How do stud welders work

How does a stud welding device work?

In stud welding, pin-shaped components are attached to sheet metal parts. The pin-shaped components are usually fastening elements such as threaded bolts or threaded sockets. Devices, machines or entire systems are used in stud welding. Stud welding is essentially divided into two processes. On the one hand in drawn arc stud welding and in stud welding with tip ignition.

Principle of a drawn arc stud welding device

A drawn arc stud welding device first places the stud with its end face on the sheet metal. When the welding current is switched on, the stud is lifted slightly and an arc is created. This melts the stud sufficiently and the stud is pressed onto the sheet metal by the welding head. As soon as this happens, the arc is extinguished and the degree of melting solidifies.

A ceramic ring or protective gas is used to protect the weld pool. A weld pool protection can be dispensed with in the short-term stroke ignition process with welding times of less than 0.1 seconds. A regulated rectifier is usually used as the welding power source.

Principle of a stud welding device with tip ignition

In the case of the stud welding device with tip ignition, a stud is used which is provided with a tip on the welding surface at the manufacturing end. This attached tip is melted off after the welding current is switched on and the luminous flux is ignited. In the case of stud welding devices with tip ignition, there is no need to lift the stud. If sufficient melting has been achieved, the bolt is pressed onto the sheet metal and thus fused with it.

A capacitor discharge welding current source is used as the welding current source.

The quality features

In order to ensure a high welding quality, the stud welding device must be set up correctly and work stably. In this way, the current and voltage curves will differ only minimally from weld to weld.

However, the welding quality also depends on the following:

  • the electrical setting of the welding machine
  • on the mechanical setting of the welding head or the welding gun
  • on the geometry of the bolts used
  • of the individual materials
  • on the surface quality

With welding quality monitoring, it is possible to react to gradual changes in the electrical or mechanical setting before major damage is caused by these changes.

Areas of application for stud welding devices

How does a stud welding device work?

The Areas of application for stud welding devices are broad. They can be found both in the electrical industry for the manufacture of device chassis, in the manufacture of household appliances or for the manufacture of fittings as well as in automobile construction.

Steel construction, process engineering, shipbuilding and construction are also important industries for stud welding. They are used to fasten fasteners to sheet metal for manual construction site production as well as for large-scale production.

With both essential methods, bolts can be attached to very thin sheets of approx. 0.5 mm.