How does IT differ from computer technology?

Information and data

Information is information, neither energy nor matter.

In common parlance, "information" is equated with "meaning" or "knowledge". In comparison, "data" is information on "facts" and "processes". Data are values ​​and contents that can represent information.

Information and data have no place. You can wander from one fixed material carrier to another at any time. This also means that information cannot be localized with absolute certainty.

Laws and rules that bind information and data in one place seem useful and meaningful. But they can hardly be implemented and are therefore pointless. Because every single unit of information can be transmitted and stored anywhere in the world at any time. The storage location can only be restricted if the use of data processing systems and human access are prevented.
Only if information and data is encrypted throughout does it almost make no difference where the information and data is stored.

Information is ...

  • ... elimination of ignorance.
  • ... a message that is interpreted by the recipient.
  • ... can be represented as a sequence of "0" and "1".
  • ... a physically changeable signal over space and time.

When considering information, information carriers, information transport and information display play a role.

Due to the amount of knowledge, there is a need to process, record and transmit information and data. For this purpose, structures are to be defined in order to be able to process, save and transfer information and data.

Data

Data "represent" information. Data are the carriers of information. Information can be obtained from data through "interpretation" and "abstraction".
By automatically processing existing data, new data can be obtained and, in turn, new information can be interpreted.

  • Appearance: writing, sound, image
  • Representation: analog or digital
  • Task: control data, user data, address data

Electronic data processing (EDP)

In principle, electronic or digital data processing knows only two states. These two states are called logically "high" and "low" and are often represented as "1" and "0". Something that only knows these two states is called a binary system or binary logic. All data that are to be processed electronically must be translated into this binary system. Because all data cannot be represented with just two states, several binary states have to be strung together until the value can be represented.

This means that writing in the form of letters, numbers and characters, and images with the representation of people, objects or landscapes and any other data and information are processed and stored as electronically readable coding in the form of a sequence of "0" and "1" .

1010101010101010101010101010

It is determined beforehand which number, which letter or which character is coded in a certain bit sequence. For this purpose, data types are specified and a corresponding translation table is defined for character sets.

Example: A character on the keyboard is represented as a code made up of 8 binary states. A position in the code is referred to as a bit that has either a "0" or a "1" as significance. With 8 binary states one speaks of 8 bits, which corresponds to one byte and allows a total of 256 different values.
For example, the capital letter "A" would have the digital equivalent of "0100 0001".

All data that is stored and processed in a computer are binary codes or dual numbers. When data is entered, it is first converted into bit strings, then the bit strings are processed and the result is saved and then converted into a form that can be represented or read by humans.

Units in IT

For easier processing and transmission of data in and between digital systems, the data have certain structures. These are individual states in the form of "0" or "1" or groups of such states. Individual states are referred to as bits. A group of states would be a bit sequence that is called a byte or data word, for example.

  • Bit: The bit is the smallest unit of information in information and communication technology. It can assume two states and represents a memory location.
  • Byte: 8 bits are combined into one byte and often represent one character. It is an adopted and not a standardized convention. The only correct designation for 8 bits is the octet.
  • Half-byte / Nybble: 4 bits are combined to form a half-byte or Nybble.
  • Word: The word comes from English which means a word. A word consists of at least 2 letters. A word therefore consists of 2 bytes, which corresponds to a total of 16 bits.
  • DWord: The DWord is the double word that consists of 2 words. That is 32 bits or 4 bytes.

Bit and byte are also prefixed with prefixes if the bit or byte values ​​exceed 1,000 or 1,024 multiples.

Coding / presentation of information

In computer science, every piece of information, a piece of information or a value has a digital code. Logical values, texts, numbers, images, etc. consist of a series of zeros and ones. So that the digital code is visible, readable or audible for humans, it is decoded. Fixed codes, character sets, number systems and data formats are used. This means that for each code (certain bit sequence) there is a fixed assignment to a character or a character sequence.

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Everything you need to know about computer technology.

Computer technology primer

The computer technology primer is a book about the basics of computer technology, processor technology, semiconductor memory, interfaces, data storage devices, drives and important hardware components.

I want that!