What is the first preposition

preposition

The preposition, also prepositions, foreword or position word, is a part of speech in German. The preposition is never alone and almost always before the word to which it refers. This word is called a reference word, which is usually a noun or pronoun. The preposition indicates how the reference word relates to another thing. Information about place, time, Way and Goal / reason be made. Therefore a distinction is made between local, temporal, modal and also causal prepositions. The preposition determines in which case the noun or pronoun - to which it refers - must be used. Consequently govern Prepositions the respective reference words. The preposition is one of the non-inflectable parts of speech and cannot be changed. Accordingly, it does not adapt to gender (gender), number (number) and case (case). The prepositions include to, on, in beside, since, during, through ... (see list of prepositions).

Term & example

The term derives from the Latin praepositio off what to do with Preposition translates. The translation gives an initial indication of the position of a preposition in the sentence. The preposition is almost always that Prefixed reference word. The German name Preface incidentally, refers to the same fact. An example:



In the example sentence above the preposition and its reference word were highlighted in color. The item the was underlined in color because it belongs to the reference word. In the example sentence the function of the preposition becomes clear: it shows how a thing is - here: the noun I - related to the reference word. The I stands on the chair - of course it could too Next or Behind sit in the chair.


Greta goes to school.

In the example sentence the preposition and its reference word were highlighted in color. Here, too, the preposition describes how a thing is - in this example Greta - related to another thing. Because Greta is leaving in school, but of course it could too Behind go to school or even on climb the school building.

Important: A preposition shows the relationship between two things. In most cases, these are nouns or pronouns. So how does a noun relate to another noun or pronoun. This ratio can locally (local) and temporally (temporal) or the way (modal) or Time and reason (causally) describe. Incidentally, the above examples show local prepositions, since they indicate the spatial relationship between two things. Now let's look at usage.

Use of prepositions

As already described, prepositions cannot stand alone, but always have a reference word. This is usually a noun or a pronoun. In a few cases it is also an adverb and in very rare cases an adjective.

Other sentence componentsprepositionReference wordPart of speech
of the reference word
Prepositional group
The family caresaroundthe children.noun
The family caresaroundhim.pronoun
The family caresfromtoday.adverb
The family holds himForSmart.adjective
Note: The above overview shows that the reference word of the preposition can be formed by four different types of words. This overview is intended primarily for completeness. In most cases, they are nouns or pronouns. It also becomes clear that the preposition and its related word together as Prepositional group are designated.

Position of the preposition

In most cases, the preposition comes before your reference word. Sometimes it can also be behind the word and in a few cases it even has to be behind it. There are also prepositions that enclose the word or phrase.

Preposition reference word prepositional group
Before the reference word
I sita chair.
Ludwig careshim.
He is waitingSunday.
After the reference word
We separate the garbagethe environment
The simplicitylet's meet after class.
A reportthe singer died.
Before or after the reference word
We areour customerspolite.
We areour customerspolite.
Sabine hasMario's suggestionopted for blue.
Sabine hasMario's suggestionopted for blue.
The streetthere were many trees.
The streetthere were many trees.
Around the reference word
I did itmy father's
Note: The above examples show the possible positions of the preposition in German. Usually the preposition comes before the reference word. There are hardly any prepositions around the reference word in active language use. However, they are listed for the sake of completeness.

Forms of the preposition

Prepositions always clarify the relationship between two facts. That is why they are called prepositions. Basically, the question is answered how the one sentence component relates to the respective reference word.

The preposition can do this in four different ways: in relation to place, time, Way and Goal / reason. For this the Latin terms local, temporal, modal and causal used. Accordingly, there are local, temporal, modal and causal prepositions. Let's take a look at these using a few example sentences:

Other sentence componentsprepositionReference wordPart of speech
of the reference word
Prepositional group
Magda goesinthe school.local
place
Rebekah camein frontone hour.temporal
time
she spokeWithTrouble.modal
Way
Theresa is sweatingbecause ofthe heat.causal
Reason / goal

Local prepositions

Prepositions of the place always relate to a place or a movement. Therefore let yourself be with Where from? (Origin), Where? (Place and Where? (Direction) inquire. An example:


Lisa is sitting in the chair.

The preposition in the example sentence you can now ask. Since we do not want to inquire about an origin or direction, but rather a place, namely the chair, we ask: "Where is Lisa sitting?". The answer includes the preposition and the noun. Both together are called a prepositional group. The answer to our question is: "On the chair!" - another example:
Tom goes to a friend in the afternoon.

This example too contains a local preposition. In this case, however, we don't want to ask for a location, but a direction. We therefore ask: "Where does Tom go in the afternoon?", whereupon we get the preposition and the reference word again as an answer, i.e. the prepositional group. The answer is: "To a friend!"

Overview of important local prepositions
Other sentence componentsprepositionReference word
Prepositional group
The bike is leaningatthe bus stop.
Hannes jumpsonthe wall.
Emma is comingoutBerlin.
The dog isatFriends.
The rabbits are sittingBehindthe bush.
The children areinthe school.
she standsNextme.
The pen liesunderthe booklet.
Mesut Özil shoots the ballabovethe gate.
The gift isofmy grandma.
Jonathan is standingin frontthe television.
We are still goingtoa buddy.
Rebekah is standingbetweenthe party guests.

temporal prepositions

Prepositions of time always refer to a point in time or a period. Therefore let yourself be with When? (Time) and How long? (Period) inquire. So they show how one thing relates to another in relation to time. An example:



Here you can Preposition from the example sentence ask. Since we do not mean a period, i.e. not an extended period of time, we ask for a point in time. We use the question word for this When? and our question is:"When is Martin coming?". The answer again contains the preposition and the reference word, i.e. the prepositional group. The answer is:"At 9 o'clock!" - another example:
The boys will be at camp for a week.

The example sentence contains a temporal preposition. This time, it does not mean an exact point in time, but a period of time. Therefore we can use the preposition How long? ask. So our question is:“How long have the boys been in summer camp? and the answer is:"For a week!". The example sentence above also contains a local preposition: namely the word in the(Question: Where will the boys be for a week? Answer: "At summer camp!").
Overview of important temporal prepositions
Other sentence componentsprepositionReference word
Prepositional group
Peer would likefrom22 O `clocksleep.
I catchat theMondayat.
they calloutsidethe opening timesat.
Magda is waitingtonext month.
Vivian isFortwo weeksin Rome.
I flyinthree daysto New York.
You mustwithinone hourgetting ready.
He always sleepstowork.
I amsince15 yearsGerman teacher.
I am lookingaround9 clocka movie.
We are already waitingaboveone houron the results.
Bekki wasin frontthe lessonat the doctor's.
We havewhileof vacationgot to know.

Modal prepositions

Modal prepositions describe the way or similar. Accordingly, they indicate how one thing relates to another. We can do it with the help of the question word How? ask. An example:


Susanne takes the tram.

The Preposition from the example above can be ask. Since we want to know how Susanne drives, we can formulate our question as follows:"How does Susanne drive?" and get the answer:"By tram!". In this example, too, the answer provides us with the entire prepositional group, i.e. the preposition and its reference word. Let's look at another example:
Katrin gives the lecture in French.

Also in this example the prepositional group and thus the prepositional word and adjective word can be changed using the question word How? ask. For this we formulate the question:"How does Katrin give the lecture?" and receive in response:"In French!"
Overview of important modal prepositions
Other sentence componentsprepositionReference word
Prepositional group
I read todayonArabic
The shirt isoutCotton.
This rule also appliesForyou.
she droveagainstthe wind.
Joshua paintsinmany colors.
DevelopedWithgreat effort.
They kissed each otherwithoutany feelings.
I love youofwith all my heart.
He goestoFoot.

Causal prepositions

A causal preposition always refer to one reason, one purpose or one root cause. Therefore, they can be asked with question words that ask for a reason. Suitable for this How so?, Why?, For what? or For what reason? The answer to this question is provided by the reason, which is introduced with a causal preposition. Let's look at an example:


The power went out due to the storm.

The Preposition in the example sentence can be answered with one of the above W-questionsask. We would like to know what the cause of the power failure was. We therefore ask:"Why did the power fail?" or "For what reason did the power fail?" and receive the prepositional group, which includes the preposition and the related word, as an answer. The answer is:"Because of the storm!". Let's look at another example:
Jonas drove to the mountains to relax.

Also in this example sentence you can use the correct question to find out the prepositional word. We're here on one too Reason or one Cause and ask using Why? to. The question then is:"Why did Jonas go to the mountains?", where we get the prepositional group again as an answer. The answer is:"For recreation!" and consists of a preposition and a reference word.
An overview of important causal prepositions
Other sentence componentsprepositionReference word
Prepositional group
We are celebratingon the occasionof the birthdaya party.
Peter is learninggivenof examsevery day.
We drivedue toof the weatherto Italy.
Johanna wanted the mistakeoutanxietynot admit.
You got yourselfthanksGreta's helpimproved.
There have been many accidentsas a resultof the mist.
Selma hadin spite oftheir vacationno time.
Axel struggledregardlessthe reminderfurther.
I have ... myselfbecause ofto youdelayed.

Prepositions and cases (case)

As can be seen in the above overviews and examples, a preposition always rules the case of its reference words. The preposition therefore dictates in which case the word to which it relates must be used. The associated word (noun, pronoun, article) must therefore be used in this case.

There is no clear rule when a preposition calls for this or that case. The case that is used must therefore always be learned. Therefore now an overview of the most important prepositions and whether they require the genitive, dative or accusative. Incidentally, the nominative does not require a preposition.

Prepositions that require the genitive
prepositionExample sentence
offsideAway from the big cities, life is quieter.
lessThe price is net of VAT.
givenI think a siege is pointless in view of the strong walls.
on the occasionWe celebrated a party on the occasion of Peter's birthday.
instead ofYou want to introduce values ​​teaching instead of religious instruction.
due toDue to the storm we have no school.
on the sideWe fight mutual workers.
outsideThe inn is outside the village.
on both sidesTrees tower up into the sky on both sides of the avenue.
thanksI finished earlier thanks to his help.
this sideThe area this side of the forest.
alongThe children went to school along the stream.
as a resultAs a result of the floods, many people became homeless.
withinWe meet during the holidays.
beyondAmerica is on the other side of the ocean.
LeftThe house is on the left of the Rhine.
alongThe beautiful gardens are along the slope.
usingI painted the room with the help of my friend.
northThe desert was 10 kilometers north of the border.
aboveAbove the valley was the monastery.
eastEvery eighth apartment in eastern Berlin is empty.
rightThe canal was to the right of the street.
laterallyThere was a colored window to the side of the front door.
instead ofInstead of the money, he gave her his wedding ring.
southernNorthern Italy is a large region south of the Alps.
in spite ofWe went for a walk despite the rain.
for ... sakeI did it for my father's sake.
regardlessShe was discharged regardless of her performance.
belowI have an injury below my knee.
not farThere is a campsite not far from the lake.
because ofI am annoyed because of the missing letters.
far awayRebekka lives far from the center.
westThe Klövensteen is a recreation area west of Hamburg.
whileWe argued during the party.
in favor ofWe collect donations for earthquake victims.
to the disadvantageThe balance of power has shifted against the disadvantage of the Indians.
plusMy apartment costs 900 euros plus ancillary costs.
Prepositions that require the dative case
prepositionExample sentence
outThe poet reads from his work.
out of ...He acted on a whim.
exceptApart from him, nobody can read his handwriting.
atSusi is with a friend.
up toI'm relaxed from head to toe.
oppositeAgainst my advice, he bought the house.
correspondingI have developed according to my age.
across fromI am skeptical of the spelling reform.
according toIts use is illegal under international law.
faithfulFaithful spelling reform is "tomorrow morning“Spelled correctly.
WithBetty wants to buy a house with a garden.
includingThe Santa Maria sank with the cargo.
toI only know Heinrich Heine by name.
NearThe ruins of the ancient city lie near the river.
velvetThe apartment and all its inventory were sold.
sinceI've known you for years.
ofThomas takes the clothes off the line.
from ... fromAll sights are very easy to reach from the pension.
toThe child runs to his mother.
... according toAccording to a rumor, Jonas and Rebekka are engaged.
Prepositions that require the accusative
prepositionExample sentence
toHe's on the road until next Monday.
byThe bullet penetrated the thigh.
... alongWe go along the way.
ForThe present is for my grandma.
againstWe are against the rent increase.
withoutHe lives here without a permit.
aroundThe ISS will orbit the earth.
aroundThe planets revolve around the sun.
Alternate prepositions - require dative or accusative
Note: The rule of thumb for the following prepositions is that the preposition im dative is used when it comes to a position and we are after Where? ask. The accusative is used when a movement is expressed and to the question Where? can be answered.
Example: I put it on the table (Acc., Where to?) • It's on the table (Date, where?)
prepositionExample sentence
atDative: The picture hangs on the wall.
Accusative: I hang the picture on the wall.
onDative: The book is on the table.
Accusative: Hans puts the book on the table.
BehindDative: We'll meet behind the school.
Accusative: We're going behind the school.
inDative: Kai is in the apartment.
Accusative: Kai goes into the apartment.
NextDative: Hannes is sitting next to the plant.
Accusative: Hannes sits down next to the plant.
aboveDative: The lamp hangs over the sofa.
Accusative: I hang the lamp over the sofa.
underDative: The cat is under the table
Accusative: The cat runs under the table.
in frontDative: Greta is at the door.
Accusative: Greta goes to the door.
betweenDative: Pumuckl sits between the bottles.
Accusative: A leprechaun is walking between the bottles.

Fusion: preposition + definite article

Some prepositions can be associated with the article of the noun they refer to. The preposition and the article merge then with each other. Some amalgamations are mandatory, some can be made but do not have to be, and some can only be found in everyday language.

There are 14 prepositions in total, which can merge with the article of a noun. These are: on, on, off, at, through, for, behind, in, over, around, under, from, in front, to. The prepositions can, however justWith certain articles merge. An example:


I walked through the bushes.

This example sentence contains a preposition as well as a reference word and its companion. In this case, the noun is the noun bushes and the companion the. This is a specific article that can be merged with the preposition. It will look like that:



However, not every preposition can merge with a certain article and numerous connections can only be found in everyday language. That is why we have created an overview that lists all prepositions that can be merged with articles. It is marked in color whether it is a standard language or a colloquial form.
Standard colloquial language
thethethethethe
atansat thexxx
onontoopenrecordxx
outxexxxx
atxat thexxx
bythroughxxxx
Forforxxx