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The following 36 pages contain a total of 233 references, all of which deal with the text content analysis method for measuring fear and aggressiveness by Louis A. Gottschalk & Goldine C. Gleser. Basic works as well as validation, application and other studies with this method were included. All verifiable work was listed in all languages, even without the correctness of the source or e.g. B. to check their availability in Germany. This literature collection was created on the basis of the bibliography of the works available to the author, targeted searches in the WWW and various searches in various databases (e.g. FirstSearch®, PSYNDEX®, PSYCHLIT® or Medline®). "Gottschalk-Gleser" was (only) used as the keyword for the database query.

The references are sorted alphabetically according to the last name of the first named author. There is no further subdivision. An attempt was made to comply with the DGFP citation rules as far as possible. Short abstracts are available for most of the sources. These are roughly equal in German and English. The short summaries were partly created by the user, partly taken from the original sources (e.g. book covers, abstract of the original article) or they come from the PSYNDEX databases® or PSYCHLIT®, the exact origin is not noted in the individual listings.


Ahrens, S. (1985). Alexithymia and affective verbal behavior of three groups of patients. Soc Sci Med, 20(7), 691-4.

The study described in this article was designed to investigate patients' response to affective stimuli on two levels of measurement: one was designed to yield information about cognitive attribution processes whereas the second level was aimed at uncovering deeper, more unconscious responses to the given stimuli. These were displayed as part of an experimental setting, in which three groups were compared: psychosomatic (duodenal ulcer), somatic and psychoneurotic patients. Systematic variation was introduced by showing either of two versions of a short film which differed in the degree of friendliness displayed by the main character. The results show differential effects on the two levels of measurement: in the case of the first level, an interpretation within the framework of current conceptualizations of alexithymia would have been possible, but results for the second level of measurement (utilizing Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis of speech) indicate that psychosomatic patients show the same kind of sensitive response to affective stimuli as patients from the other two groups.



Ahrens, S. (1986). Alexithymia and affective verbal behavior of psychosomatic patients and controls. In L. A. Gottschalk; F. Lolas & L. L. Viney (eds.), Content analysis of verbal behavior. Significance in clinical medicine and psychiatry (Pp. 207-213). Berlin: Springer.

To analyze the affective behavior in psychosomatic illnesses, three groups of psychosomatic patients (42 duodenal ulcer, 22 colitis and 22 Crohn's disease patients) with two control groups (22 neurotic patients and 31 purely somatic patients) in a stimulus-response Experiment compared. Two silent film versions showing a doctor-patient interaction were used as stimuli. In one version the doctor's behavior was friendly-facing, in the other unfriendly-negative, the formal characteristics of the course of action were identical. On the first measurement level, cognitive ascription processes in relation to doctor behavior were measured using two factor-analytically obtained scales of an adjective polarity list. On the second measurement level, unconscious-affective processes were recorded using the language content analysis developed by Gottschalk and Gleser. The results on the first (conscious) measurement level showed that ulcer patients did not differentiate between the two film versions, colitis patients differentiated between the two versions on a scale, while Crohn's patients reacted in a similar way to the control groups. At the second (unconscious) measurement level, none of the psychosomatic groups differed from the control groups. The found fading out of affects in two of three psychosomatic patient groups is seen as a situational defense or coping strategy, but not as a static personality trait ("alexithymia")



Ahrens, S. & Henskes, D. (1986). Affective regulation patterns in psychosomatic diseases. Content analysis results of an experimental research approach. In U. Koch & G. Schöefer (eds.), Language content analysis in psychiatric and psychosomatic research. Basics and application studies with the affect scales from Gottschalk and Gleser (Pp. 285-293). Weinheim: Psychology Publishing Union.

The alexithymia concept discussed in the aetiology of psychosomatic diseases is tested experimentally. It is assumed that the lack of affective response found in previous studies in psychosomatically ill patients is due to a lack of concern and at the same time good cognitive competence. The experimental situation was designed in such a way that the test subjects had a greater opportunity to identify with the stimulus material. 36 high blood pressure patients, 42 patients with two-finger ulcers and a control group of 31 purely somatically ill people were each shown two film versions of a doctor-patient interaction tailored to their disease. In the first film the doctor showed a friendly, in the second an unfriendly negative behavior. In the films for ulcer and somatically ill patients, the contact was more personal, in those for high blood pressure patients it was more functional. All patients had previously submitted a standard speech sample according to the Gottschalk-Gleser method, the evaluation of which did not reveal any group differences. An analysis of the linguistic reactions to the films shown led to the following results: Ulcer and somatically ill persons clearly differentiated the affect content of the two film versions, whereas this was not the case with the hypertensive patients. This finding is attributed to the functional character of the film content and not to a lack of emotional responsiveness on the part of the test subjects. The results of the ulcer patients do not support the thesis of a deficit in perception and processing of affective stimuli in psychosomatic patients.



Ahrens, S. & Morgenthaler, B. (1982). Recording of emotional processes in ulcer patients, somatic patients and neurotics. An empirical study using Gendlin's Experiencing Scale. Medical psychology, 8 (1), 67-82.

In three patient groups (ulcer patients, somatically ill patients and neurotics), group-specific emotional processing processes were investigated using the German version of Gendlin's "Experiencing Scale". The material to be examined was two speech samples; the first was based on the standard instructions of the Gottschalk-Gleser procedure, the second on the question of the quality of experience of the investigation. The results showed that for the first instruction the ulcer patients and the somatically ill patients showed a low level of experience, in the second instruction only the ulcer patients showed low values. The neurotics group had consistently high scores. These results are interpreted to the effect that the scale presumably records instruction-dependent effects. In a further step, a search was made for correlative relationships with the Gottschalk-Gleser scale, with the result that scale-independent dimensions were recorded for the total sample. A separate consideration of the groups revealed different affect patterns. A connection between fear and experiencing was shown for the ulcer group, and between aggression and experiencing for the two control groups.



Angermeyer, M.C. (1981). Fear and aggressiveness in the speech of female anxiety neurotics. Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine Psychoanalysis, 27(2), 133-42.

AB- With Gottschalk's and Gleser's technique for quantitative verbal content analysis it has been shown that in generalfemales suffering from anxiety neurosis (N = 30) frequentlyverbalize their anxiety, even though they are not in anacute state of anxiety. There is, however, no significant increase in the expression of diffuse anxiety or deathanxiety (as might be expected from the psychopathological description). The verbal behavior of the patients displays a variety of facets that support the psychodynamic hypothesis of the crucial role of the separation problem, i.e. it is shown that a) the separation anxiety is significantly higher than in a representative sample of normal subjects; b) this anxiety is one of the decisive factors in discriminating between anxiety neurosis and other psychiatric disorders, and c) a significant positive correlation between separationanxiety and inward directed hostility is observed only in anxiety neurosis patients. The highly significant increase in guilt anxiety, coupled with a tendency towards a lack of outward directed hostility, seems to suggest a closeinterrelationship between anxiety neurosis and depressiveneurosis. Pointing in the same direction is the fact that the deficit in outward directed hostility or the excess of inward directed hostility are decisive factors for discriminating between anxiety neurosis and other psychiatric disorders



Angermeyer, M.C. (1986). The parent-schizophrenic child relationship and its potential impact on the patient's career. In Uwe K. & G. Schöfer (eds.), Language content analysis in psychiatric and psychosomatic research. Basics and application studies with the affect scales from Gottschalk and Gleser (Pp. 390-398). Weinheim: Psychology Publishing Union.

The results of a content analysis evaluation of conversations between schizophrenics and their parents are communicated. Overall, the conversations of 30 schizophrenic male patients between the ages of 15 and 30 with their parents on the day of discharge were analyzed with the help of the "Gottschalk-Gleser method". 13 of the patients had to be hospitalized again two years after discharge. While they differed from the non-re-admitted patients neither in terms of psychopathological status nor in important socio-demographic variables, the content analysis revealed differences with regard to the emotional relationship between the sick person and his or her parents. In the father-son and mother-son relationship, the patients who were later re-hospitalized showed positive correlations in the extent of fear and aggressiveness. In the case of the patients with a good course of the disease, however, an "immunity" of the interaction partners to the fear of the other and a defensive attitude of the parents to the aggression of the son became clear. The fearful and aggressive affects of the parents of non-re-admitted patients also turned out to be independent of the degree of psychological distress expressed in the son's speech behavior. In contrast, the mothers of those re-hospitalized showed a fear of death and injury that increased with the degree of distress, as well as diffuse fears. The fathers of these patients reacted with increasing, outwardly directed aggressiveness. The consequences of these findings for working with groups of relatives are shown.



Angermeyer, M.C. & Hecker, H. (1979). Expression of mental disorders in the speech behavior of parents of schizophrenic patients - a quantitative content-analytical study. Social psychiatry, 4, 85 - 93.



Angermeyer, M.C. & Timpe, F.H. (1980). Psychopathology and language behavior in schizophrenics. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr, 228(2), 151-60.

Verbal samples of 30 schizophrenics were analyzed using the Social Alienation - Personal Disorganization (Schizophrenic) Scale developed by Gottschalk and Gleser (1969). The psychopathological status of all patients had been assessed in a semistandardized interview (Present State Examination, Wing et al., 1974). A relatively close relationship was found between 'productive' or 'plus' symptoms and syndromes of psychosis and the scores on the content analytic scale. On the other hand, no significant relationship existed with the 'minus' symptomatology and no relationship with the 'residual syndrome' and the neurotic syndromes. The Schizophrenic Scale may allow a sufficiently reliable estimate of the degree of psychosis. There was no significant effect attributable to sociodemographic factors and to the course of illness (disregarding the duration of the present hospitalization).



Atkinson, R.M. (1979). Measurement of the subjective effects of nitrous oxide. Validation of post-drug questionnaire responses by verbal content analysis of speech samples collected during drug intoxation. In L. A. Gottschalk (ed.), The content analysis of verbal behavior: Further studies (Pp. 331 - 348). New York: Spectrum.



Battacchi, M. W.; Suslow, T. & Renna, M. (1996). Emotion and language. To define emotion and its relationship to cognitive processes, memory and language. Frankfurt a. M .: Long.

The elements of current definition of emotion are organized using the "as well as" approach to form a comprehensive picture of the phenomenon "emotion". It takes a position on three moments of involvement of cognitive processes in emotions, which have so far repeatedly been misunderstood. The relationship between emotion and memory is shown on the basis of the effects of mood-dependent, remembering and mood congruence. The conditions for acquiring the emotion vocabulary and the role of emotions in terms of the functions and meanings of language are discussed. With reference to the Mannheim model of language formation and the emotional associative network, a proto-theoretical approach to the influence of emotions on the content of spontaneous language productions is developed. Affective language content analysis is presented as a method for measuring state emotions. The Gottschalk-Gleser method is also discussed. From the content: definition of emotions - relationship between emotion and cognition - functions and meanings of language - mood-dependent memory - influence of emotions on speaking - affective language content analysis.



Bechtel, Robert. J. & Gottschalk, L.A. (1979). Developing a computer system to perform content analysis of verbal samples.



Bell, A. I. (1975). Male anxiety during sleep. International Journal of Psycho Analysis, 56, 455-464.

Contends that C. Fisher's introduction of the psychoanalytic meaning of dreams as related to penile tumescence-detumescence omitted consideration of psychic implications of scrotal and testicular reactions. Physiological reaction of the scrotum and tests to anxiety has been experimentally confirmed in the author's previous work. Three Ss were studied using scrotal instrumentation and standard sleep study equipment. Dreams are reported that are high in manifest content anxiety according to the Gottschalk-Gleser Scale. These preliminary sleep studies bear out that (a) anxiety is directly connected with scrotal instrumentation; (b) castration fear in the male is primarily vested in injury or threat to the scrotal area; (c) symbolic representation of scrotal sac and testes is observed in dream material; and (d) elements of fear of homosexual desire appear. The absence of reference to scrotal symbols in the earlier psychoanalytic literature is noted and interpreted.



Belmonte de Abreu, P. (1986). Aggressiveness in psychotherapy and its relationship with the patient's change - an adaptation of the Gottschalk-Gleser hostility scales to the Portuguese language. In L. A. Gottschalk; F. Lolas. & L. L. Viney (eds.), Content analysis of verbal behavior



Belmonte-de-Abreu, P. (1986). An agressividade como fator de mudanca em psicoterapia. Revista ABP APAL, 8, 10-18.

Studied the role of aggressiveness in patients' improvement during psychotherapy. It was hypothesized that patients' expression of aggressiveness would have a positive effect on treatment. Human subjects: 16 female Brazilian adolescents and adults (aged 16-65 yrs) (neurotic disturbances). Four normal Brazilian adults. The SS were undergoing outpatient dynamic psychotherapy with 4 therapists in training. Hostility scores were compared with the partial and global symptomatic changes experienced by patients during the 1st mo of therapy. Tests used: The Gottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis Scales, the Global Assessment Scale, and the Physician Questionnaire.



Botzki, C. (1993). Suicide and autoaggression. A content-analytical examination of Kurt Tucholsky's diaries using the Gottschalk-Gleser method. Frankfurt a. M .: VAS publishing house for academic writings.

With the help of the Gottschalk-Gleser method of language content analysis, Kurt Tucholsky's diaries were analyzed with regard to indications that indicate the writer's suicide as a predictable event. The focus of the study is the discussion of aggression-theoretic approaches as well as a psychoanalytically oriented examination of the person and the suicidal development of Tucholsky. The findings show that with the document analysis, presuicidal behavior patterns can be systematically examined and proven.



Brandell, J. R. (1986). Using children's autogenic stories to assess therapeutic progress. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy, 3, 285-292.

Examined the theory that as children are able to expand their repertoire of adaptive solutions to conflict, their projective stories will provide the clinician with confirmation of therapeutic progress. Process analysis and exploratory single-case methodology were used with a bright 10-year-old boy diagnosed as having an oppositional disorder. Research instruments included the Gottschalk-Gleser Hostility Directed Outward Scale (L. A. Gottschalk and G. C. Gleser, 1969), a therapist influence scale, a parent's behavior checklist (PBC), and a children's psychiatric rating scale (CPRS). The S told 20 stories over the 3 mo of treatment, each of which revealed thematic concern with the expression of anger. Outwardly directed hostility ratings and evidence of the therapist's influence both followed a predictable pattern over the course of treatment. Pretest and posttest data for the CPRS and PBC revealed improvement in a wide range of symptom and behavior areas.



Broda, M .; Stemmler, G. & Koch, U. (1986). A psychophysiological validation study on the Gottschalk-Gleser method. V.Speech pause analysis, activation and content analysis parameters. In U. Koch & G. Schöfer (eds.), Language content analysis in psychiatric and psychosomatic research. Basics and application studies with the affect scales from Gottschalk and Gleser (Pp. 166-177). Weinheim: Psychology Publishing Union.

In two experimental studies, relationships between speech and pause parameters, psychophysiological data and affects were investigated. Following a sketch of models for the meaning of speaking pauses, the design of Study I is presented, in which 120 students were asked to give an imaginative and detailed free speech to a slide. The speech sample was transcribed and evaluated with regard to the affect "fear" according to the "Gottschalk-Gleser method". In addition, various physiological values ​​and personal characteristics were recorded. The speech pause analysis was automated. It turned out that the stressfulness asked in a subsequent interview during the speech was accompanied by reduced speech productivity. Speaking and pausing behavior, however, was not significantly related to physiological values ​​and the level of fear. In Study II, 30 medical students were asked for a speech sample after an affect induction. The data were evaluated against the fear, aggression and hope scales. The finding on the influence of exposure on language productivity was replicated; There were no correlations between speech and pause parameters and the values ​​on the fear and hope scales. The length and frequency of breaks were, however, significantly related to the degree of aggression.



Bruhn, M. & Koch, U. (1986). Measurement of "positive affects" III. "The Hamburg Wellbeing Scale" - a draft of a new multi-dimensional content analytical scale for measuring positive experience states. In U. Koch & Gert Schöfer (eds.), Language content analysis in psychiatric and psychosomatic research. Basics and application studies with the affect scales from Gottschalk and Gleser (Pp. 250-256). Weinheim: Psychology Publishing Union.



Bruhn, M .; Stemmler, G. & Koch, U. (1986). A psychophysiological validation study on the Gottschalk-Gleser method. II. The dependence of fearful, aggressive and hopeful affects on experimentally manipulated feelings and different formulations of the standard instruction. In U. Koch & G. Schöfer (eds.), Language content analysis in psychiatric and psychosomatic research. Basics and application studies with the affect scales from Gottschalk and Gleser (Pp. 117-133). Weinheim: Psychology Publishing Union.

The effects of different instructions on the mental state and the values ​​achieved in the "Gottschalk-Gleser scales" are examined. Following a sketch of the theory and the basic assumptions of Gottschalk and Gleser and the delimitation they made between affect and emotion or mood, results on the influence of the examination area on the scale values ​​are first reported, which were obtained from a sample of 25 medical students. It was found that the experiments in the psychophysiological examination room with limited interaction between the experimenter and the test person achieved higher values ​​on the "separation anxiety" scale and a lower number of words than when the experiment was carried out outside this room. There were no differences on any of the other scales. 42 medical students were then examined to determine whether pre-affects (affects that existed before the speech sample) and mental state can be influenced by different instructions. This possibility was confirmed for the affects of fear, anger and joy. In the subsequent speech test, however, the induction of affect only influenced the values ​​on the fear scale. The reasons for this result, which speaks against the validity of the Gottschalk-Gleser method, are discussed.



Bunn, T.A., & Clarke, A.M. (1979). Crisis intervention: An experimental study of the effects of a brief period of counseling on the anxiety of relatives of seriously injured or ill hospital patients. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 191-195.

Studied the effects of anxiety levels, as measured by the Gottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis Scales and the scale of cognitive anxiety of LL Viney and MT Westbrook (see PA, Vol 56:62), of a brief period of supportive counseling of 17 female relatives who arrived at an emergency admitting ward with a seriously ill or injured patient. Verbal samples were taken for analysis from Ss before and after a period (20 min) of counseling (or a period of no counseling for the control group). Results show that the initial anxiety levels for Ss in both groups was very high. For both the psychoanalytically oriented Gottschalk-Gleser Scales and the Viney-Westbrook scale there was a decrease in the level of anxiety for the counseled group compared with the noncounseled group.



D'Haenen, H.; Morez, V. E.; de-Weert, D. Cornet, C. & et al (1985). Primary versus secondary depression: A psychometric approach: Preliminary results. Acta Psychiatrica Belgica, 85, 381-389.

Administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Gottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis Scales to 32 depressed inpatients diagnosed according to the criteria of JP Feighner (1972), to examine possible differences in personality factors and psychodynamic variables between Ss having primary and secondary depression . 18 Ss were classified according to the primary-secondary dichotomy as primary depressives, and 14 were classified as secondary depressives. A statistically significant difference between the 2 groups was found only for the Psychasthenia scale on the MMPI. However, a discriminant analysis using the MMPI results yielded approximately 80% correct classifications. The Gottschalk-Gleser test showed no significant differences between the 2 groups.



Deffner, G. (1986). Interactive guessing: Carrying out the Gottschalk Gleser rating on small computers. In U. Koch & G. Schöfer (eds.), Language content analysis in psychiatric and psychosomatic research. Basics and application studies with the affect scales from Gottschalk and Gleser (Pp. 198-202). Weinheim: Psychology Publishing Union.

Possibilities are shown how the use of computers can reduce the workload when using the "Gottschalk-Gleser method". First, three ways of computer content analysis are outlined. In the "General Inquirer" procedure, individual words are classified using a "dictionary" and their frequency of occurrence is determined. Artificial intelligence methods allow syntactic preprocessing of texts. For example, the essential nouns and main verbs for the meaning of sentences can be identified and then classified. The third way is to create a speech recognition system to replace human understanding of meaning. Then computer programs will be presented which facilitate transcribing, interactive ratings, compliance checks and the calculation of the scale value. It is recommended to use the time gained for a more thorough rating.



Deffner, G. (1986). Microcomputers as aids in Gottschalk-Gleser rating. Psychiatry Research, 18, 151-159.

Discusses sources of errors during Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis of speech samples and describes a small microcomputer system designed to diminish these errors. All steps (i.e., transcription, scoring, storage, computation of scores) are performed with a collection of programs on a small 8-bit microcomputer. It is argued that a significant reduction of error can be achieved with the system.



Deffner, G. (1986). Microcomputers as aids to avoid error in Gottschalk-Gleser Rating. In L. A. Gottschalk; F. Lolas & L. L. Viney (eds.), Content analysis of verbal behavior. Significance in clinical medicine and psychiatry (Pp. 95-103). Berlin: Springer.

Based on an explanation of the main sources for accidental and systematic errors when performing the Gottschalk-Gleser rating, an evaluation process is presented that uses a computer to increase the quality of the process. In contrast to other approaches, the assessments are not carried out using a computer program, but a range of aids are offered that facilitate the assessment and evaluation of the assessments and speech samples. For this purpose, all speech samples are stored in the computer and then presented interactively for assessment. During the assessment, the entries are checked for formal admissibility and compared with the assessments of other assessors. Segments with different assessments can thus be treated in a special way. The final evaluation and preparation of the quantitative parameters is also done by the program. A detailed example for the interactive assessment on the small computer is presented.



Engel, K. (1986). For the theoretical classification of the Gottschalk-Gleser method (with special consideration of psychoanalytic theory and communication theory). In U. Koch & G. Schöfer (eds.), Language content analysis in psychiatric and psychosomatic research. Basics and application studies with the affect scales from Gottschalk and Gleser (Pp. 19-34). Weinheim: Psychology Publishing Union.

As part of a theoretical classification of the "Gottschalk-Gleser method" for the quantification of affects in spoken language, requirements and hypotheses are discussed that are necessary to be able to draw conclusions from the spoken language to psychological content. Following a short presentation of the theoretical position of Gottschalk and Gleser, the language-theoretical approaches of Lacan, Lorenzer, Schafer and Albert are outlined. The psychoanalytic concepts of the primary and secondary process used by Gottschalk and the hypotheses that can be derived from them are explained. Finally, the importance of non-verbal communication is discussed. An extension of the procedure by Gottschalk and Gleser, which is limited to verbal statements, to include non-verbal information is considered necessary.



Engel, K. & Meier, I. (1988). Clinical process studies on anxiety and aggressiveness affects in the inpatient therapy of anorexia nervosa. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 50 (3), 125-133.

The hypothesis that patients with anorexia nervosa show alexithymic disorders was empirically tested for the course of inpatient treatment. In 20 patients with anorexia nervosa and 10 comparative patients (with somatic disorders), speech samples were examined three times a week after the content analysis by Gottschalk-Gleser for various anxiety and aggression affects. In addition, data were collected using the "Anorexia Nervosa Inventory for Self-Assessment" (ANIS) and the expert and self-assessment version of the "Structured Interview on Anorexia Nervosa" (SIAN-Ex and SIAN-S). The results indicate that certain fears and types of aggression are expressed more frequently by patients with anorexia nervosa. There were also changes in the affective disorders during the treatment and references to the success of the therapy. It is concluded that the hypothesis of alexithymia in anorexia nervosa needs to be discussed again and in a more differentiated manner.



Engel, K. & Meier, I. (1989). Follow-up examination of the affects, fear and aggressiveness in inpatient treatment of anorexia nervosa. Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychoanalysis, 35 (1), 10-29.

The course of affects, fear and aggressiveness in the inpatient treatment of anorexia nervosa is examined. Assuming affect defense (alexithymia), data were collected from 20 inpatient anorexia nervosa patients with the help of speech samples (according to Gottschalk-Gleser) and the "Anorexia nervosa inventory for self-assessment" by Fichter and Keeser. Ten control patients from somatic clinics (orthopedics, surgery, gynecological clinic) formed the comparison group. The measurements were taken at several points in time. There were clear indications of an affective responsiveness of the anorexia patients, which questioned the alexithymia concept. The central problem in the treatment of these patients is not their lack of affectivity, but their unrealistic motivation for therapy.



Engel, K. & Rad, M. v. (1986). Two ways of measuring fear and aggressiveness. An empirical comparison of the Gottschalk-Gleser process and the Holtzman inkblot technique. In U. Koch & G. Schöfer (eds.), Language content analysis in psychiatric and psychosomatic research. Basics and application studies with the affect scales from Gottschalk and Gleser (Pp. 213-224). Weinheim: Psychology Publishing Union.

The convergent validity of the "Gottschalk-Gleser-Method" (GG) and the "Holtzman-Inkblot-Technique" (HIT) is examined. A total of 91 patients from a psychosomatic clinic were asked for a speech sample and for interpretative answers to the 45 HIT test panels (31 of them twice). Three evaluation modes were chosen to determine fear and aggressiveness values: (1) application of the GG categories and the HIT categories to the HIT material, (2) evaluation of the speech sample and HIT according to the GG method, (3) evaluation of the Speech sample using the GG method and evaluation of the HIT material using the HIT categories. Only in evaluation mode (1) was there a good agreement between the values ​​for fear and aggressiveness, which increased when the test was repeated. The significance of the respective test situation for the affects expressed in it is discussed.



Faller, H. (1989). Emotional processing of perceived stress in heart attack rehabilitation patients: a language content analysis of affects in narrative interviews. Psychotherapy Psychosomatics Medical Psychology, 39, 151-160.

Studied perceptions of stress, the emotional implications of perceived stress, and the presence of alexithymic symptoms. Human Ss: 51 male German adults (aged 32-64 yrs) (myocardial infarction). A semistructured interview opening with a narrative passage was used. Gottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis was used to measure anxiety and hostility. Findings were compared with data in the literature on neurotic and psychosomatic patients (M. von Rad, 1983).



Farley, G.K. & Zimet, S.G. (1987). Can a five-minute verbal sample predict the response to day psychiatric treatment? International Journal of Partial Hospitalization, 4, 189-198.

Attempted to predict improvement during day psychiatric treatment by the content analysis of 5-min verbal samples obtained at time of admission for 62 children (mean age 9 yrs). Predictor measures included the Hope, Human Relations, and Cognitive Impairment scales of the Gottschalk-Gleser Verbal Behavior Scales. Outcome measures included the Academic Disability scale of the School Behavior Checklist and the Severity Level, Aggression, Inhibition, Neurotic, and Rare Deviance scales of the Louisville Behavior Checklist. Verbal sample analysis was only a modestly accurate predictor of improvement. The cognitive impairment scale was the best predictor, especially with Ss not organically impaired



Fauler, I .; Safian, P. & Koch, U. (1986). Analysis of the affects verbalized by doctors and patients of two clinical populations using the Gottschalk-Gleser method. In U. Koch & G. Schöfer (eds.), Language content analysis in psychiatric and psychosomatic research. Basics and application studies with the affect scales from Gottschalk and Gleser (Pp. 438-456). Weinheim: Psychology Publishing Union.

Visits in a large city hospital with standard care and in an internal-psychosomatic model ward are compared with one another with regard to the occurrence of fearful and aggressive affects. The total of 72 conversations were evaluated with the help of the "Ulm Manual for Information Analysis", the "Hamburg Procedure" and the "Gottschalk-Gleser Procedure". It was found that (1) the patients expressed significantly stronger affects than the doctors and (2) that the patients in both wards did not differ from one another in their average "affect level". However, the number of significant correlations between doctor and patient affects was greater on the psychosomatic model ward. A joint factor analysis of the data from the "Ulm Manual" and the "Hamburg Procedure" produced twelve factors representing the formal and content-related aspects of the visits. Significant correlations between nine of these factors and the extent of the aggression and anxiety expressed by patients and doctors were found, especially on the psychosomatic model station. It should be noted that due to the criterion of the minimum number of words, 50 percent of the patients in the general hospital and 10 percent of the patients in the psychosomatic model ward had to be excluded from the data analysis. Furthermore, it was not possible to distinguish between the patient's affects taken up by the doctor and the expressions of his own affects.



Filnkoessl, M. (1986). Empirical investigation of affect structures in dream and experience reports. A contribution to the classification of the dream event in the overall psyche. Vienna: University, elementary and integrative science faculty.

The affect structures in dream and experience reports are analyzed and compared with the help of content analysis methods. In twelve mentally abnormal prisoners or in need of evacuation, and eight students - all test subjects were men between the ages of 22 and 40 - ten dreams and ten experience reports were recorded per person. In addition, aggressiveness was recorded with the "questionnaire for recording aggressiveness factors" and fear with the "state trait fear inventory". The "Gottschalk-Gleser scales" were used to analyze the content of the dream and experience reports. It turned out that the two questionnaires used to measure fear and aggressiveness and the "Gottschalk-Gleser scales" to measure fearful and aggressive affects were not comparable and recorded different dimensions.The comparison of the inmates and the students with regard to the areas of fear and aggression revealed only few differences, which were expressed in particular with regard to depressive and paranoid traits among the inmates. A comparison of the structures of dream and experience reports showed that the structures in the dream reports were more complex. The dream content and the waking life covered different dimensions; In some characteristics, however, connections could be determined, for example in the dimensions of the oedipal problem in dreams and through the appearance of castration anxiety in experience. Overall, the results are viewed as evidence for the occurrence of certain functional or motivational conditions in the dream phases, which are comparable to those of the earliest childhood. The established connections between waking and dream experiences are assessed as an indication of the plausibility of the assumption that the dream serves to process emotional experiences.



Flegel, H. (1967). Recording of schizophrenic morbidity courses with Gottschalk's verbal sample, compared with Wittenborn's Rating Scales and the BPRS. Journal of Psychotherapy and Medical Psychology, 5, 186 - 194.



Free, N. K; Winget, C.N. & Whitman, R.M. (1993). Separation anxiety in panic disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 595-599.

Analyzed dreams, screen memories, and life situations recorded verbatim during semistructured interviews with 20 patients with panic disorder (PD) and 20 psychiatric patients (controls) without PD. A judge blind to the diagnoses rated each of the dreams, screen memories, and life situations separately on each of the 10 Gottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis Scales, thereby measuring manifest and latent death, mutilation, separation, guilt, and shame anxiety and overt and covers hostility in each group. Mean separation anxiety scores were significantly higher in dreams and screen memories of Ss with PD than in controls. Also, mean scores for covert hostility directed outward were significantly higher in the dreams of Ss with PD, a finding that may support J. Bowlby's (1973) observation that children with high separation anxiety tend to disavow their anger toward those who left them for fear that showing the anger raises the risk of being left again.



Gift, T. E.; Cole, R. E. & Wynne, L. C. (1985). A hostility measure for use in family contexts. Psychiatry Research, 15, 205-210.

Examined the usefulness and validity of a modification of the Gottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis Scales that allows the interviewer to focus on the speaker's relationships with various family members. Significant differences were found in the expected direction between 10 separated or divorced women and 11 married women in terms of hostility outward scores as well as hostility toward the spouse or ex-spouse. The range of applications of this modification of eliciting speech samples is discussed.



Gleser, G.C. (1960). An adjective checklist for measuring affect. University of Irvine.



Gleser, G. C.; Gottschalk, L.A. & Springer, K.J. (1961). An anxiety scale applicable to verbal samples. Archive of General Psychiatry, 5, 593 - 605.



Gleser, G.C. & Lubin, A. (1976). Response productivity in verbal content analysis: A critique of Marsden, Kalter, and Ericson. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 508-510.

While agreeing with the contention of G. Marsden et al (see PA, Vol 52: 8204) that the use of percentage scores to control for productivity in verbal content analysis can yield erroneous conclusions, exception is taken to their broad generalizations in this regard, particularly their inclusion of the Gottschalk-Gleser scales as typical of the unreflecting use of percentage scores. Furthermore, limitations and contradictions are pointed out in the methods they recommend to correct for response productivity.



Gleser, G. C.; Winget, C. N.; Seligmann, R. & Rauh, J.L. (1979). Evaluation of psychotherapy wth adolescents using content analysis of verbal samples. In L. A. Gottschalk (ed.), Content analysis of verbal behavior: Further Studies



Gleser, G. C.; Winget, C., & Seligman, R. (1979). Content scaling of affect in adolescent speech samples. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 8, 283-297.

Data are reported that extend the applicability of the Gottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis Scales to analyze speech samples of adolescents. Data were gathered on 112 11-18 yr olds stratified by age, race, and sex in a balanced design. Females had higher anxiety scores and relatively lower scores on Hostility Directed Inward, Ambivalent Hostility, and Social Alienation and Personal Disorganization than did males. Blacks spoke fewer words and expressed more Overt Hostility Outward than did Whites. These latter scores increased with age, as did Hostility Directed Inward. The affect scores for this normative group are also compared to those for "normal" adults and to an adolescent clinic and a juvenile delinquent population. Correlations with 3 paper-and-pencil inventories (Adolescent Life Assessment Checklist, Defense Mechanisms Inventory, and Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale) are presented.


Gottschalk, L.A. & et al (1975). Thioridazine plasma levels and clinical response. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 16, 323-337.

The relationship between indices of plasma thioridazine concentration (half-life, area under curve, peak level) and clinical response was examined over a 10-day period in 25 21-55 yr old patients with severe to moderately severe acute schizophrenia, following a single oral dose (on Day 1) of a placebo and of thioridazine (4 mg / kg on Day 6). Significant improvement in only 2 of 18 Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) items occurred predrug (Days 1-6), namely in Guilt and Grandiosity. No predrug improvement was observed on the other BPRS items, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Wittenborn Rating Scale, or Gottschalk-Gleser social alienation-personal disorganization scores derived by content analysis from 5-min speech samples. Following the single dose of thioridazine, a significant average decrease was noted within 24 hrs in the social alienation-personal disorganization scores, and within 48 hrs in 9 subscales of the BPRS, 2 of 4 factor scores of BPRS, 3 of 4 Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression factors, and 1 of 6 Wittenborn Rating Scale factors. Significant correlations were found between indices of plasma thioridazine levels and favorable clinical responses on certain behavioral and psychological features of the schizophrenic syndrome.



Gottschalk, L.A. & et al (1984). Hyperactive children: A study of the content analysis of their speech. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 41, 125-135.

13 4-12 yr old hyperactive boys with attention deficit disorder (DSM-III) were compared to 16 nonhyperactive boys with respect to Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis scores derived from 5-min speech samples that the Ss produced in response to standardized and ambiguous instructions . The hyperactive Ss had significantly higher mean scores than the control Ss for cognitive impairment, social alienation-personal disorganization, and total depression. Of the 8 depression subscales, the hyperactive Ss had significantly elevated scores on Hopelessness, Self-Accusation (a cluster composed of shame, guilt, and inward hostility), and Psychomotor Retardation. Problems with the classification of the hyperactive syndrome, which is equated with the attention deficit disorder, are discussed. Results of the present study give some support to the concept, as determined from the content analysis of verbal behavior, that hyperactivity, at least in boys, may be associated with cognitive impairment, increased general psychiatric morbidity, and depression.



Gottschalk, L. A. (1966). The measurement of emotional changes during a psaychiatric interview: a working model toward quantifying th psychoanalytic concept of affect. In L. A. Gottschalk & A. W. Auerbach (eds.), Method of Research in Psychotherapy



Gottschalk, L. A. (1971). Some psychoanalytic research into the communication of meaning through language: The quality and magnitude of psychological states. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 44, 131 - 148.



Gottschalk, L. A. (1972). An objective method of measuring psychological states associated with changes in neutral function. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 44, 131 - 148.



Gottschalk, L. A. (1974). A hope scale applicable to verbal samples. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 30, 779 - 785.



Gottschalk, L. A. (1974). Quantification and psychological indicators of emotions: The content analysis of speech and other objective measures of psychological states. Interbatinal Journal Psychiatry Medicine, 5, 587 - 610.



Gottschalk, L. A. (1974). The application of a method of content analysis to psychotherapy research. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 28, 488 - 499.



Gottschalk, L. A. (1974). The psychoanalytic study of hand-mouth approximations. In L. Goldberger & V. N. Rosen (eds.), Psychoanalysis and contemporary Science, Vol. 3



Gottschalk, L. A. (1975). Drug effects in the assessment of affectice states in man. In W. B. Essmann & L. Valzelli (eds.), Current Developments in Psychiatry (Pp. 263-299). New York: Spectrum.



Gottschalk, L.A. (1976). Children's speech as a source of data toward the measurement of psychological states. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 5, 11 - 36.



Gottschalk, L.A. (1976). Differences in the content of speech of girls and boys ages six to sixteen. In D. V. Siva-Sankar (ed.), Mental Health in Children (Pp. 351-379). Westbury New York: PJD Publications.



Gottschalk, L. A. (1977). Effects of certain benzodiazepine derivatives on disorganization of thought as manifested in speech. Current Therapy Research, 21, 192 - 206.



Gottschalk, L. A. (1977). Recent advances in the content analysis of speech and the application of this measurement approach to psychosomatic research. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 28, 73-82.

Summarizes the theory, reliability, validity, and application of the Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis method and the relevance of the method to problems of psychological measurements.



Gottschalk, L. A. (1978). A preliminary approach to the problems of relating the pharmacokinetics of phenothiazines to clinical response with schizophrenic patients. Psychopharmacological Bulletin, 14, 35 - 39.



Gottschalk, L. A. (1978). Cognitive defect in the schizophrenic syndrome as assessed in speech patterns. In G. Serban (ed.), Cognitive Defects in the Development of Mental Illness (Pp. 314-350). New York: Brunner-Mazel.



Gottschalk, L. A. (1978). Content analysis of speech in psychiatric research. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 19, 387-392.

Reviews psychiatric research studies utilizing the Gottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis Scales, which identify concepts and actions related to emotional and psychological states. Studies include investigations of anxiety, hostility, and other psychologic states in relation to psychophysiological processes and studies comparing effects of neuropsychopharmacological agents. A number of uses of the method in psychotherapy research are also reviewed. A summary is given of efforts to computerize the scoring procedures needed to utilize the scales.


Gottschalk, L. A. (1978). Pharmacokinetics of the minor tranquilizers and clinical response. In K.S. Killam; M. A. Lipton & A. Dimascio (eds.), Psychopharmacology: A Generation of Progress (Pp. 975-986). New York: Raven Press.



Gottschalk, L.A. (1979). An objective method of measuring psychological states associated with changes in neutral function. In L. A. Gottschalk (ed.), The content analysis of verbal behavior. Further studies



Gottschalk, L.A. (1979). Drug effects in the assessment of affectice states in man. In L. A. Gottschalk (ed.), The content analysis of verbal behavior. Further studies (Pp. 367-387). New York: Spectrum.



Gottschalk, L.A. (1979). Quantification and psychological indicators of emotions: The content analysis of speech and other objective measures of psychological states. In L. A. Gottschalk (ed.), The content analysis of verbal behavior. Further studies



Gottschalk, L. A. (Ed.) (1979). The content analysis of verbal behavior. Further studies. New York: SP Medical & Scientific books.



Gottschalk, L. A. (1982). Manual of uses and applications of the Gottschalk-Gleser verbal behavior scales. Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry and Behavior, 7, 273-327.

Summarizes the nature of the psychological and behavioral dimensions that can be measured by the Gottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis Scales, suggests some applications of the scales, and presents the verbal categories scored by each scale. Examples of the actual scoring of speech samples on some scales (Anxiety, Hostility Outward, Hostility Inward, Ambivalent Hostility, and Social Alienation-Personal Disorganization) are presented, and norms for children and adults are provided.



Gottschalk, L.A. (1984). Measurement of mood and affect in cancer patients. Cancer, 53, 2236 - 2241.



Gottschalk, L.A. (1986). Foreword. In U. Koch & G. Schöfer (eds.), Language content analysis in psychiatric and psychosomatic research. Basics and application studies with the affect scales from Gottschalk and Gleser (Pp. IX-XII). Weinheim: Psychology Publishing Union.



Gottschalk, L.A. (1986). Investigations using Gottschalk-Gleser language content analysis scales in English since 1969. In U. Koch & G. Schöfer (eds.), Language content analysis in psychiatric and psychosomatic research. Basics and application studies with the affect scales from Gottschalk and Gleser (Pp. 35-55). Weinheim: Psychology Publishing Union.

An overview is given of English-language studies in which the "Gottschalk-Gleser scales", a content-analytical method for recording affects, were used. Following a sketch of studies on the validation of the scales "hopelessness", "cognitive impairment", "social alienation" and "depression", studies are briefly discussed that dealt with the construct validation of the scales in children and the evaluation of the speech samples. The use of the scales in neuropsychopharmacological research is presented. In particular, the connection between the use of psychoactive drugs and the language content as well as various language characteristics is discussed. Further studies from the fields of psychophysiology, psychosomatics, body language, psychoanalytic therapy and political psychology are then presented. Finally, examples are given for the use of translated scale versions.



Gottschalk, L.A. (1994). The development, validation, and applications of a computerized measurement of cognitive impairment from the content analysis of verbal behavior. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50, 349-361.

Describes the evolution and validation of the Cognitive Impairment Scale by L. A. Gottschalk and G. C. Gleser (1964) and suggests some of the ways in which its computerized application can be used. The content analysis procedure used is based on the method developed by Gottschalk and Gleser for the measurement of the magnitude of many other psychological states and traits, in addition to cognitive dysfunction. Verbal behavior studies are reviewed that examine the cognitive effects of age, certain psychoactive drugs, alcohol, total body irradiation, sensory overload, and dementia. Finally, the availability of a recently developed artificial intelligence software program is reported that will reliably, rapidly, and objectively score speech samples (on Gottschalk-Gleser Scales) transcribed according to specific directions from IBM-compatible computer diskettes.



Gottschalk, L. A. (1995). Content Analysis of verbal bevior. New Findings and Clinical Applications. Hillsdale, N.J .: Erlbaum.

Focusing on language and the assessment of its meaning, this volume concentrates on a method of content analysis developed by the author and Goldine Gleser. Applicable to transcripts of speech or verbal texts, this method uses the grammatical clause as its smallest unit of communication, considers whether or not a verb is transitive and involves an object, or is intransitive and describes a state of being. It derives scores on many scales that have been tested for reliability of scoring and for construct validity with concurrently administered measures, such as rating and self-report scales as well as biochemical and pharmacological criteria. Finally, this volume provides detailed descriptions of the clinical and basic research establishing the validity of these scales, so that a reader can locate studies that have pertinence to any special interest area. A major achievement described in this book is the development of computer software that: understands grammar and syntax, can parse natural language, knows most of the words in the Merriam-Webster dictionary, has been taught to identify idioms and slang, and is capable of continuing to learn. The program can score all the scales, report whether the scores obtained from a verbal sample are one to three standard deviations from the norms, and suggest APA DSM-IIIR diagnostic classifications the clinician might consider in assessing the patient. Contents: Introduction. Review of Reliability and Validity Studies Using the Gottschalk-Gleser Method of Content Analysis. Range of Some Types of Applications of This Method of Verbal Content Analysis. Psychosocial Research Using This Method. Content Analysis Studies Involving the Neurosciences, Neuropsychopharmacology, and Biological Psychiatry. Applications of New Findings Involving the Content Analysis of Verbal Behavior to Clinical Medicine and Clinical Psychiatry. Measurement of the Content Analysis of Natural Language by Computerized Artificial Intelligence as a Means of Facilitating and Speeding Up Verbal Behavior Analysis.



Gottschalk, L. A. (1997). The Unobtrusive Measurement of Psychological States and Traits. In C. W. Roberts (ed.), Text Analysis for the Social Sciences: Methods for Drawing Statistical Inferences from Texts and Transcripts (Pp. 117-129). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.



Gottschalk, L. A.; Bates, D. E.; Waskow, I. E.; Katz, M. M. & Olson, J. (1971). Effect of amphetamine or chlorpromazine on achievement striving scores derived from the content analysis of speech. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 12, 430 - 435.



Gottschalk, L.A. & Bechtel, R.J. (1982). The measurement of anxiety through the computer analysis of verbal samples. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 23, 364-369.

Describes and validates a computer system that quantifies and rank-orders various psychological dimensions (anxiety, hostility, social alienation, personal disorganization, cognitive and intellectual impairment, human relations, and hope) through content analysis of verbal behavior. This program greatly facilitates the availability of the Gottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis Scales or other methods of measuring psychological states and traits from verbal behavior.



Gottschalk, L. A. & Bechtel, R. J.(1989). Artificial intelligence and the computerization of the content analysis of natural language. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 1, 131 - 137.



Gottschalk, L.A. & Bechtel, R.J. (1993). Computerized content analysis of natural language or verbal texts. Palo Alto: Mind Garden.



Gottschalk, L.A. & Bechtel, R.J. (1995). Computerized measurement of the content analysis of natural language for use in biomedical and neuropsychiatric research. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 47, 123-130.

Neuropsychological research and clinical assessment commonly require analysis of the form and content of language to assess various psychological parameters. A major drawback of observer evaluations of language is their lack of reliability, and introduction of observer bias. The authors of this paper present an objective, computerized method for measurement of various psychological dimensions based on the analysis of natural language. They argue that use of computers to perform such analyzes ensures a high degree of reliability and obviates the need for clinical researchers to learn the complexities of scoring standard human administered scales. They clearly feel that the "alternative methods" to evaluate psychobiological dimensions, such as clinical judgment, clinical diagnostic criteria (eg DSM-IV), clinician-administered psychiatric rating scales and self-report scales are inaccurate as they give no assurance about interrater and intrarater reliability. For example, raters may vary widely on the range of ratings that they will use with a particular subject. They also point out that not all self-reported evaluations can be assumed to be reliable simply because they come from the patient themselves. The content analysis measurement of verbal behavior that they expound relies upon the free speech of the subject, who is unaware that their speech is being formally evaluated. Thus, they feel that self-reporting of psychological dimensions is enhanced by their method. At the same time though, measurement errors introduced by either the subject or the observer are minimized. The authors describe how the early attempts at computerization of content analysis of language were hampered by the fact that they focused mainly on specific words rather than on the meaning of the word in the content of the sentence, i.e. syntactical analysis. In psychiatry and psychoanalysis, similar automated methods of analyzing psychological parameters, such as love, anxiety, hostility, etc., also focused on single-word or phrase tags. In so doing, they disregarded masses of information gleaned from understanding for example, the context of the words, the motivation of the speaker, and idiomatic expressions. The authors explain how they created a computer program that would have the ability to parse natural language, thereby providing information about grammar, syntax and idioms. One development was machine-scoring the Gottschalk-Gleser Hostility Outward scale using a parser and assigning semantic features to verbs. They cite that the correlation between human and machine scoring was at the lowest acceptable criterion for intercoder reliability of the Gottschalk-Cleser Content Analysis scales, but that the computer missed many obviously codable categories. Gottschalk and Bechtel's work at developing a computerized scoring program for natural language led to the creation of an improved program based on the Bottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis scales. The authors state the programs do a "respectable expert job" scoring several scales including Gottschalk Anxiety, Hostility, Depression, Hope, etc. with improved precision and speed, but do not cite exact figures comparing their performance with human scorers. Limitations of this program are that it can analyze the meaning conveyed by content only within each grammatical clause rather than across clauses, as humans can, and thus it misses some nuances of the meaning. Regression formulas were created to convert between the computer and human scores and correct for this problem. The software operates by detecting in natural language the appearance of "psychobiological states and traits", as defined in the series of Content Analysis Scales, where the unit of analysis is the grammatical clause. The system uses a dictionary containing associations between words or phrases and the Content Analysis Scale codes, creating a candidate list from association codes found. This list is then examined by a separate set of rules which focus on the semantic / structural role of the triggering form within the clause. Four classes of output are possible: an interlinear listing of the source clauses and their assigned scores, a scoring summary for each active scale, an interpretation in textual form of the scale scores, and finally possible neuropsychiatric or psychological diagnoses (DSM-IV). The programs are continuously being refined and expanded, particularly the dictionary, and can be run under a version of LISP on MS-DOS or a version for Microsoft Windows. They are not commercially available as yet, but Louis Gottschalk will analyze appropriately prepared speech samples for a "modest cost". No idea of ​​the potential costs is given, and thus it is impossible to judge the utility of such software programs for the researcher / clinician at this point. A discussion of how to prepare the verbal samples for scoring follows. Either 5.25 or 3.5 inch diskettes are acceptable, with the documents sent as "ASCII" or "TEXT" files. The authors also outline special instances in the handling of material, e.g. when material should be ignored or the material provides hints to the scoring system. All scoring "hints" are enclosed in square brackets, and represent scoring categories that are difficult to automate. They discuss how to handle scoring of partial words and stutters, non-verbal sounds, pauses, unclear words, ellipses, abbreviations, and whitespace. They never actually state much about how well the system works, and whether it is currently being applied in neuropsychological research or clinical assessments.



Gottschalk, L. A.; Buchsbaum, M. S.; Gillin, J. C .; Wu, J. & et al (1991). Positron-emission tomographic studies of the relationship of cerebral glucose metabolism and the magnitude of anxiety and hostility experienced during dreaming and waking. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 3, 131-142.

Examined correlations between anxiety and hostility levels experienced during wakefulness, REM dreaming, nonrapid eye movement (NREM) mentation (as assessed by the Gottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis Scales), and cerebral glucose metabolism as measured by positron-emission tomography in normal males. Different cerebral areas showed significant correlations for anxiety and 6 anxiety subscales, hostility outward, hostility inward, and ambivalent hostility, as assessed by the patterns of significant positive or negative correlations found with the activation of these emotions. Significant correlations occurred more often in waking and REM dreaming Ss than NREM Ss and were more common in the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes than in the occipital lobe. Correlations tended to be positive for waking Ss and negative for REM Ss.



Gottschalk, L. A.; Buchsbaum, M. S.; Gillin, J. C .; Wu, J.C. & et al (1991). Anxiety levels in dreams: Relation to localized cerebral glucose metabolic rate. Brain Research, 538, 107-110.

10 normal men (mean age 26.2 yrs) were injected with d - (- sup-1-sup-8F) deoxyglucose during REM sleep and were aroused 32-45 min later to report dreams and free associations to the dreams. Nonparametric correlations between the anxiety scores derived from typescripts of the verbal reports (via the Gottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis Scales) and the localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates obtained from positron emission topography scans reveal significant positive correlations in lateral parietal and medial frontal cortex and negative correlations in adjacent white matter. The cerebral areas significantly involved in energy turnover with REM dream anxiety suggest that REM dreaming engages brain areas involved in language processing, cognition, mental reflection, and sensory functions.



Gottschalk, L. A.; Eckardt, M.J. & Feldmann, D.J. (1979). Further validation studies of a Cognitive-Intellectual Impairment Scale applicaele to verbal samples. In L. A. Gottschalk (ed.), The content analysis of verbal behavior. Further studies (Pp. 9 - 39). New York: SP Medical & Scientific Books.



Gottschalk, L. A.; Eckardt, M. J.; Pautler, C. P.; Wolf, R.J. & Terman, S.A. (1983). Cognitive impairment scores derived from verbal samples. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 24, 6 - 19.



Gottschalk, L. A.; Elliot, H. W.; Bates, D. E. & Cable, G. G. (1972). Analysis of speech samples to determine the effect of Lorazepam on anxiety. Clinical Pharmacological Therapy, 13, 323 - 328.



Gottschalk, L. A. & Elliott, H. W. (1979). Effects of triazolam and flurazepam on emotions and intellectual function. In L. A. Gottschalk (ed.), The content analysis of verbal behavior: Further Studies (Pp. 367-387). New York: Spectrum.



Gottschalk, L. A.; Elliott, H. W.; Bates, D. E. & Cable, C. G. (1979). Content analysis of speech samples to determine the effect of Lorazepam on anxiety. In L. A. Gottschalk (ed.), The content analysis of verbal behavior: Further Studies (Pp. 325-330). New York: Spectrum.



Gottschalk, L. A.; Falloon, I. R. H.; Morder, S. R.; Lebell, M. B.; Gift, T. E. & Wynne, L. C. (1987). The prediction of relapse of schizophrenic patients using emotional data obtained from their relatives. Psychiatry Research, 25, 261 - 276.



Gottschalk, L. A.; Fronczek, J .; Abel, L. & Buchsbaum, M.S. (1992). The relationship between social alienation and disorganized thinking in normal subjects and localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates assessed by positron emission tomography. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 33, 332-341.

Three groups of normal male Ss were injected with d - (- sup-1-sup-8F) deoxyglucose during wakefulness, REM, or non-REM sleep, and 32-45 min later they were asked to report their thoughts, emotions, or dreams and free associations to these mental events. Transcripts of Ss' reports were content analyzed using the Gottschalk-Gleser Social Alienation-Personal Disorganization Scale and regional cerebral glucose metabolic rates (GMRs) obtained from positron emission tomography scans. Total social alienation-personal disorganization scores from reports of wakeful, silent mentations showed significant positive correlations with GMRs in the left temporal lobe. GMR in the temporal lobe may constitute a concomitant of minimally disordered thinking in normal individuals rather than be a marker of mental disorder.



Gottschalk, L. A. & Gleser, G. C. (1964). Distinguishing characteristics of verbal communcations of schiziphrenia patients. In D. M. Rioch & E. A. Weinstein (eds.), Disorders of communications (Pp. 400-413). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.



Gottschalk, L. A. & Gleser, G. C. (1969). The measurement of psychological states through the content analysis of verbal behavior. Los Angeles: University of California Press.



Gottschalk, L. A. & Gleser, G. C. (1974). Quantification and psychological indicators of emotions: The content analysis of speech and other objective measures of psychological states. International Journal Psychiatry in Medicine, 5, 587 - 610.



Gottschalk, L.A. & Gleser, G.C. (1980). Specific aspects of our language content analysis approach. In Gert S. (ed.), Gottschalk-Gleser language content analysis theory and technology. Studies to measure anxious and aggressive affects (Pp. 15-42). Weinheim: Beltz.

Describes the basics of the Gottschalk-Gleser process. The theoretical basics and the fear and aggressiveness scales. The article is an authorized translation from Gottschalk & Gleser (1969): Measurement of Psychological through the Content Analysis of Verbal behavior, pp. 12-38.

Content: The quantification of affects, The measurement of fear through the content analysis of language materials. The measurement of aggressiveness through the content analysis of language materials.



Gottschalk, L. A.; Gleser, G. C.; Cleghorn, J. M.; Stone, W. N. & Winget, C. N. (1979). Predictions of change in severity of the schiziphrenic syndrome with discontinuation and administration pf phenothiazines in chronic schizophrenic patients: Language as a predictor and measure of change in schizophrenia. In L. A. Gottschalk (ed.), The content analysis of verbal behavior: Further Studies (Pp. 349-366). New York: Spectrum.



Gottschalk, L. A.; Gleser, G. C.; Springer, K. J.; Kaplan, S. M.; Shnaon, J. & Ross, W.D. (1960). Effects of perphenazine on verbal behavior patterns. Archive Gen. Psychiatry, 2, 632-639.



Gottschalk, L.A. & Hambidge, G. (1955). Verbal behavior analysis: a systematic approach to the problem of quantifying psychologic processes. Journal of Projective Technique, 19, 387 - 409.



Gottschalk, L. A.; Hausmann, C. & Brown, J.S. (1975). A computerized scoring system for use with content analysis scales. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 16, 77-90.

Reports on the development of a computerized scoring system for use in speech content analysis. The system is designed to focus on the meaning carried in clauses or sentences rather than in isolated words. The Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis Hostility scales were used to characterize the subset of English most often encountered in psychiatric interviews. 6 5-min speech samples were scored by humans and the scores compared to those produced by the computerized system. A Spearman rank difference correlation of .80 is reported for the comparison. It is noted that computer analysis of speech content saves time, increases the uniformity of the analysis, and facilitates the determination of relationships between psychological states and biological variables.



Gottschalk, L. A.; Hoigaard, J.C .; Birch, H. & Rickels, K. (1976). The measurement of psychological states: relationships between Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis scores and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale scores. Physician Questionnaire Rating Scale scores and Hopkins Symptom Checklist scores. In L. A. Gottschalk & S. Merlis (eds.), Pharmacokinetics of psychoactive drugs: Blood levels and clinical response (Pp. 61-113). New York: Spectrum.



Gottschalk, L.A. & Hoigaard, M.J. (1986). The emotional impact of mastectomy. Psychiatry Res., 17(2), 153-67.

To learn about the effects of unilateral mastectomy, the emotional responses of four groups of women were compared 1-3 and 10-12 months after surgery: (1) mastectomy group (n = 125) - women who had a unilateral mastectomy for stage I or II breast cancer; (2) biopsy group (n = 65) - women who had a biopsy revealing benign breast disease; (3) cholecystectomy group (n = 75) - women who had a cholecystectomy; (4) healthy group (n = 84) - women who had not had a major surgical intervention. Measures of emotions were: (1) the SCL-90 Analogue; (2) the Global Assessment Scale (GAS); and (3) the Gottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis Scale. The mastectomy group had significantly higher mean Gottschalk-Gleser scores for total anxiety, death and mutilation anxiety, ambivalent hostility, total denial and anxiety denial, and hopefulness. Significant reductions were found in mean total anxiety, mutilation, and shame anxiety in the mastectomy group and in total, death, and mutilation anxiety in the cholecystectomy group between the two postsurgical assessments. The mastectomy group had a significantly higher mean anxiety and depression score than the healthy group on the SCL-90 at both time points. The mastectomy and cholecystectomy groups had lower emotional well-being scores on the GAS than the healthy group over both testing periods. The groups also differed in their amount of change on the GAS over time. All measures, especially the Gottschalk-Gleser scales, showed significantly more psychopathological emotional responses in the mastectomy group, somewhat less in the cholecystectomy group, and the least in the biopsy group.



Gottschalk, L. A.; Hoigaard-Martin, J.C .; Eckardt, M. J.; Gilbert, R. & Wolf, R. (1983). Cognitive impairment and other psychological scores derived from the content analysis of speech in detoxified male chronic alcoholics. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 9, 447 - 460.



Gottschalk, L. A. & Lolas, F. (1989). The Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis method of measuring the magnitude of psychological dimensions: Its application in transcultural research. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 26, 83-111.

Reviews evidence related to the hypothesis that there are adequate bridges via the content analysis of language to allow for researchers to understand and measure transculturally what humans are thinking and feeling. Discussion focuses on the Gottschalk-Gleser method of content analysis (e.g., L. A. Gottschalk, 1979). Studies of noncultural influences on the content of verbal behavior and racial and cultural influences on verbal content are reviewed. The overall picture that emerges is that basic categories of affect expression assessed through content analysis may have transcultural stability. The characteristic of emotional meaning may constitute a biopsychosocial dimension worth exploring in comparative studies.



Gottschalk, L. A.; Lolas, F. & Viney, L.L. (eds.) (1986). Content analysis of verbal behavior. Significance in clinical medicine and psychiatry. Berlin: Springer.



Gottschalk, L.A. & Rey, F. (1990). Emotional effects of physical or mental injury on Hispanic people living in the U.S.A. as adjudged from the content of their speech. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46, 915-922.

Compared 20 Hispanic patients (aged 19-60 yrs) who sustained a work-related physical injury or emotional stress and 20 Hispanic matched control Ss who had not experienced such a recent injurious event with regard to their anxiety and hostility scores derived from the content analysis of 5-min speech samples, using the Gottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis Scales. The patient group had significantly elevated total anxiety scores compared with the control group.



Gottschalk, L.A. & Selin, C. (1991). Comparative neurobiological and neuropsychological deficits in adolescent and adult schizophrenic and nonschizophrenic patients. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 55, 32-41.

24 adolescents and young adults were classified according to 4 measures using Research Diagnostic Criteria on the dimension of the severity of their schizophrenic (SZ) syndrome. Independent assessments by the Gottschalk-Gleser Social Alienation-Personal Disorganization Scale and the Abrams-Taylor Emotional Blunting Scale corroborated that the definite SZ group (n = 7) was significantly more SZ than the not SZ group (n = 12) but not more so than the probably SZ group (n = 5). The Halstead-Reitan Category Test and Rhythm Test significantly differentiated the definite SZ group from the not SZ group with respect to cognitive impairment.There was a significantly higher percent of EEG abnormalities among the definite and probably SZ groups than the not SZ group.



Gottschalk, L. A.; Stone, W. N.; Gleser, G.C. & Iacono, J.M. (1966). Anxiety levels in dreams: relation to changes in plasma free fatty acids. Science, 153, 654 - 657.



Gottschalk, L.A. & Uliana, R.L. (1977). Further studies on the relationship of nonverbal behavior: effect of lip-caressing on shame, hostility, and other variables as expressed in the content of speech. In N. Freedmann & S. Grand (eds.), Communicative structures and psychic structures: a psychoanalytic interpretation of communication



Gottschalk, L.A. & Uliana, R.L. (1979). Profiles of children's psychological states derived from the Gottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis of Speech. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 8, 269-282.

Comparison of 17 different scores, obtained with the Gottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis Scales, with norms for 100 White and 288 Black children, has been made possible by the development of 2 types of profile forms. The scores derived from this method are transformed by plotting them, on a grid, to standard scores. Form 1 provides a nonlinear transformation that corrects for skewness of the score distribution. Form 2 provides a linear transformation that does not correct for skewness. These forms can be used to examine patterns and trends pictorially in psychological state or trait scores derived from speech by this method.



Gottschalk, L. A; Winget, C. N. & Gleser, G. C. (1969). Manual of instructions for using the Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis Scales: Anxiety, hostility and social-alienation-personal disorganization. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press.



Gottschalk, L .; Uliana, R.L. & Hoigaard, J.C. (1979). Preliminary validation of a set of content analysis scales applicable to verbal samples for measuring the magnitude of psychological states in children. Psychiatry Research, 1(1), 71-82.

Scores on 17 psychological dimensions of the Gottschalk- Gleser content analysis scales were obtained from 5-minute speech samples of 37 white children hospitalized on the psychiatric service of a general hospital. These content analysis scores were compared to identical scores obtained from a normative sample of 109 white children. Groups of children were classified by the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry (GAP) system as having Healthy Responses (N = 2), Personality Disorders (N = 17), Reactive Disorders (N = 9), Psychoneurotic Disorders (N = 7) , and Developmental Deviations (N = 2), and by DSM-III as having Parent-Child Problems (N = 2), Conduct Disorders (N = 26), Anxiety Disorders (N = 7), and Special Developmental Disorders (N = 2). By either classification, these groups of children showed salient differences in their scores in certain psychological dimensions from the same types of scores occurring with the normative group. These findings provide initial construct validation of the Gottshalk-Gleser content analysis scales when applied to speech samples obtained for children. Moreover, the profiles of children's psychological characteristics obtained by this method provide, in themselves, an objective descriptive and dynamic classification.



Grabhorn, R .; Overbeck, G .; Kernhof, K .; Jordan, J. & Muller, T. (1994). Change in the self-object demarcation of an eating disordered patient in the course of inpatient therapy. Psychotherapy, psychosomatics, medical psychology, 44 (8), 273-283.

The course of a three-month inpatient, psychoanalytically oriented individual therapy of a patient with eating disorders is reported. Changes in the course of therapy are described, taking into account the central importance of the self-object relationship in women with eating disorders. In addition to the clinical perspective, the methodological approach chosen was a combination of methods with a focus on language content analysis according to Gottschalk-Gleser, the method of the central relationship conflict topic according to Luborsky and the projective method of "Object Relations Technique" according to Phillipson. In the course of treatment there were changes with regard to a reduction in fear of shame and inwardly directed aggressiveness as well as an approach to objects and a positive change in dealing with oneself; overall, this is assessed in terms of increasing self-object demarcation.



Grantham, C. E.; Pearl, M. H.; Manderscheid, R. W. & Silbergeld, S. (1981). The Psychological Stress Evaluator as a clinical assessment instrument. Evaluation and implications. Journal Nerv Ment Dis, 169(5), 283-8.

Efficient clinical assessment of anxiety and hostility could be facilitated through the use of a mechanical measurement instrument with known validity and reliability. Preliminary evaluation of the Psychological Stress Evaluator (PSE) has indicated that it could be used for this purpose. The present study reports the results of a correlational analysis between a PSE generated stress indicator (blocking pattern mode III) and the Gottschalk-Gleser Free Association Test, a verbal content-analysis measure of anxiety and hostility in psychotherapy patients. Findings do not show any correlation between these measures and suggest that the PSE may have only limited use as a valid and reliable assessment instrument for anxiety and hostility. Methodological problems inherent in the calculation and interpretation of PSE scores are elaborated in a review of current PSE scoring systems. A brief discussion of the theoretical assumptions underlying the development of the PSE and associated scoring protocols suggests directions for future research.



Grünzig, H.-J. (1984). For the diagnosis of psychoanalytic anxiety topics using key words. In R. S. Jäger; A. Mattenklott & R.-D. Schröder (ed.), Diagnostic Judgment Formation in Psychology: Basics and Applications (Pp. 181-201). Göttingen: Hogrefe.

Within the psychoanalytic process research, verbatim transcripts (verbatim protocols) of the therapy dialogue represent an essential data source for the description of treatment processes. In this contribution the importance of the computer-aided diagnosis of thematic fear variables is emphasized, and empirical investigations for the development and validation of a fear topic dictionary for the computer-aided ones are emphasized Content analysis lectured. The psychoanalytically conceived fear topics of shame, castration, guilt and separation, operationalized using single word categories, have validity coefficients around .50 and are characterized by high convergent and discriminant validity. Ertse studies underline the usefulness of this method for the description of psychotherapeutic treatment courses.



Grünzig, H.-J. & Kächele, H. (1978). To differentiate psychoanalytic fear concepts. An empirical contribution to the automatic classification of clinical material. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 7/1, 1 - 17.



Grünzig, H.-J. ; Kächele, H. & Thomä, H. (1978). For the clinically formalized assessment of fear, transference, and work relationships. Medical psychology, 4, 138 - 152.



Grünzig, H.-Joachim & Mergenthaler, E. (1986). Computer-aided approaches: empirical studies using the example of fear issues. In U. Koch & G. Schöfer (eds.), Language content analysis in psychiatric and psychosomatic research. Basics and application studies with the affect scales from Gottschalk and Gleser (Pp. 203-212). Weinheim: Psychology Publishing Union.

Three investigations into the validity of the computer-aided language content analysis with the help of the "fear theme" (ATD) are outlined. The dictionary includes 2343 nouns, adjectives and verbs on the subjects of "embarrassment", "castration", "guilt" and "separation". In three studies with a total of 519 statements, correlations were calculated between the values ​​determined with the help of the ATD and the "Gottschalk-Gleser method". It was found that the values ​​for expressions from psychotherapeutic sessions and initial psychosomatic interviews correlated moderately but positively, while the correlations for expressions from face-to-face meetings were negative. The restricted area of ​​application of the ATD is held responsible for the latter finding.



Gupta, K .; Mathur, P. & Chawla, M.H. (1990). Evaluation of schizophrenics vs. non-schizophrenics on Gottschalk-Gleser Social Alienation-Personal Disorganization Scale. Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies, 6, 139-144.

Analyzed 19 pairs of verbal samples (VSs) of schizophrenics (SCZs) and non-schizophrenics (NSCZs) (aged 16-45 yrs) using the Gottschalk-Gleser Social Alienation-Personal Disorganization Scale. A significant difference between the scores of SCZs and NSCZs was found. The scale provides a starting point in formulating working concepts on the analysis of VSs of the SCZ.


Heerlein, A.; Lauer, G. & Richter, P. (1989). Alexithymia and affect pronunciation in endogenous and non-endogenous depression. The neurologist, 60 (4), 220-225.

The alexithymic phenomenon in depression is being investigated. 21 unipolar endogenous depressives and 21 neurotic-reactive depressives in inpatient treatment were examined at two points in time using the language content analysis method according to Gottschalk-Gleser and the "Beth Israel Alexithymia Questionnaire" (BIAQ) as well as other questionnaires. The endogenous depressives expressed significantly less separation anxiety, diffuse anxiety, total anxiety, inwardly directed aggressiveness, total aggressiveness and depression than the neurotic-reactive depressives at both times. In the BIAQ, the endogenous depressives received significantly higher values ​​than the neurotically depressed subjects. Finally, the available findings with regard to the question of the specificity of alexithymia in psychosomatic patients as well as the high prevalence and importance of this phenomenon in endogenous depression are discussed.



Heerlein, A. & Lolas, F. (1984). Trastorno funcional y enfermedad psicosomatica: Diferenciacion psicometrica. Revista Chilena de Neuro Psiquiatria, 22, 87-93.

Studied different aspects of behavioral variables that may be compromised in psychosomatic illness in 11 patients with irritable colon (IC) and 9 with duodenal ulcer (DU). Content analysis of verbal behavior with the Gottschalk-Gleser Content Analysis Scales during semistandardized interviews did not depict consistent differences in the intensity of affective expression between DU and IC patients. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation did not produce isomorphic factor structures for 21 psychometric variables in the 2 patient groups. The findings support the notion that although alexithymic characteristics are more pronounced in the psychosomatic group (DU), its psychometric differentiation from functional disorders (IC) remains an unresolved issue. While the results do not invalidate the role of alexithymia in maintenance of etiology of lesional psychosomatic disorders, they suggest that the construct validity of current assessment methods may need revision. The advantages of a multivariate approach in defining clinically important nosological entities are emphasized.



Hentschel, U .; Sumbadze, M .; Sadzaglishvili, S .; Mamulashvili, M. & et al (1996). Defensive and affective-emotional reactions to war: The Abkhazian War as reflected in people's subjective reactions. Psychological Reports, 78, 135-143.