What are the Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

diabetes

Diabetes mellitus (diagnosis code ICD code E11 or E10) is one of the most common Metabolic diseases in industrial societies. Diabetes develops due to impaired insulin delivery from the pancreas. The disease comes in two forms: type 1 and type 2. Its main characteristic is that chronic hypoglycaemia (Hyperglycemia), its most severe form of complete insulin deficiency. That plays a role in the development of diabetes Pancreatic hormone insulin the crucial role. This hormone controls both protein and fat and sugar metabolism. Therefore, in diabetics, not only the sugar metabolism, but also the fat and protein metabolism is often disturbed.

What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have many similar symptoms, but differ in the cause. In both forms, insulin must be supplied from the outside.

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is one mostly hereditary autoimmune disease and is not influenced by external factors. Children are also affected by this. An estimated 320,000 people live with this disease in Germany. It causes the Langerhans cells (islet cells) of the pancreas to be completely destroyed by its own immune system. This allows the Body does not have its own insulin more to produce and also do not process sugar. Type 1 diabetes is kinda rare. Sick people have to inject insulin for the rest of their lives.

Type 2 diabetes

Diabetes is type 2 is the one most common variant of diabetes, more than 90% of all diabetics suffer from it. The disposition is genetically inherited and the disease almost always develops as a result of an unhealthy diet and lack of exercise, i.e. it is acquired. It used to be called “old-age diabetes” because it often only appeared at an advanced age. Because of your unhealthy lifestyle Nowadays more and more young people are suffering from "adult diabetes". This is shown by a weak insulin effect and simultaneous Insulin deficiency. Both symptoms can come in many different degrees. Many type 2 diabetics are overweight or even obese. Therefore, it happens that the precursors of the disease appear along with other ailments caused by being overweight.

How does diabetes mellitus show up?

Carbohydrates are processed into different sugars by the metabolism. Insulin is required for these to get from the blood to the cells. If there is a lack of insulin, no energy can be obtained and one comes into being Blood sugar congestion.

Typical Symptoms if you have type 2 diabetes

  • frequent and intense thirst,
  • Increased urination, as the body wants to excrete the higher proportion of sugar in the blood through the urine,
  • dry skin and itching,
  • Fatigue,
  • Poor performance,
  • Visual disturbances,
  • Weight loss and
  • Muscle spasms.

Type 2 diabetes develops over a long period of time. An early diagnosis is often not possible because patients feel healthy for a long time.

In type 1 diabetes, the signs appear much earlier, but are not very different from type 2 signs. Diabetics often have one attacked immune system, which is noticeable, for example, in poorer wound healing. They are prone to urinary tract and skin infections and are prone to periodontal disease.

How do you diagnose diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus can be detected using several methods. One of them is the Blood sugar test on an empty stomach. If the value is always above 126 mg / dl (= 7 mmol / l) after repeated repetition, the affected person is in all probability suffering from diabetes. (The fasting blood sugar value of a healthy person is 5.6 mmol / l).

Option 2 is that Glucose tolerance test, also called the glucose stress test. It provides information about how well the organism can process sugar. To do this, the test person drinks a glass of water with 75 mg of dissolved glucose. Normally the blood sugar level now rises rapidly. But it should also sink again quickly. If the value is still 200 mg / dl after two hours, the person concerned is probably ill.

HbA1c is a component of the red blood pigment hemoglobin. Sugar molecules can dock onto these. One must assume diabetes if the value is above 6.5%.

Proper nutrition for diabetes

Basically, diabetics should eat a fresh and balanced diet. Are on the menu Fruits, vegetables and whole grains, everything that is also good for healthy people. A low-carbohydrate diet with lots of high-quality proteins and high-quality fats (unsaturated fatty acids) is ideal. Although it is now known that people with Type 2 diabetes can actually eat anything, there is still a rumor that they have to keep a strict diet. It is by no means necessary to renounce sugar.

When treating Type 1 diabetes nutrition plays almost no role. However, sufferers need to know how high the carbohydrate content is in the food they eat. From this they determine the amount of insulin to be injected. Treatment aims to To lower blood sugar, blood lipid and blood pressure values ​​in the long term in a reasonable range.

Obese patients should lose weight if possible in order to activate the metabolism and prevent long-term damage. Radical cures are not suitable, however. A long-term strategy makes more sense. The German Diabetes Society (DDG) has many tips on this topic.

How is Diabetes Treated?

Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic diseases in the western world. Thus there is a lot of information and recommendations for patients. The goal of therapy is one favorable blood sugar controlso that acute complaints are kept within limits and long-term consequences are avoided. Typical long-term effects of diabetes are kidney damage, heart attacks, strokes and amputations.

As Basic treatment become Change of diet and lots of exercise recommended. The type of food you eat affects how much your blood sugar level rises after you eat it. It is important to avoid blood sugar spikes after meals. Together with enough exercise, the values ​​can improve so much that an initial insulin resistance even turns into insulin tolerance. The Insulin therapy provides for the insulin deficiency to be compensated for by syringes, pumps or pens. If a type 2 diabetic has a body mass index of over 40 kg / m², gastric surgery can be helpful if the weight can no longer be regulated otherwise.

Can you cure diabetes?

For decades, the disease was considered incurable, but new research is making Hope for a cure. There Type 2 diabetes is almost always the result of an unhealthy lifestyle, the symptoms can decrease again with a healthy life. Many of the carbohydrates we eat today are superfluous and particularly harmful to diabetics.

A low-carbohydrate diet increases the quality of life decisively, as obesity is reduced. This is considered to be the greatest risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Many type 2 diabetics no longer need insulin after a significant weight reduction.

Type 1 diabetes is until now not curable. Here, however, medical professionals have high hopes for the Stem cell research.

Diabetes rehab

The aim of staying in a diabetes rehab clinic is to normalize and stabilize blood sugar levels. As specialized institutions offer Diabetes rehab clinics excellent therapy concepts. Good results are achieved above all in obesity-diabetes type 2 patients. You learn Competencies in dealing with their illnessin order to avoid consequential damage in the long term.

In such a clinic, patients can be properly adjusted even with a fresh diagnosis. Since the disease is often associated with arterial hypertension, patients in rehabilitation usually receive one Hypertension training. In the specialist clinic, they are motivated to change their lives at home too. After gastric surgery, a stay in rehabilitation is almost always planned, because the diabetic first has to get used to the new life with smaller portions.

Last changed on: 08/06/2020

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