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Corona vaccines: vector or mRNA vaccine - how the vaccine types differ
mRNA vaccines contain sections from the genetic material of the coronavirus, the so-called messenger RNA (mRNA for short), which is also known as messenger RNA. A very small amount of this is injected into the human muscle. The body cells absorb the particles and decode the genetic information they contain. For a short time they produce a so-called spike protein that sits on the surface of the coronavirus. Put simply, it makes it clear to the immune system that something foreign is to be found here that needs to be rendered harmless. The immune system therefore forms antibodies for this surface protein, which enable it to quickly recognize the intruder in the event of a later infection with the coronavirus and immediately have an immune response ready.
Studies have shown that this poses no danger to the human body. The introduced genetic material particles are broken down by the human cells within a short period of time. They are not built into human DNA. Once the vaccine mRNA is broken down, no further production of the antigen takes place.
The mRNA vaccines can be produced in very large quantities within a few weeks. However, they bring with them the challenge that, according to the current state of research and development, they have to be transported and permanently stored at extremely low temperatures (-20 to -80 degrees Celsius). That is why they are given primarily in specially equipped vaccination centers. The Moderna vaccine is said to have an advantage here: According to the manufacturer, it can be stored for up to 12 hours at room temperature and 30 days in the refrigerator (2 to 8 ° C).
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