaa hai? What is the cost of the trip to ...?

... dSls tkš

... káise djauuñ? How do I get to / to ...?

eq> d¨ ... rd igq¡pk nhft; mujh ko ... tak pahuñtscháa díidjiye. Please bring me to ...

—I; k enn dhft;

kripayáa madad kíidjiye! Please help me!

Gibberish Volume 17

Imprint Kauderwelsch - digital Hindi - word for word based on the book edition of the Kauderwelsch volume Rainer Krack, Hindi - word for word 10th edition 2004 (ISBN 3-89416-084-5) published by REISE KNOW-HOW Verlag Peter Rump GmbH Osnabrücker Str. 79, D-33649 Bielefeld The audio pronunciation trainer on this CD-ROM is also available separately: Gibberish - Pronunciation trainer Hindi - word for word (ISBN 3-8317-6041-1) © REISE KNOW-HOW Verlag Peter Rump GmbH All rights reserved. Editing by Klaus Werner cover design Günter Pawlak, FaktorZwo! Bielefeld Photos Thomas Barkemeier Sound recording Tone-Bar, Bielefeld Complete production of WK records, Enger ISBN 8317-6070-5 Produced in Germany

BRD Switzerland Austria Belgium & Netherlands direct

This CD is available in every bookstore in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and the Benelux countries. Please inform your bookseller about the following addresses: Prolit GmbH, Postfach 9, 35461 Fernwald (Annerod) as well as all bar assortments AVA-buch 2000, Postfach 27, CH-8910 Affoltern Mohr Morawa Buchvertrieb GmbH, Sulzengasse 2, A-1230 Vienna Willems Adventure, Postbus 403, NL-3140 AK Maassluis If you have no luck in the book trade, you can also get our publications from our Internet shop: www.reise-know-how.de Adobe Acrobat® Reader® is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Inc.

REISE KNOW -H OW on the Internet www.reise-know-how.de [email protected] Current travel tips and news, additions after the editorial deadline, book shop and special offers on everything to do with travel

Gibberish speaking guides are different!

W.

arum? Because they enable you to really speak and understand people. How is that done? Apart from what every language book offers, namely vocabulary, example sentences, etc., the volumes of the gibberish series are characterized by the following peculiarities: The grammar is explained in simple language to such an extent that it is possible to start speaking without much drama, if not exactly ready for printing either. All example sentences are translated twice into German: on the one hand word-for-word, on the other hand in "proper" standard German. This makes the foreign language system very transparent. Because in a foreign language z. B. sentence structure and expression very much from German. Without this type of translation, it is almost impossible to quickly exchange individual words in a sentence.

The authors of the series are globetrotters who learned the language in the country themselves. You therefore know exactly how and what people are talking on the street. Their expression is often much simpler and more direct than z. B. the language of literature or television. Body language, gestures, signs and rules of conduct are particularly important in the travel destination, without which even language experts hardly come into good contact with people. In all volumes of the gibberish series, this type of non-verbal communication is therefore particularly addressed. Gibberish speaking guides aren't textbooks, but they are much more than phrasebooks! If you invest a little time and learn a few vocabulary, with their help you will in no time get information and experience that remain hidden to "deaf and dumb" travelers.

Contents Contents II-V 9 11 12 15 17 21

First things first Preface Hindi - something about the language Map of Hindi language area The Hindi alphabet Pronunciation Words that help

Grammar 23 26 27 28 31 32 34 35 36 37 38 45 48 49 50 53

The nouns Personal pronouns To be or not to be? Word Order Question Words Adjectives Possessive Pronouns Circumstances Increase & Compare Adverse Words Verbs & Times About Ownership Knowing & Having to Command Numbers & Counting Time & Time

Content conversation 57 63 68 72 75 76 83 86 89 97 103 104 106

Mini etiquette Welcome & thank you for disputes? The dear relatives Be a guest Food & drink In the hotel Where you don't need Hindi Buy & haggle On the go ... The calendar Weather & seasons At the doctor's

Appendix 112 114 120 128

Literature tips List of words German - Hindi List of words Hindi - German The author

8 aat ‡ h

Preface

Preface

U

This has happened to me countless times in India: the taxi drivers did not try to cheat me, the bazaar traders sold me their goods at "local" prices, the waiters served me with exquisite friendliness, and in long queues I was willingly let out . All because I spoke Hindi, which most Indians use. Well, I could have progressed differently in the queue: There has recently been an ordinance in the Indian state of Rajasthan that says that every person who has been sterilized in the course of family planning and can prove this with an ID card should log in the tip of each snake is allowed to advance. To be honest - I preferred the Hindi route! Because the Hindi is not as heavy as it may appear due to its lively, alien characters. After all, this language is a distant relative of German - both languages ​​belong to the Indo-Germanic language group and have Sanskrit as their ancestor. Similarities to German have persisted to this day, at least in some vocabulary. So bandhan means “connection” or “bond”, sitaaraa is the “star” and nau 9

Foreword English is still the language of the commanding superior in India. If, on the other hand, I spoke Hindi, the faces opened into a broad, inviting smile, and I was much more than a Sahib: I had been accepted as a dost - "friend".

10 that

schaal remains “scarf”. It doesn't sound that difficult, does it? Even the English, who do not find it easy to learn foreign tongues, have appropriated almost 2000 words from Hindi in the 200 years of their rule over India. Some of them also found their way into German: Everybody knows what a bungalow (from Hindi: banglaa) is, that curry (Hindi: karhÞii) burns in the mouth for a long time or that a shampoo (from: tschaampnaa - knead, massage ) wants to be massaged in well. However, hardly anyone knows that these words are verbal imports from India. But Hindi is likely to be the language of the future: Although it is in third place in the order of the most spoken languages ​​after Chinese and English - this includes Urdu spoken in Pakistan, which differs only slightly from Hindi - but it is to be expected that there is still a lot going on in the sequence! Whereby we would have come back to the birth control ... On my many trips through India one thing always struck me: When I spoke English, I was respected as a sahib (say: saab - Lord) from distant, rich Europe. That always worked really well when I had to fight my way through tricky situations. Note: The best compliment you can get

Hindi - something people who live in a country can make a language is to speak their language or at least to try ...

D.

Hindi - something about language

he Hindi is a descendant of Sanskrit, the legendary sacred "language of the gods", which its heyday around 400 BC. Had. Since the great Muslim invasions that struck India from the early 11th century, a considerable part of the vocabulary has consisted of Persian or Arabic words brought back by the invaders from their homeland. For this reason there is a multitude of words in Hindi that also occur in modern Arabic or in other languages ​​of the Islamic world. (Example: akhbaar - newspaper, in Hindi and Arabic; kitaab - book, in Hindi and Turkish). Hindi is thus a kind of mixed language in which Sanskrit is mixed with Persian and Arabic, but this has a small disadvantage: There is a whole range of Hindi terms for many German vocabulary: some come from the Persian-Arabic area , the other to Sanskrit. Here are some examples: gyáarah 11

Where to speak Hindi

12 báarah

Hindi - something about the language "blood" in Hindi means khuun, rúdhir, rakt, lahuu "house" means ghar, makáan, bhawan, mansil "love" means pyaar, prem, mohabbát, ischk "time" means samái, zamáanaa, wakt, kaal

Depending on the region, one or the other of the words in the word columns will be preferred. For the traveler it is completely sufficient if he learns the most common term, in these examples the terms at the top of the series.

Of course, depending on the size of the country, the pronunciation as well as the "quality" of Hindi varies from region to region. It is generally said that the Hindi spoken in the state of Uttar Pradesh in the north of the country is the "purest". The city of Lucknow in particular is regarded as a kind of stronghold of Hindu culture. Bombay, on the other hand, does not fare well: they say bindáas Hindi is spoken there. bindáas is a slang word and not easy to translate. It means something like "dirty, cheeky, cocky, cool" or "carefree, carefree". The Bombay Hindi does not value correct grammar, which is explained by the colorful mixed culture of the city. After all, there are thousands upon thousands of people who have one of the many Indian regional languages ​​as their mother tongue. Maybe it's térah 13

Hindi - something about language

Page numbers To make it easier for you to work with the numbers, the page number is also given in Hindi on every page! 14 cháudah

Marathi, Gujerati or Punjabi, not infrequently Konkani, Telugu or Tulu. Hindi is the appropriate common denominator for everyone to communicate with. It can be seen that the sophisticated grammar falls by the wayside. We have now said that there is a tangle of languages ​​in India. The Indian journalist and writer Khushwant Singh called his country a modern Babel, not entirely without good reason. Officially, 15 languages ​​are recognized as national languages, above all English and Hindi. In total, there are believed to be no fewer than 225 different languages ​​and a further 845 dialects in India, some of which are still unexplored. Two major language groups exist in India. The Dravidian in the south of the country and the Sanskrit-based in the north, to which Hindi belongs. The two groups only have a number of Sanskrit words in common.If you were to draw a line across India, for example from Goa in the west to Hyderabad and continue straight ahead, you would roughly get the linguistically divided India. Above the dividing line, Hindi is understood by everyone, and below that to a far lesser extent. The Indian government is making efforts to promote Hindi as the national language in the south as well, and it is to be expected that the number of Hindi speakers there will increase in the future.

Hindi - something about language

Urdu Something else for travelers in Pakistan: Those who speak Hindi will get by anywhere in Pakistan. As already mentioned, the Pakistani Urdu is almost the same as the Hindi. The grammar is absolutely the same, only the vocabulary differs in some cases. If the Hindi speaker uses vocabulary of Sanskrit origin, the Urdu speaker will resort to words from the Persian-Arabic range. The Urdu is written from right to left in the Arabic borrowed characters, while the Hindi with its Devnagari alphabet "normal" runs from left to right.

One could compare Hindi and Urdu with two circles that largely overlap, but still retain their "own", uncovered circle sectors.

to tscheló, ábhii híndii varn † amáalaa líkho! so go ahead, write the Hindi alphabet now! So go ahead, write the Hindi alphabet now! pándrah 15

The Hindi Alphabet The Hindi Alphabet Vowels

v

a

_

ri

vk

aa

,

e

b

i

Ã

m

ii

, s



ai

Å

u

uu

v ©

o, oo

ouch

Consonants

d

ka

N

CH Ha

M.

there

/ k

dha

e

ma

"K

s † a

M +

r † a 16 sólah

[k

kha

t

Yes



dhÞa

u

n / A

;

ya

l

sa

jha

.k

n / A

i

pa

j

ra

G

Ha

? k

gha

¥

n / A

r

ta

Q

pha

Yk

la

-

m

³

nga

V

t ‡ a

Fk

tha

c

ba

O

especially

%

H†

p

cha

B.

t ‡ ha

n

there

Hk

bha

‘K

sa

¡

-

pronunciation

D.

pronunciation

he Hindi has 11 vowels and 35 consonants. In addition to the characters for these sounds, there is a theoretically unlimited number of combined consonants in the Devnagari alphabet, so that the writing is not necessarily easy to learn. We limit ourselves here to the necessary explanations for the pronunciation of the sounds. It is important to note that there are long and short vowels in Hindi. Incorrect pronouncing of a vowel can completely change the meaning of a word. Example: paatra = the vessel; patra = the letter. A long or short pronunciation exists for both the a and the i and u. The vowels e and o are generally always pronounced long.

the retroflexes Unfortunately, Hindi has a number of sounds that do not appear in any other non-Indian language and the pronunciation of which requires some practice from the stranger. These sounds are the retroflexes, i.e. in order to pronounce them correctly, the tongue must be rolled up and pressed against the roof of the mouth. sátrah 17

Pronunciation Here is the list of retroflexes, each marked as such by a point below: t ‡

thÞ

d †

dhÞ

n †

r †

rhÞ

The retroflexes are so “typically Indian” that the English comedian Peter Sellers, whenever he wanted to conjure up a credible Indian accent, simply “prevented” everything with his tongue rolled around. The effect was exaggerated like a parody, but clearly “Indian”.

aspirated sounds Another difficulty are aspirated sounds (breathed sounds):

The pronunciation of these sounds requires some practice, and the motto here is especially: Listen carefully and parrot as much as possible, even if it seems impossible at the beginning. Practice makes the language artist! 18 at ‡ háarah

kh

gh

chh

century

thÞ

th

ie

ph

bra

rhÞ

dhÞ

The h in the sounds can be made clearly audible, as if one were saying log house, slope, Birming-ham, etc. It gets really bad when a sound is a retroflex and breathy at the same time. Fortunately, there are only three of these tongue twisters: thÞ

ie

rhÞ

Pronunciation of nasalized vowels Hindi also has nasalized vowels, which are indicated here by a ~. They are pronounced as if they were followed by a snuff spoken n. Alii Khaañ dillii meñ pahuñtschtaa hai. Ali Khan arrives in Dehli is Ali Khan arrives in Dehli.

Stress Stress in Hindi is nowhere near as important as correct length of vowels, and it can vary from time to time. If necessary, the stressed syllable is given an accent. Here is the above sentence again, this time with accents: Álii Khaañ díllii meñ pahúñtschtschaa hai.

unníis 19

Pronunciation According to pronunciation a aa i ii u uu

j dj y r

s z

like in section or full like in mal or lawn like in bite, crack like in deep, called like in butter, mother like in muse, fluff

Example ban

Forest

came

job

páti

husband

kamíiz

shirt

guru

Teacher beginning

schúruu

as in Journalist jáad as in Roger ráadjaa as in ja or yaa boy rolled as in ghar English in “round, cry” sharp; as in wasánt alley soft; like in mez soap

Memory king or house

Spring table

Double consonants such as in chámmatsch - “spoon” or thÞáppaa - “stamp” should be spoken deliberately long, as if one were saying chám-matsch, thÞáp-paa etc. 20 bis

Words that help Words that help

W.

if he finally sets foot on Indian soil after a long flight, he will definitely need something: a room, a sip of something to drink or a set of clothes because the airline accidentally sent the luggage to Khartoum. For such emergency situations you should have the right question ready, which you can still stumble out even in the heaviest of stress or the dullest jet-lag. ... kaháañ hai? ... where is the hotel, room, etc.? Where is ...? hót ‡ el kamráa ríst ‡ orant ‡ dukáan látriin pulíis benk saamáan samáanghar t ‡ éksii dáwaakhaanaa, farmesii áspit ‡ el dákt ‡ er ä £ rport

Hotel Room Restaurant Shop Toilet Police Bank Luggage Luggage storage Taxi Pharmacy Hospital Doctor "Airport", Flughafen ikkíis 21

Words that help raadjdutaaváas póst ‡ affis mándir

Embassy post office temple

If you leave out the kaháañ in the above questions, you get: hot ‡ el hai? Hotel is? Is there a hotel?

kamráa shark? Room is? Is there a room?

yes & no haañ nahíiñ

Yes No

If you want to be particularly polite, it is advisable to put the politeness part djii in front of it: djii haañ yes please

djii nahíiñ no thanks, no sir / my lady

The particle djii can also be attached to names to show a person special respect. For example: Gáandhii djii Gandhi (+ polite particles) revered Gandhi 22 báaiis

Sharmaa djii Sharma (+ politeness particle) dear Mr. Sharma

The nouns The nouns

D.

he Hindi distinguishes between feminine and masculine nouns, which largely differ from one another in terms of their endings. If the noun ends in -aa or a consonant, it is masculine. If it ends in -ii, it is feminine. male -aa ending kamráa room kándhaa shoulder kánghaa comb náaschtaa breakfast

Consonant ending phuul flower kámbal (to-) cover sáabun soap patlúun pants

female gáar † ii t ‡ ópii róschnii tschhátrii bíjlii

Car, car cap light umbrella lightning, electricity, power

The few nouns that end in a vowel other than -aa or -ii are mostly masculine, e.g. B. tscháakuu (knife), dáaruu (wine, schnapps), etc. A few té-iis 23

The nouns masculine nouns end in -ii: bhaaii (brother), aadmii (man) etc. Unfortunately, there is a rule above

Thousands of exceptions, all of which you should actually know by heart in order to speak correctly. As we shall see, adjectives in Hindi are based on the corresponding noun in terms of number and gender. In order not to get too complicated, a hundred percent correct grammar is not used here. The only important thing is that you are understood. Incidentally, I have hardly met a “normal” Indian myself who always knew how to assign the correct gender to all nouns. In everyday language it is often a bit confused. The only Indians who were always correct in their grammar were people with an extremely good school education, but you will usually have to deal with "simple" people anyway, such as bus conductors, waiters, railway officials, etc. 24 cháubiis

The nouns the plural (plural) The ending -aa becomes a long "e". male -aa ending consonant ending kamré room (pl.) kándhe shoulder no kánghe combs plural ending náaschte breakfasts

female Add -yaañ to the end of the word, whereby the preceding long -ii is reduced to a short i. Singular gáar † ii t ‡ ópii tschhátrii

Plural gaar † iyáañ t ‡ opiyáañ chhatriyáañ

Cars hats umbrellas

The stress mostly changes to the final syllable.

For the sake of simplicity, all nouns that end in anything other than -aa or -ii can be treated as masculine with a consonant ending, i.e. That is, singular and plural are the same! You will certainly not win a prize in a competition for classic high Hindi, but a small consolation: the "people from the street" also talk like that! patschíis 25

Personal pronouns Personal pronouns

D.

The personal forerunts in Hindi are: maiñ tuu tum yahá wahá ham tum ye wo aap

26 chä £ bbiis

I you (contemptuous, otherwise only to children, good friends or God in prayer) you (comradely), you he, she, it (here) he, she, it (there) we you she (here) she (there) you (very polite)

To be or not to be? To be or not to be? maiñ huuñ tuu shark

yahá hai vahá hai ham haiñ tum ho aap haiñ

I am you are (contemptuous; only okay with small children or good friends) he, she, it (here) is he, she, it (there) is we are you (respectful), you are you (very polite) are

maiñ yáatrii huuñ. I am a traveler / pilgrim I am a traveler / pilgrim. tum méraa hamsáfer ho. you are my travel companion you are my travel companion. If the sentence is to be negated, the “am” or “are” is simply dropped and replaced by nahíiñ (no, not): maiñ yáatrii nahíiñ. I am not a traveler / pilgrim I am not a traveler / pilgrim. tum méraa hamsáfer nahíiñ. you are not my travel companion you are not my travel companion. sattáaiis 27

Word order Word order

D.

he word order in the simple Hindi sentence is as follows: ... in the statement sentence subject - sentence completion - sentence statement (subject) (object) (predicate) In Hindi there is no article, neither a definite nor an indefinite one.

maiñ duudh kharíidtaa huuñ. i'm buying milk i'm buying milk. maiñ tscháawal bétschtaa huuñ. i am selling rice i am selling rice. In Hindi, sentence completion does not require a special form of declension; the position in the sentence already makes it recognizable as such. Now that we already know what "I buy" and "I sell" mean, we only need a shopping list and off we go to the basáar (bazaar).

28 at ‡ tháaiis

Word order ... in the question

Noun - question word - auxiliary verb As the above questions show, at the beginning of the question sentence there is not the question word, but the noun that it is about. benk ​​kaháañ hai? Bank where is Where is the bank? The activity word (verb) or auxiliary verb is at the end of the question. Questions are usually answered helpfully with words and gestures. Here are the most important directional terms: báaiiñ (or, táraf) left (direction) to the left

dáhinii (or, táraf) right (direction) to the right

The terms in brackets can be omitted. báaiiñ, báaiiñ or or báaiiñ táraf are all synonymous terms. síidhaa straight ahead

wáapas back

Attention: Not every Indian knows where the nearest American Express branch or the nearest specialty restaurant is; for the simple reason that they never go there. Nevertheless, they do not want to disappoint the traveler, and it may be that they simply point in any direction. With a healthy power of observation it can usually be seen in advance whether the respondent knows what he is talking about or not. If his attempts to explain the way are vague and uncertain, forget about it! He probably has no idea where to go. Ask another passer-by, and if their explanations seem sound, get on your way. uñtiis 29

Word order

If you are in urban jungles such as Bombay, Delhi or Calcutta for a long time, a city map is not a bad investment.

30 tiis

The type of question is very important: you should never ask someone “Does this bus go to Nasik?” You will probably get the answer, of course, it definitely goes to Nasik. After two hours you realize that you have been driven exactly in the other direction. Always ask: "Where is this bus going?" This is safer and saves you a lot of detours. What promotes misunderstandings in communication with Indians is the notorious Indian way of “saying yes”. The Indian does not nod his head to "yes", but shakes it loosely from one shoulder to the other and back again, as if the head were sitting a little loosely on the neck. Unfortunately, this gesture looks very similar to our “No”, and this has already led to the greatest confusion. The Indian “no” is expressed by a short twitch of the head from left to right and back. This gesture is often very similar to the "yes", but it is usually supported by a derogatory hand movement. The exact differentiation between “yes” and “no” requires careful observation and a little empathy. Many travelers adopt the Indian gestures after a few weeks in the country, but this can lead to misunderstandings again later when they are back home!

Question words question words

H

Here are some of the most important question words in Hindi: kaun kyaa kaháañ or kídhar kab kyoñ or kyuuñ káise kítnaa

who what where, where to when why how how much

As you have seen before, the question is preceded by the noun it is about, only then does the question word follow: yahá kaun hai? that (here) who is? Who is this?

vahá kyaa hai? that (over there) what is? What's this?

máalik kaun shark? Lord who is Who is the boss? vahá kyoñ áayaa? who came why? Why did he come? yahá kaise ho gayaa? how did this become? How did that happen? iktíis 31

The adjectives látriin kaháañ hai? Toilet where is? Where is the toilet? páisaa kaháañ gayaa? Money gone where Where did the money go?

The adjectives

D.

The adjective matches the corresponding noun in gender and number: makáan bár † aa hai. House is big The house is big. makáan is masculine, so the adjective bar † aa has the masculine ending -aa.

t ‡ opii bar † ii hai. Hat is big The hat is big. If the adjective refers to a feminine noun, its ending takes the feminine form -ii. 32 báttiis

The adjectives As already mentioned in the chapter on the majority of nouns, all nouns that end in -aa or a consonant can be treated as masculine, even if they may actually be feminine. This would simplify an otherwise complicated grammatical topic. Even in the plural, the adjective adapts to its associated noun: makaan bar † e haiñ. Houses are big Houses are big.

Adjectives ending in a consonant are immutable!

Just like the masculine nouns in -aa, the masculine adjectives form the plural with the ending -e. makáan - because it has a consonant ending - is the same in the singular and plural. In the plural, the feminine adjective ending is the same as the ending in the singular. topiyaañ bar † ii haiñ. Hats are big The hats are big.

tañtiis 33

Proverbs indicating possession. Pronouns indicating possession

D.

The possessive pronouns in Hindi are called: méraa téraa ískaa úskaa hamáaraa tumháaraa áapkaa

mine yours, you (here) to be, you (there) ours yours (respectful), yours (very polite)

The possessive pronouns are treated grammatically like adjectives, i.e. they adapt to the corresponding noun in gender and number: méraa bhaii but: mérii behn

my brother

but méraa dost: mérii sahélii

my friend

my sister

my girlfriend etc.

As a correct gibberish speaker, you can bypass all hurdles by just always using the masculine ending -aa. That sounds a little rude, but what the heck! 34 cháuñtiis

Maternity words

D.

he nouns (adverbs) do not differ in form from the adjectives:

vo kítnaa atschhaa badjáataa hai! how good it sounds! How well he (the instrument) plays! tum yahá bahút súnder banáate ho. you / you that do very beautiful are / are that you do (you do) very beautifully.

päñtiis 35

Increase & Compare Increase & Compare ... is expressed in Hindi as follows: méraa kháanaa tumháare kháane se tíikhaa hai. my food your food is spicy My food is spicy than yours. ye tscháawal páihle tscháawal se t ‡ hánd † aa hai. This rice is the first rice from cold. This rice is even colder than the first. ye rist ‡ orant ‡ dúusre se kharáab hai. this restaurant is different from bad this restaurant is worse than the other.

“Best” is expressed as “good of all”: Gan † esch sab se atschhaa ríkschaa-waalaa hai. Ganesh is all of a good rickshaw owner Ganesh is the best rickshaw driver (of all). Ráadjaa sab se amíir áadmii thaa. the raja was all of rich man The raja was the richest man (of all). 36 cháttiis

Prepositions prepositions

Z

Please note that the prepositions in Hindi are placed after the associated noun. So: ghar par house to home

baag ke biitsch meñ garden from center in in the center of the garden

darwáaze ke sáamne door from in front of the door ... se ... tak ... ke aas-paas ... ke bare meñ ... ke úupar ... ke baad ... ke khiláaf ... ke biitsch meñ ... ke bíitschoñbiitsch ... ke tscháaroñ or ... ke píitschhe ... ke sáamne ... ke níitsche ... ke ándar ... ke báahar

from ... to ... very close to ... over (deal with) ... over (spatial) ... to ... towards ... in the middle of ... exactly in the middle from ... all around ... behind ... in front of ... under ... inside in ... outside of ... säñtiis 37

Verbs & tenses ... par, pe ... ke paas ... ke paas ... ke áage ... meñ ... ke páihle ... ke schúruu meñ ... ke ant meñ ... ke saath ... ke bínaa ... ke bajuu

on ... at ... towards ... (further) straight on from ... in ... before (temporally) ... at the beginning of ... at the end of ... with ... without ... Next ...

sab kutsch samjháa? Did you understand everything?

Verbs & tenses

B.

With verbs, Hindi once again has a little extra surprise in store: The verb form changes depending on whether the person acting is male or female. This is like saying in German “I (female) eat, but you (male) don't eat!” That may sound strange, but gives the Indian the possibility of immediately recognizing from the verb form whether the acting (n ) Person (s) are male or female.

38 ártiis

Verbs & tenses present Here first the male verb forms of the present: Men kháanaa - eat (stem khaa-, infinitive ending -naa) maiñ kháataa huuñ I eat tuu kháataa hai you eat (with the child) ye, where kháataa hai he eats ham kháate haiñ we eat tum kháate ho you (comradely.) eat, you eat ye, we kháate haiñ they eat aap kháate haiñ you (courtly) eat To conjugate a verb in the present tense ("to bend in the present"), one uses am best of the table of the auxiliary verb "sein" (maiñ huuñ, tuu hai etc.). You just put the “correct” inflection of kháanaa between the two Hindi words for “I am” etc.! maiñ khaataa huuñ I eat “am” I eat. How do you get the "correct" form of kháanaa? The infinitive ending -naa is dropped and attached to the stem khaa- a taa (singular) or a te (plural). untáaliis 39

Verbs & tenses maiñ kháa-taa huuñ I eat am I eat.

ham kháa-te haiñ. we eat are we eat.

tschélnaa - go (stem tschel-, infinitive ending -naa) maiñ tschél-taa huuñ I'm going ham tschél-te haiñ we're going etc.

Women If the acting person is a woman, a -tii must be added to the verb stem instead of a -taa or te (for both the singular and the plural): maiñ tschél-tii huuñ ham tschéltii haiñ ye tschéltii haiñ

I (female) go we (female) go they (female) go

Compound verbs In Hindi there are a large number of compound verbs, which are particularly popular in everyday language. The correct use of these verbs requires greater speaking experience and thus a longer stay in the country. 40 cháaliis

Verbs & tenses It should also be mentioned that the compound verbs are formed from the stem of a verb and the full form of another verb. For example: banáa dénaa - (to prepare something for someone). banáa is the stem of banáanaa - to make, dénaa - to give. banáa dénaa means something like “finish something and then hand it in.” Since this type of verb is very common, here is a list of the most common ones: ho djáanaa de dénaa le lénaa ut ‡ h djáana rakh dénaa tschhor † dénaa d † aal dénaa khariid lénaa betsch dénaa gir djáanaa khaa djáanaa pii djáanaa

will give away accept stand up, let it be stowed away, give up throw down buy sell fall down eat up, drink away

The past ... is a rather complicated subject, and I just want to put it here in a very simplified way. The past of a verb is formed by adding -aa to the verb stem, or -yaa if the stem ends in a vowel. iktáaliis 41

Verbs & tenses píinaa píiyaa khélnaa khélaa

drink; Strain piitrank; Play past tense; Tribe khel played; Past tense

páanii píiyaa. Water drank I drank water.

úsko dékhaa. saw him (there) saw him.

pátra líkhaa. Wrote letter I wrote a letter.

páisaa kamáayaa. Made money Made money.

important exception: djaana - go gayaa - went (past) maiñ gayaa I went (male speaker) maiñ gayii I went (female speaker)

the past of "to be" male: maiñ thaa tuu thaa ye, vo thaa ham the tum the ye, vo the aap the 42 bayáaliis

I was you were he, it was we were you, you were you were you were you were

Verbs & tenses feminine: maiñ thii tuu thii ye, wo thii ham thiiñ tum thiiñ ye, we thiiñ aap thiiñ

I was you were you, it was we were you, you were you were you were you were

Future ... is an easier topic. To get the future tense, add the following endings to the verb stem: Men I ... -uuñgaa you ... -egaa he, es ... -egaa we ... -eñge you ... -oge them. .. -eñge you ... -eñge

kárnaa - to make; Tribe karmaiñ kar-úuñgaa / kar úuñgii (female) I will do

Women

them, it

-uuñgii -egii -egii -eñgii -ogii -eñgii -eñgii

lénaa = to take; Tribe lewo le-gaa / le-gii (female) he will take tañtáaliis 43

Verbs & tenses djáanaa = to go; Tribe djaaham djáa-eñge / djáa-eñgii (female) we will go

3rd and 4th case - dative and accusative mujhé, mújhko tujhé, tújhko ísko, isé úsko, usé hámko, haméñ túmko, tumhéñ ínko, inhéñ únko, unhéñ áapko

me, me you, you him, you, him, she (here) him, you, him, she (there) us you, you, you, you them, she (here) them, she (there) you, you

mujhé ek piyáalaa gáram duudh láanaa! bring me a cup of hot milk! Bring me a cup of hot milk! úsko ek biir piláanaa! buy him a beer! Buy him (there) a beer! hámko ek baar kutsch khilánaa, kándjuus! buy us something to eat, curmudgeon! Buy us something to eat, curmudgeon! 44 tschauváaliis

From owning From owning

S.

Instead of "I have", the Indian says "is with me":

mere paas bahút náyaa maal hai. I have very new goods. I have brand new goods. tumháare paas sab kutsch katschráa hai. you are a little scrap with everything You pretty much have everything scrap. mere paas ... hai tere paas ... hai iske paas ... hai uske paas ... hai hamáare paas ... hai tumháare paas ... hai inke paas ... hai unke paas ... hai aapke paas ... shark

I have ... you have ... he, she, it (here) has ... he, she, it (there) has ... we have ... you (respectv.), you have ... they (here) have ... they (there) have they have ...

Any noun can now be used at the ellipsis! waalaa But you can also express ownership differently, and that sounds very casual, as if you have been in the country forever:

The word waalaa occurs in the funniest combinations. Do you know what a polish-waalaa is? Of course, the shoe shine, what else? (from English "to polish" - to polish). Or do you have any idea what a "can guy", d † abbaa-waalaa, is? This is someone who brings hot food over to a Henkelmann. (This service is actually only available in Bombay.) So the wáalaa can be attached to pretty much anything. päñtáaliis 45

From owning Gan † esch ek först-klaas ríckschaa-waalaa hai. Ganesh is a top notch rickshaw owner Ganesh is a top rickshaw driver. dukáan-waalaa haméschaa sótaa hai. The shopkeeper is always asleep. The shopkeeper is always asleep.

If you want to express that someone owns something, just add the word wáalaa to what they have! So: ríckschaa-waalaa is someone who has a ríckschaa (riksha) (and probably drives too) dukáan-waalaa is someone who owns a dukáan (business) páan-waalaa is someone who has paan (betel) (and probably too sold!) dúudh-waalaa is an owner of duudh (milk), i.e. a milkman. In India you can safely say: maiñ páisaa-waalaa huuñ. i am a money owner i have a lot of money. 46 chiyáaliis

About possessing women Be careful: You have to (or should) change wáalaa to wáalii if the “possessing” person is a woman! mujhé afsós shark, mérii behn scháadi-waalii shark. I'm sorry, my sister is getting married, I'm sorry, my sister is already married.

With the waalaa / waalii word creations, we really watched the people’s mouths. Let your imagination run wild and create your own combinations now. dimáag-waalaa ho! Be a brain owner! Show your brain!

säñtáaliis 47

Know & need to know & need to know Instead of “I know”, the Indian says “I know”: Since January 1986, Bombay has been officially called Mumbai. This is the old name of the city, which comes from the regional language Marathi and probably comes from the name of the goddess Mumbadevi.

yahá áadmii mujhé bílkul máaluum nahíiñ. I don't know this man at all. I don't know this man at all. túmko máaluum hai, ki Bombay ka naam badál gáyaa? you know that Bombay's name (changed)? Do you know that the name of Bombay was changed?

must The Indian does not say “I have to work”, but “I have to work”: mujhé sawere se schaam tak kaam kárnaa hai. Doing myself from evening to work in the morning is I have to work from morning to evening. túmko roz came se came ek baar naháanaa hai. bathe yourself at least once a day. You have to wash yourself / you have to wash yourself at least once a day. 48 artáaliis

Commands commands

B.

Indians can issue commands politely, respectfully, or rudely and unkindly. There are five different command forms available to him for this. The simplest (and also the least polite imperative) is obtained by simply pronouncing the infinitive of an action word. For example: láanaa dénaa

bring give etc.

Tschaaii láanaa!

láanaa! dénaa!

Bring! Give!

Bring tea!

This variety of forms of command perhaps reflects a little bit the strict social hierarchies that still exist despite the official abolition of the caste system. With some people you can be a bit rougher, while others have to be respected ...

If you want to be more polite, you use the following forms of command. To do this, you add the desired suffix to the stem of an activity word (activity word minus the ending -naa).

There are still a number of exceptions where the polite forms of command are irregularly formed laa-o! / laa! Bring it (please)! become. If you are laa-iye! Please bring! laa-iega! Would you please bring it! but always to our first example of the imperative (laanaa!) tschélnaa - go; Tribe chel falls back, one lies chel-o! / chel! Go grammatically never tschel-iye! Go please! chel-iega! Would you go please! not correct! untscháas 49

Numbers & counting Numbers & counting ... are unfortunately very irregular, and only stubborn memorization or squinting into the book helps. 1 2 3 4 5

ek do tiin tschaar paañtsch

6 7 8 9 10

tschäh saat aat ‡ h nau that

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

gyáarah báarah térah cháudah pándrah sólah sátrah at ‡ háarah unníis biis

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

ikkíis báaiis té-iis tscháubiis patschíis tschä £ bbiis sattáaiis at ‡ tháaiis uñtiis tiis

After this it’s really difficult, and it’s enough if you have mastered the tens: 40 50 60 70 80 50 patscháas

cháaliis patscháas saat ‡ h sáttar ássii

90 100 101 111

návve, nábbe sau ek sau ek ek sau gyáarah etc.

Numbers & counting hasáar do hasáar ek laakh ek kror †

1000 2000 100 000 10 000 000

The terms laakh and kror † are very common in India. An Indian will never talk about half a million, always about paañtsch laakh! ek baar do baar

once twice (etc.)

The numbers 30-99 are not very easy to learn; you can look up the appropriate page in this book or you can do something else. From “57” you then make: patscháas aur saat fifty and seven fifty-seven fractions Some are very common: 1/2 1 1/4 2 1/4 3 1/4 1 1/2 2 1/2

áadhaa sáwaa / sáwaa ek sáwaa do sáwaa tiin etc. d † er † h ad † haaii / d † haaii ikyáavan 51

Time of day & time Afterwards it becomes regular again: 3 1/2 4 1/2 5 1/2 3/4 1 3/4 2 3/4

52 báavan

sáar † he tiin sáar † he tschaar sáar † he paañtsch paun paune do paune tiin (etc.)

Time of day & time of day Time of day & time

E.

It's good practice to ask the time in Hindi. Should there be any misunderstandings here, you can still use gestures or “hands and feet”.

kítnaa bádjaa hai? how-much is beaten? What time is it?

kyaa bádjaa hai? what is beaten? What time is it?

ábhii tiin bádjkar aat ‡ h minit ‡ huaa. Now three has become eight minutes. It is now three o'clock and eight minutes. lágbhag sáwaa badjáa hai. around one-fifteen it is around 1:15 am do bádjé hai. two is struck It is 2 o'clock. mérii ghárii t ‡ hiik nahíiñ hai. my watch is not ok My watch is not ok. shame ko nau badjé. struck at nine in the evening at nine o'clock tírpan 53

Time & time of day súbah / sáwere ko saat badjé. struck tomorrow at seven o'clock in the morning at seven One of the greatest peculiarities of Hindi is that there is only one word for “yesterday” and “tomorrow” as well as for “the day before yesterday” and “the day after tomorrow”. The meaning of kal or parsóñ can only be deduced from the context. There is probably no better proof of how much the Indian lives in the here-and-now! What is not now is either past or is on the way and is therefore not so important!

ghant ‡ áa minit ‡ sékend † din, díwas háftaa máhiina súbah, sáweraa dópahar tíisraa pahár schaam raat madhya raat suuriyodáy suuriyáast hall aadj kal parsóñ djéldii

the hour the minute second day week month morning noon afternoon evening night midnight sunrise sunset year today yesterday / tomorrow! the day before yesterday / the day after tomorrow! soon

súbah-súbah, súbah-sáwere raat ke biitsch meñ der-sabér

very early in the morning in the middle of the night sooner or later

mujhé tschhäh badjé ko ut ‡ háao! hit me six to wake up! Wake me up at six o'clock! 54 chauvan

Time & time of day gáar † ii t ‡ hiik samái meñ áaegii? Train / bus good time in will-come? Does the train / bus arrive on time? gáar † ii der se áaegii.Train / bus delay with will-come The train / bus is delayed. You can now speak enough Hindi to immerse yourself in everyday Indian life, but perhaps it is better to give a few more behavioral tips. After all, as a búddhuu (fool) you don't want to pound into every embarrassment, do you?

pátschpan 55

56 Tscháppan

Mini etiquette Mini etiquette

E.

There are some useful tips on how to behave appropriately for every country you visit as a tourist. Let's start with clothing: when Westerners wear Indian clothing such as kúrtaa (cotton shirt) and padjáamaa (wide trousers) or maybe even a saree, which in the end is less common, most Indians are not reluctant to see this. When it comes to Indian clothing, a distinction must be made between men and women. Nowadays, many Indian men in cities wear western clothing both in business and in private. Even in rural areas, this applies to a not inconsiderable part of the male population. The younger women in the cities are rarely seen in western clothing. In business too, they tend to wear the traditional kúrtaa. On special occasions, e.g. For example, at weddings, festivals or other cultural events, many Indian women and men, young and old, still wear their colorful traditional clothing. As a guest with an Indian family, one can dress both Western and Indian without losing respect. sattáavan 57

Mini etiquette for old people Every Indian will be pleasantly surprised if you are particularly nice and polite to old people. After all, the Indian worships his parents for life with tireless devotion. A son would never dare to smoke or drink in the presence of his father, that would be an unfathomable disrespect. Older women are addressed as maañ or maatáadjii (mother), older men as pitáadjii (father), which shows respect. Instead of pitáadjii, the word baap should never be used, which also means "father", but can be an insult, as the word touch is often used in foul language! Since Indians are forced to squat very close to one another due to the social situation - anyone who has ever ridden a suburban train in Bombay knows what I'm talking about - they are less shy about touching people. So if a beggar touches you or someone pulls your hand, don't let your skin off. With us you would never touch a stranger like that, in India it is quite normal! On the other hand, affection between couples is not welcome. Most of the time you feel like you have been kicked in your moral abdomen, and you probably get a lot of childish giggles. Women who show themselves tenderly on the street are seen as "for sale" and need not be surprised at other offers. The way of thinking of the providers: If 58 at ‡ háavan

Mini etiquette who does it with him, then she’s doing it with me too! By the way: men who hold hands are not automatically to be regarded as gay! In India, it is quite normal for two friends of the same sex to walk hand in hand with friendliness! It is common knowledge that officials are incarnate stubbornness, and the Indian are by no means an exception. If officials (in the case of visa extensions, loss reports, etc.) are absolutely uncooperative, under no circumstances go nuts and shout! You just make a fool of yourself and you certainly don't get what you need! It is essential to stay friendly, offer cigarettes, bring a gift (e.g. pen, lighter, etc.) or invite you to a drink after work! At least one more chance that everything will work out. Inquire about the name of the officer and start a cozy chat about his children, this creates a pleasant atmosphere. Never freak out criticism and scold the Indian bureaucracy! Indians are mercilessly tough on each other in tearing up their own country. You complain about the dirt, the chaotic traffic and what-else-everything. As a stranger, however, you should never make the mistake of criticizing Indians too much. Indians are very sensitive in this regard, and perhaps after a few polite phrases your counterpart will withdraw offended. The Indians are generally 59

Mini etiquette mean that I will meet you with a lot of goodwill - do the same thing and bite your own criticism that is too harsh. India can be very noisy. If you just want to sleep and there is a happy crowd in the next room - forget the complaint! Indians live together in large families in a confined space and can sleep wonderfully in the greatest cacophony. If you then complain that it is too loud arrogance, you will only reap incomprehension! One is constantly spoken to and asked this and that, because Indians are extremely sociable and enjoy communicating. Since you are often asked the same questions, this can quickly lead to saturation, after which you don't want to talk to anyone anymore. It doesn't make you very popular, and it is easy to be mistaken for an arrogant Western snob. Talk to the people! After all, what did you come to the country for? Indians are jokers of cleanliness and you can laugh with them heartily! As in many Asian countries, the left hand is unclean because it is used for all things below the belt. So you never give your left hand and don't touch food with it! The shoes are to be left in front of the door in a traditional Indian household and do not touch anyone with your shoes! Shoes are the “lowest”, and the Indian way of running the gauntlet is to tie someone to a donkey and give them a chain

Put on mini etiquette of shoes! If you throw rotten eggs and tomatoes on the stage, the Indian will throw his worn-out pines! You have to wash your hands before eating and also afterwards. Since people often eat by hand (perhaps with banana leaves as a plate!), This rule is essential! Spitting (thúuknaa) is not frowned upon in public, unless on buses, trains etc. Occasionally signs warn: thúuknaa manáa hai! - Spitting prohibited!

Body language Where we often have to say a lot of words - in India a brief gesture is enough. Indians are very sensitive and instinctively sense what you want. It is not considered impolite to beckoned to someone with a silent gesture or to point to a product. Should you ever eat a tháalii in which the empty bowls are refilled over and over again, it is enough if you wordlessly point to the bowl. The waiter will understand you and refill you. You can also “call” the waiter. To do this, you click your tongue as if to imitate the courtship calls of a rare species of bird. This method is very common for attracting or attracting someone's attention. You can beckon someone by saying íksat ‡ h 61

Mini-Knigge you stretch your right arm with your palm facing down. Then the hand is closed and opened several times in quick succession and pulling movements are made with the arm. Often this gesture is supported by the click. Indian drivers have their left hand on the wheel and their right hand dangles from the open window (right-hand drive, since left-hand traffic!). With this hand they give signals to other road users so that you can get along almost entirely without traffic signs. As chaotic as the traffic looks somehow, everything goes well most of the time! As a sign of deep humility, the Hindu (85% of Indians are Hindus) throws himself in the dust before his God. A worker who has annoyed his boss may also prostrate himself in front of him and maybe - as a token of absolute devotion - place his foot on his own head. It can certainly happen that a beggar lies down at your feet in the same way - an unfamiliar and unpleasant situation for westerners, from which you can only get out of it with a lot of tact. Try the words áise mat karó. maiñ bhagwáan to nahíiñ huuñ ... - “Don't do that! I'm not a god ... ”At the end I would like to describe a much funnier gesture. What can it mean when someone runs their index finger around their right ear as if they want to push their hair behind it? An old rule 62 báasat ‡ h

To greet & thank means that the brahmin cord, which all brahmins (highest caste) (should!) Wear, must not hang around the stomach for defecation and urination. So on the above occasions the cord was pulled up and clamped behind the ear. Hence the meaning of the gesture today: go pee! More common than the above gesture, however, is the slightly hidden pointing of a curved index finger. For the sake of completeness, it should be mentioned that ladies cannot use this gesture ...

Welcome & thank

D.

he greetings used in India are namasté! and namaskáar! Both can mean anything: “Good morning”, “Good afternoon”, “Good evening”, “Greetings to me.” And even “Goodbye.” Namasté! and namaskáar! are spoken while the hands are respectfully folded in front of the chest or forehead, while the head is lowered slightly. However, this type of greeting is very formal and is actually only needed for people who are respected. These can be: the parents, the older brother, the employer, a socially superior, an influential person or the guru. The word guru usually denotes any kind of teacher, be it the Sanskrit teacher, the teacher of Indian classical tírsat ‡ h 63

Greet & thank music or the spiritual teacher. Unfortunately, due to the escapades of some black sheep, the term has now found a rather dubious connotation with us. In rural India people greet each other with raam! raam! and the palms also folded. raam is the Hindu god Rama, and the purpose of this greeting is to assume that hearing and reciting one of the many names of gods gives the speaker and the listener good karma. Anyone who has ever heard of the mantras (mantra), the sacred verses to be repeated, will recognize the similarity: These, too, which largely consist of the holy names of the gods, are said to have a positive influence on whoever they are recited, exercise. The Indians are often very informal and greet each other without great phrases or perhaps with an aré yaar, Ramesch ... - "Well, man, Ramesh ...", with something like that in the undertone, "Man, where are you from? not seen for a long time, etc. ”the salutation maañ, maatáadjii pitáadjii bét ‡ ii bét ‡ aa 64 tschauñsat ‡ h

Mother; to older women father; to older men daughter; to young girls, children son; to boys, children (m)

Welcome & thank ánkel behn

bhaaii

saab, baabuu baabaa schríimatii schrii

Uncle (from children or adolescents to adults) Sister (to a female person who could be a sister in terms of age) Brother (to a male person who could be a brother in terms of age) Mr. Father (also salutation for yogis, ascetics etc.) Mrs. ... Mr. ...

aré dost aao na áataa hai? kyaa baat shark? kyaa húaa? kyaa kháber shark? káisaa shark? tschéltaa hai t ‡ hiik-t ‡ haak hai? kaháañ gayaa? khaao, piio na! kháanaa kháayaa? aré waa, tum kaháañ se áaye? aré sáalaa!

Hey buddy! Come here! Are you coming? What's happening? What happened? What's new? What's up? Goes so. Everything OK? Where have you been? Take it! (Eat, drink!) Already eaten? Yes man, where are you from? Man, you bastard! (okay with good friends, otherwise severe insult!)

ánkel - engl. "Uncle"

The question kháanaa kháayaa? - “Have you eaten?” Is surprisingly one of the first to be asked. I was told that it was the leftover from a famine in which everyone enviously inquired whether the other had something in their stomach. päñsat ‡ h 65

Greet & Thank You about the sáalaa is a tricky thing: it actually means “brother-in-law” or, more precisely, “brother of your own wife” and is one of the worst insults. The reason: if I call someone sáalaa, I am married to his sister. Since I have sex with his sister, he has to be offended! Calling a stranger a sáalaa can have dire consequences for the careless speaker. The expression is used very often among good friends, however, and then it simply means “You bastard, bastard, etc.” Everything in a friendly sense, of course! The feminine form sáalii (sister-in-law, sister of one's own wife) is very rarely used as a swear word.

Thanks. The Indian "thank you" is one of those things. There are two expressions for it, but they are rarely used. schukriyáa, dhanyawáad

Thanks.

The Indian is much more likely to say thank you without words, e.g. by means of a gesture. B. Or a "thank you" look. schukriyáa and dhanyawáad are a bit artificial terms that have probably been brought here because all other languages ​​have expressions of thanks. 66 tschiyáasat ‡ h

Greetings & Thanks In general, the two expressions seem very stiff and out of place. On the other hand, one very often hears the "Thank you.", Which the Indian also uses in completely unsuitable situations because he has never really learned to deal with the "Thank you." For example, beggars who have not received anything often say thank you - not out of politeness, but to cover up the embarrassment. An Indian mother once said to me: How could my son say “Thank you” to me when the care of a mother is a matter of course. The "thank you" is in the heart ...

sársat ‡ h 67

Disputes? Disputes?

E.

It can always happen that you are followed by a pushy beggar, a bazaar dealer annoys you, as a woman, you get grabbed by the backside, or you can feel a stranger's hand in your pocket. In such cases one should not be silenced: djaao! djéldii! go! fast! Buzz off! maiñ pulíis láataa huuñ! I'm calling the police I'm calling the police! chór! chór! Thief! Thief! Stop the thief!

The word tschaar sau biis actually means "420". In today's linguistic usage, however, it stands for “fraudster”, as there is a paragraph 420 for fraud in the Indian penal code! 68 ársat ‡ h

bhaar ‡ meñ djaao! Oven in go! Go to hell!

tuu badmáasch hai! you are villain! You are a villain! chhút ‡ t ‡ a do! Give change! Give out the change! tuu tschaar sau bis hai! you're four hundred twenty! You are a cheater!

Disputes? mujhé bakráa mat banáao! don't make me goat! Do not rip me off! maiñ tujhko máaruuñgaa! I will hit you! I'll whack you right away!

Watch out! The form máaruuñga can only be spoken by a male person. A woman should say: maiñ tujhko máaruuñgii! I will hit you! I'll give you a ‘in a moment! méraa pörs tscheláa gáyaa! my purse went away! My purse is gone! vahá chor hai! the thief is! That one is a thief!

ábhii tschhor ‡ do! give up now! Now let it go!

also: let go!

páisaa wáapas do! Give money back! Give the money back! maiñ tamáaschaa karúuñgaa! I'll make a show! I'm doing a lot of theater!

With a female speaker you say karúuñgii instead of karúuñgaa! unháttar 69

Disputes? batscháao! help! Help! aíse mat plaid! don't do that! Don't do that!

haath mat lagáao! Do not lay hands! Do not touch me!

yaháañ koii nahíiñ, djo madád kártaa hai? is anyone not here who makes help? Isn't there anyone here to help? maiñ kyaa káruuñ? what should I do? What should I do?

With the above sentences I remember an anecdote that I took from an Indian daily newspaper: At the so-called chor basáar, the “thieves' market” in Bombay, a trader shouted chor, chor !, stop the thief, because someone had just gone free served its display. The trader was amazed when suddenly half the street picked up his legs and dashed away ... There had been more thieves than customers in the chor basáar. I don't know if the story is true or just an original tourist advertisement. In any case, I will only have 70 sáttar in India for 3 1/2 years