How is pollination done in aquatic plants

 

definition

The term pollination means the transfer of pollen (pollen) to the stigma of a flower. Pollination is the prerequisite for fertilization.

A distinction is made between the following types of pollination:

  • Self-pollination: pollen from a flower gets onto the stigma of the same flower
  • Neighbor pollination: pollen from a flower gets onto the stigma of a flower within the same plant
  • Cross-pollination: pollen from one flower gets onto the stigma of another plant

Wind pollination (About 20% of domestic plants are pollinated by wind: e.g. conifers, birch, beech, alder, ash, hazel, poplar, elm, grass, sorrel, ...)

Most of the plants that are pollinated by the wind have the following characteristics:

  • Flowers are inconspicuous (usually not very colorful and not very conspicuous)
  • Petals are missing or stunted
  • Nectaries and scent glands are missing
  • Small and light pollen are present in large quantities

Water pollination

Water pollination only occurs in some aquatic plants, e.g. seaweed. Aquatic plants with showy flowers are mostly pollinated by insects.

Animal pollination

Animals such as bats, birds or even many insects carry pollen to other flowers. In the temperate zones, animal pollination mostly takes place by insects, e.g. honeybees.

Monoecious, dioecious and hermaphrodite plants

At hermaphroditic (bisexual) plants male and female components are housed in one flower

monoecious plants

There are female and male flowers on a plant, which are separate, e.g. hazel

 

dioecious plant, e.g. willow

There are purely male and purely female plants, pollen from the male plant reaches the flower of the female flower ('two houses')