Is Divya Bharti overrated

c The Vayu Purana d c d

Transcript

1 c The Vayu Purana d Complete German translation based on the English version of the Vayu Purana by G.V. Tagare (1987) with the help of the Vayu Mahapurana by S.K. Sharma (2013) and the Sanskrit text from WikiSource first edition: September 2019 c d

2 Table of Contents Book 1 - Prathamakhanda ...

3 1.57.

4 2.37.

5 Book 1 - Prathamakhanda Prakriya Pada - The Creation 1.1. Summary of contents OM! Bowing to Nara and Narayana, these highest of males, and also to Sarasvati, the goddess of learning, may the word jaya (victory) sound. Hail to Vyasa, the son of Parasara, who delights the heart of Sarasvati, the goddess of learning, when the nectar of words flows from his lotus mouth, which pervades the whole universe. I seek refuge in the Supreme Deity, the Eternal, Immortal and Immutable Self, who is the Lord of the Universe. Desiring to learn from the sacred stories, I bow to Brahma, the creator of the worlds, the omniscient and unbeatable Lord of the past, present and future. In Brahma, the father of all creatures, incomparable knowledge, non-attachment, sovereignty and Dharma (virtue and justice) are united. Brahma knows all beings, physical and incorporeal, who at the end return to him from the world of deeds. He is the creator of the world, who knows reality with all its principles and, through the power of yoga, lets all animate and inanimate creatures arise. Brahma is the unborn Lord, the All Creator, the embodiment of consciousness and the cosmic witness of all worlds. After bowing with virtuous devotion to Brahma, Vayu and Indra, as well as the high-souled Vasishta, the best of saints, and his great-grandson Vyasa, the island-born saint with immortal glory full of purity, I will now narrate this Purana as it is Brahma once proclaimed. It is comparable to the Vedas and is full of sacred teachings on virtue, merit, and justice. When Asimakrishna (a great-grandson of Janamejaya, the great-grandson of Arjuna), this mighty and excellent king with incomparable glory, ruled righteously over the earth, the saints with well-restrained souls made a long sacrifice (over 12 years) in the holy land of Kurukshetra on the shores the Drishadvati. They were devoted to the truth and sacred rites, sincere, cleansed from sin, stilled within, and with restrained minds and thoughts. They met in the Naimisha Forest and were initiated according to the sacred commandments. The most intelligent Suta, the best of the Purana storytellers, also came to visit the saints. He was known around the world under the name Lomaharshana because he was able to inspire the audience so incomparably with his stories. He was the wise disciple of St. Vyasa, a treasure trove of penance, Vedic knowledge and virtuous behavior. He was famous in all three worlds and the entire knowledge of the Puranas was embodied in him. His scholarship grew through the study of the Mahabharata, which is full of stories promoting Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha (the four great life goals of virtue, wealth, love and liberation). Wisdom came from his mouth like medicinal herbs from mother earth. The virtuous Suta properly approached the famous and most intelligent saints, bowed to them and honored them with folded hands. The glorious saints who carried out the long sacrifice and all the other assembled were very pleased, greeted him with kind words and honored the guest. And when she Lomaharshana, the most trustworthy disciple, before her Vayu Purana

6 saw a desire arose in them to hear a Purana. The high priest, who was a connoisseur of all commandments, understood her wish based on her gestures and asked the Suta: Oh Suta, in order to learn the great epics and Puranas, you have the most intelligent and honorable Vyasa, the best of Brahma connoisseurs served right way and received like milked milk the old traditional tales. The glorious saints here wish to hear a Purana. May you grant their wish and tell them these stories. All the honorable ones present here belong to different families. May they learn from the ancient stories of their respective lineages and origins. Please explain to these saints who have gathered here with their sons for a long sacrifice. Verily, this memory is very important for the blessing of this sacrifice. When asked in this way by the saints who were interested in the ancient stories and dedicated to the truth and sacred rites, the Suta agreed and began to tell. The Suta said: It is the office and the duty of the sutas according to the command of the saints of bygone times to preserve the descent of the gods, saints and great kings, as they were recorded in the epics and Puranas by the Vedic scholars. But nowhere is it seen that sutas have a right to recite the Vedas themselves. The first time a Suta appeared during the sacrifice of the high-souled King Prithu, son of Vena, when the Soma (on Sutya day) was offered to the fire. He came from a mixed caste, as if the offerings for Vrihaspati had been exchanged for those for Indra and sacrificed for Indra. Through this mistake the Suta was born, and because of this mistake the necessary atonement rites had to be performed for the sacrifice. And because he was begotten of a Kshatriya and born to a Brahmanin, he was entrusted with the corresponding tasks due to his natural disposition (similar to a Kshatriya). His usual duty is to obey the Kshatriya calling. This includes caring for chariots, elephants and horses, while the use of medicine is its secondary task. But if I am venerated and asked by such high-souled Brahmins as you to obey my higher duty and to narrate the Puranas in detail, how could I refuse? Vasavi was once born as a spiritual daughter of the ancestors (Pitris). Cursed by her father, she was born in the body of a fish. From her again Vyasa was born, the great yogi and best of the Vedic connoisseurs, like fire from matches. I bow deeply to Vyasa, the venerable saint, the hero in Bhrigus lore, the ancient Purusha (Supreme Spirit) and great Lord Vishnu in the disguise of a human being. Already when he was born all the Vedic knowledge from all fields appeared before him, but officially he received it from Jatukarna because it was his duty to learn it from a teacher. He whirled the ocean of the Vedas with the whisk of his intelligence and created the shining moon in the shape of the Mahabharata. Just as a tree branches widely when it reaches fertile soil and the best of conditions, so the Vedas spread in different branches after they reached Vyasa. I also have this Purana from this omniscient herald Vayu Purana

7 belongs to the Brahman, who knows the Vedas and is venerated by all in his radiant glory. And this Purana, which Vayu (the god of the wind) once proclaimed when the wise men in Naimisha asked him for it, I will now tell in detail. The highest cause is the four-armed, four-faced and incomparable Maheshvara (Supreme Lord), the unmanifest, incomprehensible and inconceivable self-being God. It is certain that he is the incorporeal cause and created everything corporeal in the form of existence and non-existence, from the mahat (the universal intelligence) to the gross elements and creatures. From him the golden egg of the worlds was born. This world-egg is surrounded by (subtle) water, water by fire, fire by wind, wind from space, space from self-consciousness, self-consciousness from universal intelligence (Mahat) and universal intelligence from the unshaped (Avyakta, Sea of ​​causes). Brahma first remembered the Puranas as part of the sacred texts at the beginning of creation. After that the Vedas came out of his mouths. Accordingly, the branches of the Vedas are also explained in this Purana, the books of law (Dharma-Shastras), the sacred rites, religious vows and penances, the origin of animals and people, the composition of the kalpas, the nine unintentional creations of Brahma, the three spiritual creations as well as the (six) natural ones, the birth of Dharma etc. from the body members of Brahma (the four goals of life of virtue, merit, love and liberation), the twelve kinds of beings born again and again in each kalpa, the length of the kalpas and the transitions from Kalpa to Kalpa, the emergence of Adharma from Brahma (vice and injustice) enveloped in darkness, the birth of Satarupa (multifarious, the wife of Manu), the birth of the sinless beings Priyavrata, Uttanapada, Prasuti and Akuti, in whom all beings found, the birth of the twins of Akuti by the progenitor Ruchi and the birth of the daughters of Daksha by Prasuti, the creation by the high bes eelten Dharma with Sraddha and other daughters of Daksha in a tribe ruled by goodness (Sattwa) full of happiness, but also the tribe of Adharma (vice and injustice) ruled by violence and by darkness and misfortune. Then the offspring of Maheshvara (Shiva) and Sati are glorified, and the embodiment of yoga is explained to the two-born who seek liberation on the yoga path that was also proclaimed to the flawless Brahma, as well as the embodiment and supreme glorification of Rudra, the legends and great teachings regarding the Vayu Purana

8 three Vedas, the glorification of the lordly Shiva by Brahma and Narayana to the satisfaction of God, the embodiment of Lord Rudra from the body of Brahma and the origin of the name Rudra, because the Lord cried out like the god starting his eight names with Rudra received from Brahma, and how the three worlds with all animate and inanimate creatures are pervaded by them, the creation of the descendants of Bhrigu and other saints, the glorification of the lineage of the Brahmin saint Vasishta, the descendants of Agni (the fire god) and Swaha ( Sacrifice for gods) as well as the descendants of the two classes of ancestors with Swadha (the sacrifice for ancestors). With the family tree of the ancestors, the story of the curse on Daksha, the wise Bhrigu and others in the interest of Sati is told in detail, and how Daksha in turn cursed Rudra with a wonderful deed, how their enmity came to an end and how their conflict on the various Countries. This is followed by the description of creation by the Swayambhuva-Manu, the birth of Nabhi and the high-souled kings, the enumeration of the continents, oceans and mountains, the description of the different countries, rivers, peoples, sections of the seven main continents, the size of the areas of the The continent of Jambudvipa with its ocean and mountains in Yojanas, the mountains in the subcontinent and their dividing mountains called Himavat, Hemakuta, Nishadha, Meru, Nila, Sweta and Sringavan, their overarching extent, height, length and width in Yojanas, the respective places of residence, the countries like Bharata with its rivers and mountains as well as their inhabitants, the island continent Jambu with its seven ring oceans, Lokaloka and the great water as well as this world and the earth with its seven island continents as they are enveloped by the world egg and the higher worlds. Everything is described briefly with all sizes and extents, as well as the sizes of the sun, moon and earth in Yojanas with their guiding gods and the sacred assembly of Mahendra (Indra) and others on the northern summit of Manasa. Then the circular movement of the sky like a blazing fire is explained, the region of the sun, moon and stars, the size in Yojanas of the two expansions, the edges and areas of Lokaloka, the length of the twilight, the days and equinoxes, the four Guardians of the four cardinal points, the southern and northern path of the ancestors and gods, the path of the housefathers and ascetics among the natural qualities of passion and goodness (Rajas and Sattwa), the glorification of the region of Vishnu where Dharma, etc. are perfect, the Run of the sun, moon, planets and stars under the rule of Dhruva, the pole star, and their wholesome and unwholesome effects on humans. This also explains the sun chariot, which was created by Brahma himself with a specific purpose. The sun god sits on this chariot and moves through the sky. He is led by various gods, the saints of the sun, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Yakshas, ​​Nagas and Rakshasas. In the same way, the moon's chariot is described as the essence of water and its waxing and waning by the sun. Then it is explained in detail how the chariots of the sun, moon etc. move around the pole star, the design of the firmament in the form of a turtle with a heavenly body and the pole star on its back, the zodiac signs with the planets and the homes of the benevolent gods, the emergence of rain, cold and heat through the thousands of rays of the sun as well as their differentiation through names, Vayu Purana

9 Function and purpose as well as the sizes of the planets and their orbits depending on the sun. Then it tells how poison turned Shiva's throat blue, how the trident-bearing god swallowed the poison at the request of Brahma, the glorification of Shiva as Supreme Lord by Vishnu and other gods as well as the sacred and sin-destroying story of the origin of the linga. Then follow the wonderful transformation of Pradhana (the sea of ​​causes) into a cosmic form, the stories of the glory of Pururavas, the son of Ila, the creation of the two classes of ancestors through the nectar, the holy days of the month and their meaning , the gratification of the two kinds of ancestors through ancestral sacrifices (sraddha) who ascended to heaven or fell into the lower worlds. Because the stories of the gods, saints, manus and ancestors cannot be fully told, they are only briefly summarized. Then the number of human years of the present and all other manwantara is explained. The past and future Manwantaras are described on the basis of the present Manwantara, so also the transitions between them with regard to the Swayambhuva Manwantara, the scheme of three Manwantaras and the knowledge of time, the enumeration of the gods and ancestors in the Manwantaras, the grandchildren of Daksha, the sons of his excellent daughters, the sons of Brahma and others like the intelligent Daksha, the Manus like Savarna, etc., the inhabitants of Meru, the family tree of Dhruva, the son of Uttanapada, the milking of the earth by Prithu, the son of Vena , the description of the vessels and their milk content, the description of the peoples and how in earlier times this earth was milked by the Brahmins and others, the birth of Daksha, the wise progenitor, by Marisha of the ten Prachetas by part of the moon, the Rule of the Mahendras (Indras) over the beings of the past, present and future, the creation of the Manus and their descendants with the vers various stories of their lives, the creation of Vaivaswata Manus, and the birth of Bhrigu and others from the seed of Brahma during the great sacrifice when the Lord assumed the form of Varuna. After describing the excellent creation of Chakshusha-Manu, the spiritual creation of Daksha follows. But Narada, the son of Brahma, made the mighty sons of Daksha disappear with seductive words and thus charged himself with the curse of Daksha. Then Daksha begat his famous daughters with Virini, and the creation by the wise Kasyapa is described according to the Dharma, as well as the unity, diversity and specificity of Vayu Purana

When the wife of Bhrigu was killed by Vishnu in the struggle between the gods and demons for the protection of Indra, he earned the curse of Bhrigu, who brought the heavenly lady back to life so that she became the mother of Shukra (the teacher of demons) . The battles between the gods and demons lasted twelve myriads of years and claimed many lives. This is followed by the glorification of Narasimha (human lion) and others (incarnations of Vishnu), the satisfaction of Lord Shiva through harsh asceticism from the wise Shukra, who praised Shiva for a blessing, and the deeds of gods and demons. While the high-souled Shukra was having fun with Jayanti, the wise Vrihaspati assumed the form of Shukra and deceived the demons, whereupon Shukra cursed him. Thereafter, the embodiment and glory of Vishnu is praised, Turvasu and Yadu became grandsons of Shukra, born to his daughter Devajani (as the wife of King Yayati), and kings Anu, Drahyu and Puru were also sons of Yayati (born of Sarmishta) . All the noble and outstanding kings of this family of glory, wealth and eternal glory are extolled. Then it is told how the Brahma Saint Kausika was faithful to the Dharma, how Surabhi (the heavenly cow) dispelled the curse of Vrihaspati, and how the family of Jahnu and the power of Shantanu were praised.Now follows a brief description of the seven manus of the future, the dissolution of the universe at the end of the Kali age of the last Manwantara, the concepts of Para and Parardha, the estimation of the size of the universe in Yojanas, the three types of dissolution of all living beings, viz cyclical, natural and perfect, the great drought from the sun, the terrible Samvartaka fire, the great cloud, the all-devouring sea, the storm of the wind, the night of the high-souled Brahma, the calculation of the cycles of Brahma, the description of the seven regions (Lokas) beginning with the earth (Bhu), and the hells beginning with Raurava, the excellent abode of Shiva over the region of Brahma, Vayu Purana

11 where all living beings find unity during the time of universal dissolution, the end of all living beings after the complete dissolution and the death of Brahma, the eight types and forms of the wind of life, the upward and downward path (of the deceased) according to their virtuous and sinful deeds in life, the cyclical dissolution of the gross elements, the enumeration of the sufferings and impermanence of God Brahma, the malevolent nature of pleasures and grasping for their fruits, the difficulties in attaining liberation, the perception of faults through separation, that Entry of a living being into Brahman through overcoming existence and non-existence and the realization of insight in diversity, the highest bliss in Brahman, free from the three torments, formless and immaculate. Whoever achieves this will be freed from all fear. After that, a new creation is explained by another Brahma as before with all the tribes of the saints who have destroyed every sin. Thus the content of this Purana has been briefly described. Follow his course mindfully and self-restrained. Then you will achieve your well-being. The place where the wreath of this Dharma wheel breaks during its course should be considered sacred. So spoke Brahma and disappeared before her eyes. In the following it is told how the Ganga received the golden fetus, how the place got the name Naimisha, how the saints carried out the long sacrifice there, how Saradwat was brought back to life, how the saints of Naimisha enlarged the earth with great confidence and unified it Appointed king whom they honored with hospitality according to the commandments of the scriptures. However, this king, delighted with their hospitality, was kidnapped by the malevolent demon Swarbhanu, who disappeared with him. They pursued the kidnapped King Aila (Pururavas) and, as before, found him in the village of Kalapa in the company of Gandharvas. It is reported how he met the great saints and saw the golden jars of their sacrifice, how King Aila fought hard in the dispute in the twelve years of sacrifice and was finally beaten by the saints of Naimisha, like Ayus, son of Aila, created similar to the fire from the firewood, ended the sacrifice and Ayus served Vayu Purana

12 Oh excellent brahmins, all of this is described as done. The saints' knowledge of worldly events is really very great. This Purana, which can bestow extraordinary knowledge, was originally proclaimed by Brahma. It talks about the embodiment of Rudra for the well-being of the Brahmins, about the yoga of Shiva, about the glory of his holy regions, how Lord Shiva got his blue throat and how he embodied himself in the Linga form. All of this was proclaimed to the Brahmins by Vayu on behalf of Brahma. Reciting, listening, and remembering this Purana is beneficial to well-being, fame, and longevity. It is holy and sin destructive. So it should now be told in the order above. When long narratives are briefly summarized, they can be more easily understood. Therefore the above summary has been given. What was briefly listed there is now told in detail. Whoever studies this first chapter with a concentrated mind can already understand the whole Purana. There is no doubt about that. A Brahmin may know the four Vedas with their branches and the Upanishads, but without a thorough understanding of the Puranas he cannot be considered capable. He should strengthen the Vedas with the stories of the Puranas. Because the Veda (the great knowledge in female form) is afraid of someone who is deficient in this tradition and thinks: He wants to hurt me! Whoever recites this chapter, which Brahma himself proclaimed, over and over again, will attain the great liberation even under unfortunate circumstances, and all his wishes will be fulfilled. It is called Purana because it tells of ancient times. Even if you take it literally, you can be delivered from all sins. Narayana pervades the whole universe with all appearances. Lord Shiva is the creator of the creator of this universe. Hear from this core! Maheshvara is the supreme god of this Purana. During the formation he created the whole universe, and during the dissolution he draws everything back into himself. The great sacrifice over twelve years The wise men, whose wealth is asceticism, asked the Suta: Where did the great sacrifice of the saints with the flawless deeds find instead of? How long did it take What was the goal? And how did the wind god Vayu tell them this Purana? Please explain everything to us in detail, because we really want to hear it. When so asked, the Suta replied with excellent words: Now hear where the saints made the excellent sacrifice, how long it lasted, and how it was completed. They celebrated it where once the creator of the universe made his sacred sacrifice for a thousand years with the desire to create the worlds. In this sacrifice tapas (asceticism) was the householder and master of the sacrifice, God Brahma became the sacrificial priest, Ila was the assessor and the intelligent and highly brilliant Mrityu (death) performed the animal sacrifice in this sacrificial rite of the high souls. The saints made this sacrifice for a thousand years in the place where the Dharma wheel broke off. Thanks to this event, the place sanctified by the wise became famous under the name Naimisha. There flows the holy Gomati, venerated by the heavenly beings of the Siddhas and Charanas. There Rohini gave birth to her son Budha through Soma. There Vayu became Purana

13 Shaktri, the eldest son of Vasishta, and Arundhati gave birth to another hundred wonderful sons. There, King Kalmashapada was cursed by Shaktri, and with it the enmity between Vishvamitra and Vasishta escalated. Parasara of Adhrishyanti was born there, ending the grief of Vasishta (for his slain sons). It was in this place in Naimisha that the explanators of the Vedas performed their sacrificial rites. And because they made the sacrifice in Naimisha, they are also called Naimisheyas. This twelve-year sacrifice happened at the time when the famous King Pururavas was ruling over the earth. We have heard that Pururavas of all eighteen continents surrounded by the oceans rejoiced and yet was never satisfied because he coveted all the precious jewels. Urged by Devahuti (the command of the gods), he received love from Urvasi, and the king made great sacrifices for fellowship with the heavenly lady. During this reign of Pururavas, the Naimisheyas made their twelve year sacrifice. When the Ganga received the most radiant fetus of the fire god, she placed him on a mountain, which immediately turned into gold. Now the divine architect Visvakarma built the sacrificial hall of these high-souled saints from (this) gold for the welfare of the world, among whom was Vrihaspati (the teacher of the gods) with incomparable splendor. During a hunt it happened that Pururavas, the son of Ila, also came to this place. When he saw the beautiful hall of gold, greed overwhelmed his sense of justice and tried to take possession of the hall. Thereupon the Naimisheyas became extremely angry, and driven by fate they killed the king at the end of the night with sharpened blades made of Kusha grass. Pierced by the diamond-hard Kusha grass blades, the king gave up his mortal body, and the saints made his son, who had been born of Urvasi, ruler of the earth. This king (Ayu) became the high-souled father of Nahusha. He was virtuous, devoted to the Dharma, and benevolent to the saints. So he enjoyed the best of health and a long life. And after the saints, the best among those who know Brahman, honored the King (Ayu), they returned to their meritorious sacrifice. This sacrifice of the high-souled saints became as wonderful as the sacrifice of the Creator of the universe at the beginning of this world. Their sacrifice was accompanied by the vaikhanasas, the kind valakhilyas, marichipas and other saints who were as radiant as sun and fire. The ancestors, gods, Apsaras, Siddhas, Gandharvas, Nagas and Charanas also accompanied this sacrifice. It was thus equipped with all excellent resources, as can also be found in the assembly hall of Indra. The saints worshiped the gods with hymns, sacrificial songs and offerings. The ancestors worshiped them with the appropriate rites according to their nature and the Gandharvas and other celestials according to their position in the traditional way. The Gandharvas then sang the Saman hymns and the Apsaras danced. They all tried to please the devotees in their rite. The saints recited excellent texts with devotion, the connoisseurs of the mantras muttered their mantras, and the philosophers argued with one another. They defeated each other by refuting their arguments. For all the saints were wise men, well learned in philosophy and laws. So there were no brahmin rakshasas who committed unclean deeds, nor demons who destroyed or plundered the victim. Accordingly, neither atonement nor curses were necessary. All rites were performed with wisdom, diligence and devotion. To this Vayu Purana

14 Wise, the wise saints made sacrifices over twelve years. At the same time, Bhrigu celebrated the Jyotishtoma sacrifice with other saints, and they gave ten thousand coins as gifts to the priests who then returned to the great sacrifice. At the end of the sacrifice they asked the high-souled Vayu, god of the wind, the same thing you, oh brahmins, asked me. And when asked to explain the different tribes of kings, God spoke to them. He was a student of Brahma and could see everything directly. He had complete control over his senses and was gifted with the eight supernatural powers (1. Anima - being able to make oneself infinitely small, 2. Mahima - being able to make oneself infinitely large, 3. Garima - being able to make oneself infinitely difficult, 4. Laghima - can make yourself infinitely easy, 5. Prapti - can go anywhere, 6. Prakamya - can achieve all desires, 7. Ishitwa - mastery over nature, 8. Kamavasaiyita - complete satisfaction) He supports all worlds with their diverse properties and different beings. It is continually flowing through its seven realms, as it is meant to be. Under his irrevocable rule are the forty-nine Maruts (storm gods), who are divided into seven groups of seven powers each. He is very powerful and can bring forth the three kinds of living beings that are nourished by fire in their embodiment. He maintains the bodies of living beings and moves them with the five life winds (Prana, Apana, Vyana etc.) and through their organs of action and sense. The scholars say that the wind originated from the space element, its property is feeling and sound, and from within itself the fire element originated. Lord Vayu is the most active and leading god, is also called Vatarani and is the master in every art of language. He is a connoisseur of the ancient (Purana) tradition, and with his kind words, which proclaim the knowledge of the Puranas, he can please the learned saints Summary of Creation Suta said: Worship the Maheshvara, the Great Lord with supreme power and activity, the most high of all gods with immeasurable intelligence and glory. Adoration of the incomparably radiant, like a thousand suns and fires. Hail to the creator and annihilator of the whole universe! I bow to the ancestral fathers, the worlds, the self-born Great Father Brahma as well as Rudra and all other gods, to Bhrigu, Marichi, Parameshthin and Manu, to Rajas, Tamas and Sattwa (the three natural qualities of passion, darkness and goodness), before Dharma, Kasyapa, Vasishta, Daksha, Atri, Pulastya, Kardama, Ruchi, Vivasvat and Kratu, before the arch-saint Angiras and before Pulaha and Chukrodhana, before the twenty-one multipliers of beings and before the ancient and eternal saints with their disciples. I bow to all the manus, sages and spiritual guides like Vrihaspati and Usanas (the teachers of the gods and demons) who shine in their steadfastness. I bow to all compassionate sages with virtuous behavior and great asceticism. With this I would like to describe the excellent creation of the Great Father (Brahma), which is promoted by Indra, the gods and the saints. She is excellent, incomparable, sinless and kind to the wise and most radiant ancestors. This story proclaimed by the wind god is greater than any great Vayu Purana

15 She describes the cycles of time that begin on the day of Brahma, as well as the saints who have manifoldly and clearly manifested the glory of their glory. It spreads through the Vedas and other sacred texts and is excellently illustrated there. With her varied words, she is extremely pleasant to the mind through her clear illustration of any connectedness. It describes the beginning of any activity from undesigned nature through the desire of Shiva. What is explained here as an incomprehensible cause is nothing other than Brahman as the source of all natural origins. An individual is a synthesis of the soul in the innermost part of the heart, the womb (nature) and the body with its sense organs. In that regard, it is immortal and immortal. His seed embraces the sattwa-guna (goodness) with repentance and is shining brightly. This incomprehensible and eternal second Purusha (the individual mind) is pervaded by Brahma, the Great Father of all worlds. Through the spiritual procreation of the Great Lord alone, nature gives birth to the eight causes for the continuous growth of creation and the predetermined change of the individual soul. With this nature becomes the womb full of rajas (passion) bound by cosmic time and the laws explained in the Vedas. So now hear about the creation of the gods and demons, the mountains, trees, oceans, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Yakshas, ​​Nagas, people, Manus, ancestors, saints, ancestors, Brahmins, ghosts, Rakshasas, stars, planets, constellations, suns, dark planets, months, seasons, years, nights, days, space, time, ages, medicinal and useful plants, fish, birds and other animals, lightning, rivers, clouds and much more. Verily, everything subtle that exists on earth or in the air, everything animate and inanimate as well as everything changeable and divisible is explained in this Purana. All the knowledge of the Vedas, the Rig, Yajus and Saman, the nectar of Soma (the moon) and the sacrifices, everything useful and desired that the Great Father created is described here. So also the creations before the (present) Vaivaswata Manu, the birth of this virtuous one who is worshiped by the three worlds and leading gods, the heavenly saints, Manus and famous sages who fill and adorn the three worlds. So also the birth of Daksha in the mortal world through a curse from Rudra, his life on earth, and how Shiva and Daksha cursed each other. In this Purana, the cycles of the Manwantaras are also described, the emergence and dissolution of the Yugas, how the tribes of the saints developed from the first Yuga, how Vyasa proclaimed the Vedas in the bronze Dwapara Yuga, the number of kalpas (periods of creation) which Worlds and days of Brahma, the spread of the four kinds of life such as birds, plants, insects and animals (congenital, germ-born, wet-born and live-born), the inhabitants of heaven and the underworld as well as their size, the three types of dissolution, namely perfect, natural and cyclical, the attachment and liberation, the way of worldly existence and the higher ways, and how the accumulated causes remain in the state of nature (prakriti) and act later. All of this has been explained to the wise through scriptural arguments. Oh Brahmins, whatever the saints have explained, I give you verbatim. So listen carefully to me! Vayu Purana

16 1.4. The Creation of the Elements When the saints in Naimisha Forest heard all this, they said, eyes wide with admiration: You, oh Lord, are a connoisseur of the various tribes and families because you have received everything directly from Vyasa. Therefore please describe to us the whole creation of this world. We want to hear in detail how everything came about, the various creations of the ancient saints and also the original creation of the Great Father.When the high-souled Lomaharshana, the best of all good people, was asked repeatedly in this way, he related everything in proper order at length. And Lomaharshana said, The story you asked me about is holy, beautiful, meaningful and destroying sin. What I tell is full of miracles, deepest meaning and in harmony with the Veda. Whoever keeps it in memory, listens to it again and again or recites it to the Brahmins and in particular to the hermits with a virtuous and self-restrained spirit, on holidays and in holy places and temples, will enjoy a long life. With the recitation of this Purana, he keeps his family and is honored in heaven. So now listen carefully to the Purana with detailed sections, as I have heard it myself and now recite it word for word. May it ring for your well-being. The glorification of all deserving persons with well-earned fame is conducive to wealth, honor, heavenly joys, and longevity, and destroys all enemies. Creation, dissolution and re-creation, the family trees of the kings, the manwantaras and the description of the families of the saints - these five form the characteristics of a Purana. So I will now tell in detail this Purana, which was proclaimed by the wind god and which is in harmony with the Veda. Hear the story of this kalpas (day of creation) which is purer than all other kalpas and even purer than all other sacred things. The first section called Prakriya (this Puranas) deals with the creation, dissolution, re-creation and maintenance of the world. The other sections deal with development (Upodghata), attachment (Anushanga) and dissolution (Upasamhara). With that I have briefly described the four sections and will now tell everything in detail in the right order. This Purana can destroy all sins and bestow true wealth, fame and immortality. After worshiping the self-born God Brahma, the golden egg Hiranyagarbha, the Great Father and first and last Purusha, the Supreme Self of all beings, who rules all worlds, I will now explain in detail the excellent creation from the principle of the Mahat (universal intelligence) to to describe the gross elements and creatures so that all doubts can be resolved. This creation of various forms is described by means of the five elements and the six natural principles as well as the Purusha (the Supreme Spirit) who rules over everything. The unshaped first cause is of the nature of being and non-being (Sat and Asat) and is considered to be eternal. Those who meditate on reality call it Pradhana (sea of ​​causes) and Prakriti (undeveloped nature). It is devoid of smell, taste, visibility, feel, and sound. It is unborn, permanent, indestructible, eternal and is based on its own self (Atman). It is the origin of the whole universe, the great being, the supreme Brahman and the Vayu Purana

17 Eternals. It is the undeveloped and the true source of all elements. It has no beginning or end, is unborn, subtle and has the three natural qualities. It is the Source and the Immutable One. This timeless and incomprehensible Brahman is the beginning of everything. When the three natural qualities (the three Gunas of Sattwa, Rajas and Tamas) were in silent equilibrium, the whole universe was shrouded in darkness and filled with the Supreme Soul (the Atman). At the beginning of creation the darkness (tamas) subsided and the principle of universal intelligence (mahat) appeared from the sea of ​​causes (pradhana) because it was ruled by the individual soul. She was enveloped by the subtle and undesigned principle of universal intelligence that appears full of goodness when the quality of goodness prevails. This universal intelligence should be understood as the mind, for the mind is its cause. It is born of the subtle mind and ruled by the intelligent consciousness. The Dharma (justice or world order) and its various forms are the causes for the shaping of creation. When the desire drives creation, then the principle of universal intelligence (mahat) begins creation. The sages say that the Sanskrit terms Manas, Mahat, Mati, Brahman, Buh, Buddhi, Khyati, Ishvara, Prajna, Chiti, Smriti, Samvit and Vipura all mean basically the same thing. To the extent that it receives the fruits of deeds that subtly multiply, it is called manas (mind). In so far as it is born before all other principles and is greater than all other principles and properties, it is called Mahat (great or universal intelligence). Insofar as it grasps dimensions and categories and means the spirit that strives for connection with enjoyment, it is called Mati (judging understanding). Because of its comprehensive size and because it creates beings and lets them arise from their resting place in the cosmic sea of ​​causes, it is called Brahman. As far as it forms all bodies through advantageous properties and equips them with the five elements, it is called boo (earth or matter). As far as it resembles the spirit that distinguishes the wholesome from the unwholesome and sees through everything, it is called buddhi (reason). Insofar as one enjoys recognition in the consciousness of this principle and this recognition is based on knowledge, it is called khyati (discriminating knowledge). What is revealed through its properties can become knowledge through the most varied of terms. So khyati (knowledge) also became an expression for mahat (the universal intelligence). As far as one can recognize something directly (without concepts), it is called Ishvara, the pure soul as Supreme Lord. As far as the sense organs arise from it, it is called Prajna (consciousness). To the extent that it accumulates forms, knowledge, etc. and enjoys the fruits of the sacred sacrifices, it is called Chiti (perception). As far as it remembers all actions and feelings from which past, present and future arise, it is called Smriti (memory). As far as it reaches perfect knowledge and thus its true greatness, it is called Samvit (highest consciousness). It exists in everything and everything exists in it. That is why it is called Samvit by the wise men of higher intelligence. The source of all knowledge, the omniscient Lord, says that knowledge arises from knowledge. And as far as the conflicting opposites arise from it, the sages speak of Vipura (intellect). Because it is the principal ruler of all worlds, it is called Ishvara (Supreme Lord), because it is limitless in size, it is called Brahman, and because it exists it is called Bhava (existence). It is called Ka (who?) Because it recognizes itself in body and soul and yet is one. It is called Purusha (Supreme Spirit) because it is present in all Vayu Purana

18 bodies, and Swayambhu (self-born) because it is born of the Supreme Self and exists from the beginning. Thus the first principle (of the Mahat) was explained by synonyms by those who know the truth who meditated on reality. Driven by the Creator's desire, the Universal Intelligence (Mahat) began creation. Your two activities are determination and effort. Dharma and other principles are the means of creation. Through the three natural qualities of goodness, passion and darkness (the three guans of sattwa, rajas and tamas) the universal intelligence becomes threefold. From this threefold intelligence the self-consciousness (Ahankara) was born out of the predominant passion (Rajas). So the self-consciousness is the second creation from the universal intelligence. When the ego-consciousness was dominated by darkness or indolence (tamas), the first subtle element (space) full of darkness was born from the ego-consciousness. The room was empty, spread out, shaped by the subtle quality of sound and filled and enveloped by cosmic self-awareness. In this way the self-consciousness developed and transformed and created the subtle sound. Now it is said that the subtle feeling arose from the subtle space with the subtle sound. With that, the powerful wind element, to which the property of feeling is assigned, grew. So the power of the subtle wind was born from the subtle feeling. Correspondingly, the room with the subtle property of sound now envelops the subtle element (the wind) with the property of feeling. Vayu, the subtle wind, also changed, and from this arose the subtle element of light or fire with the property of visibility, with which the diverse forms become visible. Correspondingly, the subtle element of wind with feeling envelops the fire element with visibility. Then the fire changed and created the subtle element of taste. This is how the water with the property of taste emerged from the fire. Accordingly, the subtle element of visibility envelops the subtle water element with the taste. Eventually the water changed with the taste into the subtle element of smell. With this, the earth element with all solid elements emerged from the water. Correspondingly, the subtle water element with the taste envelops the subtle earth element with the smell. The subtle elements are so named because they have special properties. That is how you can recognize them. But they are also called subtle because they express an indistinguishable being. As subtle elements, they appear lively and effective but not intelligent. As soon as the ego-consciousness was dominated by the influence of the natural quality of goodness (sattwa), another creation of transformation (vaikarika) took place at the same time. The five sense organs and the five organs of action emerged, which appear like ten gods. The eleventh god is thought. So there are eleven gods of change. Ears, skin, eyes, tongue and nose are the five sensory organs for the perception of hearing, feeling, face, taste and smell. Mouth, hands, feet, anus and reproductive organ are the five organs of action for speaking, working, moving, emptying and the happiness of reproduction. The subtle spatial element with the sound envelops and penetrates the subtle element with the feeling. Therefore the wind element has two properties, namely sound and feeling. Correspondingly, the two properties permeate Vayu Purana

19 of sound and feeling the subtle element with visibility, and therefore the fire element has the three properties of sound, feeling and visibility. Correspondingly, the three properties of sound, feel and visibility permeate the subtle element of taste, and therefore the water element has four properties. Finally, the subtle element of smell comes under the elements with sound, feeling, visibility and taste, and the water element creates the earth (with all gross elements) through the subtle element of smell. Correspondingly, the earth is the only one of the gross elements to have five properties. The gross elements are called material because they are highly effective but appear lifeless and unintelligent. They support and sustain one another because they interpenetrate. Within the (subtle) earth element is the entire universe, firmly surrounded by Lokaloka. This means that the gross elements are limited and can be perceived with the sense organs. The elements created later always contain the properties of the previous ones. Whatever properties appear on the creatures over a certain period of time, these are considered properties of the respective element. So whoever perceives a smell in the wind out of ignorance should recognize that the smell is only in the earth and the dust of the earth is carried by the wind. These seven, most powerful, but different principles and elements (the five elements plus self-consciousness and universal intelligence) cannot create any living beings separately, but can only be united together. When these high souls come together beginning with the universal intelligence up to the gross elements, they create the world egg under the rule of the Supreme Spirit and inspired by the sea of ​​causes. This egg, like a water bubble, is born at the same time as the gross elements. And the great mass of water in it became the work of Brahma. So the knowing spirit (Kshetrajna) awoke in the form of Brahma, the Creator God, in this egg of nature. In reality he is the first embodied being and is also called Purusha (Supreme Spirit). He is the original creator of all living beings. He exists from the start and embodies himself as a four-faced Hiranyagarbha (golden embryo or golden egg). In the first and second creation this knowing spirit is called Brahma. Like other living beings, it is created with sense organs, which it loses again during natural dissolution. And after a transitional period of non-accumulation, he grasps a new physical body. The golden meru is the fetus of this high-souled one, the oceans form its amniotic sac, and the great mountain ranges become its bones. The seven regions and this earth with the seven island continents and oceans are located in this world egg. In it are all worlds with the thousands of great mountains and rivers and the whole great universe. The moon and the sun with all the stars and planets, the air, the Lokaloka mountain (at the end of the world) and whatever exists, exists in this world-egg. The egg itself is surrounded by the (subtle) water element ten times its size, the water from the fire ten times larger, the fire from the wind ten times larger and the wind from space ten times larger. The space is surrounded by the cosmic self-consciousness, the self-consciousness by the universal intelligence and the intelligence by the unshaped (the sea of ​​causes or the highest spirit). The World Egg is surrounded by seven shells that were created by nature. As a result, these eight natural Vayu Purana envelopes overlap

20 with each other (and build on each other). And just as they overlap each other in creation, so when they dissolve they merge again. Just as they came into being one after the other, they also support one another, because one is always based on the other. The unshaped (the sea of ​​causes) is called the field (Kshetra), and Brahma is known as the field knower (Kshetrajna). So the whole creation of nature is ruled by the field expert. It was there at the beginning before the universal intelligence and appears like lightning in the dark. Whoever fundamentally understands this embodiment of Brahma, attains fame, fortune, offspring and a long life. And when he still renounces desire, his soul becomes pure and attains the highest goal. So whoever hears this Purana daily will be blessed with happiness and prosperity. Brahma's Days of Creation Lomaharshana continued: Oh Brahmins, the period of time that I count as creation should be known as a day of Brahma the Great Father. The night of this gentleman should be imagined to be the same length. The time of creation is his day and the time of dissolution is called his night. One can also say that for Brahma there is only day and no night, but for the general understanding of the world this assumption is better. The living beings and ancestors, even the holy ascetics, the sages and saints like Sanatkumar with all who have attained liberation, the sense organs and their objects, the subtle elements, thought, self-consciousness and universal intelligence, all exist only during the Day of the Supreme Lord. They dissolve again at the end of his day, and at the end of the night the creation of the universe begins again. When the natural quality of goodness (sattwa) rests within itself and outer creation has been withdrawn, the ocean of causes and the Supreme Spirit (Pradhana and Purusha) become an indistinguishable entity. The two natural qualities of goodness and darkness (sattwa and tamas) are then in a Vayu Purana

21 balanced state. This balance of natural qualities should be known as universal or natural dissolution and its imbalance as creation. And like the oil in sesame seeds or butter in milk, the natural quality of passion (rajas) is then undesigned in the balance of goodness and darkness. After everything was quiet during the great Brahma night, the creation of nature begins again at daybreak. The great God enters the world egg and stirs up the spirit and the sea of ​​causes through his mighty yoga power. From the troubled sea of ​​causes (Pradhana) arises the natural quality of passion (Rajas). This passion becomes the cause of all activity, just as water causes seeds to germinate. As soon as the three natural qualities lose their balance, the three leading gods appear. Passion becomes Brahma, darkness becomes Agni, and goodness becomes Vishnu. Brahma as the illuminator of passion becomes the creator, Agni (the fire god) as the illuminator of darkness becomes Kala, the passing time, and Vishnu as the illuminator of goodness becomes the sustainer. In reality these are the three great gods and forces of nature. They are interdependent and complement each other. They work as a unit, support each other and always belong together. In truth there is no separation between them, not even for a moment, and they will never leave one another. Ishvara is the supreme deity.Vishnu rules the universal intelligence, and Brahma creates all creation with the power of passion. Nature (Prakriti) is great and mind (Purusha) is greatest. He (Brahma) works under the rule of Maheshvara and is driven from all sides. Then the intelligence and all other creations of nature, which belong to their respective objects, act. Due to an imbalance of the three natural qualities, the sea of ​​causes is stirred up and begins to develop its effects in creation. From this sea of ​​causes, which in its essence is being and non-being (or probability / illusion) and is ruled by Isvara (the Supreme Lord), the pair of Brahma and self-consciousness is born at the same time. In this way, the field connoisseur (Kshetrajna) embodies himself under the name Brahma from the darkness and the unshaped (sea of ​​causes) at the beginning of creation, fully equipped with all sensory and action organs. He appears from the unshaped with the ego-consciousness like a radiant fire and is really the first embodied being that lives in the sea of ​​causes. He is endowed with limitless knowledge and supreme authority and possesses the true Dharma (virtue and justice) without personal attachment. And because this Lord's knowledge is free from attachment, it is pure, unclouded, and limitless. Correspondingly, Brahma's self-awareness is also filled with Dharma and omnipotence, with which he recognizes himself as Lord. Whatever he desires spiritually is created out of the unshaped through his self-control, lack of attributes and divine rule. In his function as Brahma he is the four-faced creator, in his function as Kala (of time) he is the destroyer and in his function as Vishnu he is the thousand-headed lord (the thousand-headed primordial serpent who carries everything). These are the three manifestations of the self-born deity. In the function of Brahma, the Creator God, he has above all goodness and passion, as destroyer above all passion and darkness and as Vishnu (sustainer) above all goodness. These are the effects of the three natural qualities of the self-born Lord Vayu Purana

22 In the function of Brahma he creates, in the function of Kala he destroys, and in the function of Vishnu he receives everything. These are the three offices of the Lord of Beings. Brahma is the color of the inside of a lotus flower (yellow-red), Kala is the color of collyrium (black) and Vishnu is the color of the lotus petals (white). These are the forms of the Supreme Soul. This master of yoga, who, as in play, produces various creatures, deeds, forms, names and functions, creates and effects all physical developments. Because he works threefold (through the three natural qualities) in the world, he is called Triguna. Because it is divided into four, it is hailed as Chaturvyuha. Because his eternal being is all non-existent, receiving and existing, he is called the Atman (Self). Because he can go anywhere, he is also called Rishi, and because he pervades everything Vishnu. He has dominion over everything and is the lord of all physical creatures. His name is Bhagavan because he has such excellence, Raga because he controls his passion, Para because he is the cosmic being, OM because he protects everything, Sarvajna because he knows everything, Sarva because everything arises from him, and Narayana because all people come from him. He divides himself into three and acted in the three worlds. It creates, sustains and devours through its three functions. At the beginning of creation, Hiranyagarbha embodies himself as a four-faced Lord. And because he manifests himself first, he is also called the original God. in) a golden egg is called in this Purana Hiranyagarbha. Even in hundreds of years it is not possible to count the number of years that have passed since the self-born was incarnated. The time and kalpas (days of creation) that have passed since his incarnation are called a Para. He has that much time left again, and only at the end of this cycle will there be another creation (with a new Brahma). Many thousands of kalpas have already passed, and as many will come again. The present Kalpa is called Varaha (Boar) and is the first day of the present Brahma year. This kalpa will also have a total of 14 manus beginning with Swayambhuva, some of which (six) have already passed. This earth with all island continents and inhabitants is protected by these rulers of men (and his descendants) through the power of asceticism. Now hear about it in detail. The description of a manwantaras (the age of a manu) describes all future manwantaras and a kalpa describes all future kalpas. Because all the future kalpas with their course and the dynasties can be deduced by the intelligent one from the past of this kalpas Vayu Purana

23 1.6. The Boar Embodiment and Origin of the Earth The Suta said: When the water emerged from the fire, the whole earth was still dissolved in the water, all animate and inanimate creatures were uncreated, and nothing could be recognized in this vast sea of ​​water. Brahma, who is also called Narayana, the thousand-eyed Lord Brahma with a thousand arms, a thousand legs and a thousand heads, the Supreme Spirit with the golden sheen beyond recognizability by the sense organs, slept in the water. To an excess of kindness he awoke and saw that the world was empty. The verse is spoken about Narayana: As a nickname for water, we have heard that water is called Nara because it is its subtle embodiment. And because it rests in the water, that's why it's called Narayana. After spending a long time equal to a thousand mahayugas in the night, at the end of the night he takes on the Brahma being to bring forth creation. Brahma grasps the essence of the wind and moves in the water like a firefly at night during the rainy season. He clearly recognizes that the earth is dissolved in this water, and when he had thought about it, he assumed a special body, as in the last day of creation, in order to emphasize the earth. In this way the high-souled received a divine form in a spiritual way. And with the earth flooded with water in every direction, he wondered, Oh, what mighty form should I take to make the earth stand out? Then he remembered the shape of a boar, which seemed well suited to rummaging through the water with joy, and was unbeatable by all beings. It resembled the power of the word pronounced by Dharma, ten yojanas wide and a hundred yojanas long, and grunted like the thunder of storm clouds. His body was the size of a mountain, his curved tusks gleamed white, sharp and terrifying, his eyes sparkled like lightning and fire, and his body was like the brilliant sun. His shoulders were round, strong, and enormous, his step resembled a mighty lion, and his buttocks were stocky and well-formed. He wore all the auspicious signs and was beautiful. In this unique form of a boar, Vishnu went to the lower worlds to highlight the earth. He was the guide for the teachers of the Vedas. The sacrifice was his chest, the fire altar his face, the sacrificial fire his tongue, the Kusha grass his hair and the ascetic Brahma priest his head. Day and night were his eyes, the branches of the Vedas his earrings, the sacrificial butter his nose, the sacrificial spoon his trunk and the Saman sacrificial hymns his loud grunt. Full of glory, he was an embodiment of Truth and Dharma and a force of virtue. He was carried by asceticism, was extremely powerful and appeared in a mighty form on animal legs. His body was erect, his linga (penis) was the place of sacrifice, his seed the sacrificial butter, his testicle the medicinal herbs, his soul the altar, his hips the mantras, his blood the soma juice with clarified butter, the Vedas his shoulders, his scent the Frankincense, its speed the offerings to the gods and ancestors, its body the sacrificial hall, its glory the initiation, and his heart was the sacrificial gift. He was an all-pervading yogi in the form of the highest goodness. His magical charm formed the sacrificial rites, his curled chest hairs were the preparatory rites, his Vayu Purana

The various meters were 24 paces along the way, his seat was the mysterious Upanishads, and his wife was Maya (the illusion). He was as lofty as a jewel peak. So the Lord took the form of the sacrificial boar and went into the water. The Lord of All Beings tracked the earth, which was completely covered with water, approached and quickly highlighted it. He made the water of the oceans into the oceans and the water of the rivers into rivers. For the good of the world, he used his curved tusks to highlight the earth, which had sunk far below. With it he held the earth as in his hands and brought it to its right place. There she was set down by him, the spiritual bearer of the earth. Now she was swimming like a giant boat on the sea of ​​water, and by the work of the Lord she did not sink. Having re-emphasized the earth with a desire to create the world, the lotus-eyed Lord turned his mind to subdivide it. So he leveled the valleys and piled up the great mountain ranges and mountains again. Because before, when the past creation was burned in the Samvartaka fire, all mountains were also swallowed up and dissolved by this fire. They sank in the water, faded in the fire and were spread everywhere by the wind. Now he has collected them again into mountains and condensed them. Because this made them immobile, they are called achala (massive). Because they were previously mobile, they are called Parvata (mountains). Because they were devoured and disappeared, they are called Giri (mountains). And because they were gathered together and piled up again, they are called Shilochchaya (elevations). In this way the Creator brings out the worlds, oceans and mountains at the beginning of the creation day (kalpas) over and over again after they have been dissolved at the end of the creation day. Again he created this earth with the seven oceans, seven continents and the great mountain ranges as well as the four worlds beginning with the earthly world (Bhur). And after the worlds were created, he began the creation of living beings. As soon as the desire to create the various beings is awakened, the self-born Brahma brings forth the beings in the same way as they developed and were dissolved in the last day of creation. As soon as he meditates mentally on creation, creation, shaped by darkness, is embodied as if by itself from the sea of ​​causes (Pradhana). Ignorance with the five limbs of illusion, attachment, desire, hatred and fear of death manifests itself from the Supreme Soul. Thus creation comes into being in five ways during Brahma meditation. But as a lamp is covered by a pot, so all creation was covered with darkness. Just as this lamp illuminates the pot inwardly but not outwardly, so the creatures were indeed pure, but without sense organs. Their sensory organs with their thinking were still largely covered. This is how the lower plants came about first, and because the plants are the basis for the higher beings, this creation is also called the basic creation. When Brahma saw that this creation was not developing as he wished, he was dissatisfied with it and again immersed himself in meditation. In this way the creation of the animal world came into being as a middle current still dominated by darkness and marked by ignorance. The animals went sorrowful ways and were overwhelmed by selfishness and pride. The Lord looked at this second creation of animals who were selfish and stubborn and engaged in Vayu Purana

25