Makes education rude to a person
Prejudice-conscious education and upbringing in day-care centers
It is said that little children are not prejudiced yet. Or: Let the little ones play and don't burden them with something like that, the seriousness of life will come soon enough! Or: It is only by talking about it that the children get the idea that there is such a thing as prejudice! So it is much better to keep quiet about it!
Such and similar statements are certainly meant to be gentle and considerate. But fending off the topic of "prejudice and discrimination" means that children are left alone with unpleasant experiences that they already have in kindergarten:
- Jana is not allowed to play because she is a girl.
- Benjamin doesn't want the others to say "chocolate biscuits" to him, but they do it anyway.
- Songül and Murat are pushed out of the dolls' corner because they "talk so funny".
- Some say "slit eye" to Dim.
- A few children recently laughed at Carlotta's mom because she is fat.
- Robert has never been invited for a birthday. He suffers from muscle weakness.
There are experiences of being devalued, teased or marginalized by referring to a certain, mostly external, characteristic. It is no coincidence which features are highlighted. They reflect social assessments that exist along the lines of differentiation according to gender, origin, skin color, language, religious affiliation, sexual orientation, social class or physical characteristic. These evaluations say something about the social status of people or groups of people, about privileges or disadvantages in certain constellations and situations.
Children cannot be shielded from these realities. Awake and active as they are, they constantly gather information from their environment about the nature of this world, including the social world. Their "prejudices" express the stubborn conclusions that they draw, depending on their level of cognitive development, from their experiences with their bodies and from observations of their social and material environment. Observations show that even toddlers perceive differences and that they are influenced by social assessments of these differences as early as the age of three.
What do we know about prejudice in children?
In German-speaking countries, there has been a lack of research into when and how children begin to relate to differences in people such as their skin color, their origin, their gender, disabilities and social status. Most of the available studies come from the USA (Mac Naughton 2006, p. 3). Glenda Mac Naughton, educational scientist in Australia, has systematized the research results in a current overview according to the areas of culture of origin / skin color, gender, disability and socio-economic diversity and also compiled the findings on the effectiveness of educational interventions:
Skin color / origin (1)
- Children start at 9 months, different ones Skin color perceive. By the age of three they are aware that people differ in terms of skin color and hair structure.
- Both children of the white majority and of non-white minority groups already have a positive image of whites and a negative image of blacks at the age of three (ibid., P. 4).
- Children between the ages of 5 and 8 express rejection of people who speak a different language than they do themselves, and they associate recognized professions with light skin color (ibid., P. 6).
- One-sidedness and prejudices must be addressed directly and continuously made an issue.
- Being together in a group with children who have different external characteristics does not in itself change the prejudices of three to five year olds.
- If the joint learning is not combined with the explicit questioning of one-sidedness and prejudice, it can even lead to prejudices among the children being intensified.
Disabilities / physical peculiarities
- Children aged three and over respond to disabilities based on how obvious they are. The more obvious the disability, the more aware they are of the difference.
- In children between three and eight years of age, there are both positive and negative attitudes towards it Disabilities ascertain.
- Children with disabilities are far more likely to face rejection from their peers than children without disabilities (2).
- Between the ages of five and eight, children express prejudices and stereotypes about disabled people and describe them as "not normal".
- In institutions where disabled and non-disabled children learn together, there is no automatic good contact between them.
- Being together can lead to a negative self-esteem in the disabled children if they often experience that they are rejected and constantly experience themselves as less competent.
- When educators consciously encourage contacts and explicitly make respect for children with disabilities an issue, non-disabled children show a positive attitude towards their peers with disabilities.
- If it is completely up to the children who they want to play with, non-disabled children stay among themselves and disabled children are not included in their play. (ibid., p. 12)
- The role model of the educators is important: If educators behave respectfully and behave towards disabled people and involve them, the probability is higher that the children will also respect disabled people.
- By the age of three, children are aware of their gender identity. What is meant is the knowledge of being biologically female or male and accepting this fact (ibid., P. 16). This includes the perception of anatomical features and their assignment to gender.
- By the age of three, children also know which gaming preferences, behaviors and expectations the adults in their immediate vicinity associate with their gender.
- Children develop gender-stereotyped behaviors and feelings at an early age. They are increasingly clinging to it and behaving in accordance with stereotypical notions of how boys and girls should behave.
- Between the ages of three and eight, children show prejudice and a clear demarcation from children of the opposite sex.
- Children tend to see the male role as desirable and rate "male activities" higher.
- Educators in day-care centers react differently to girls and boys. They do it in a way that solidifies stereotypical gender roles.
- If gender stereotypes are deliberately questioned in kindergarten, slight changes only become apparent after months of intervention and even then are not permanent.
- Gender stereotypical behaviors and attitudes have an impact on career choices and educational opportunities. The resulting disadvantage still affects girls and women in particular (ibid., P. 18).
- The data on this is very thin. The few studies indicate that children perceive socio-economic differences as early as kindergarten age and begin to develop stereotypical ideas (ibid., P. 22).
- At kindergarten age, children differentiate between "poor" and "rich".
- "Poor" and "rich" are the opposites in their first notions of socio-economic group membership.
- Elementary school children accept economic inequality. You express stereotypical ideas about social mobility and class advancement / relegation.
- Friendship relationships are often located within the same socio-economic group.
- Children of higher social status are viewed better than children of lower socio-economic status. The latter are more often rejected as playing partners.
So social inequality, prejudice and discrimination are also children's affairs from an early age. The messages that they use to explain the world come from their caregivers, from the media and from their environment. Among them are ideologizations, misinformation and distortions of reality. Children learn from what their caregivers say, do or fail to do. The inactivity of adults also helps them to categorize: If adults, for example, allow teasing or exclusion to happen, do not offer any resistance, no examples of solidarity and civic engagement can be experienced, then children can conclude that injustices such as the devaluation and exclusion of people are "normal" in this world and have to be accepted.
The effects differ depending on which social group a child belongs to. If they are devalued on the basis of certain external characteristics and this corresponds to marginalization and non-acceptance of their family or reference group in society, they have to struggle with this ascription of inferiority. But also for children of the group that is privileged and socially recognized in a certain characteristic, the stereotypical and derogatory messages about others are a problematic basis for their social learning and action. The belief in one's own superiority combined with the idea of inferiority of others relies on the differences and ignores the similarities between people. Empathy for others can only develop with difficulty, solidarity with others against injustices is unlikely. Empathy and solidarity are necessary, however, in order to assume civil society responsibility for humane and just conditions. Accepting it is also a matter of common sense, because injustice and marginalization ultimately threaten everyone.
The danger associated with exclusion and discrimination of restricting and limiting the educational entitlements and development potential of children must alert adults - especially educational professionals. And encourage them to look into it and become aware of the existence and effects of prejudice and discrimination.
Reflect on your own practice for prejudices and their effects
Prejudice-conscious education and upbringing starts with the adults who have to do with the youngest children: educators in day-care centers (3). It is expressly not a question of having to be free of prejudice as "role models" for children and parents, because this is simply impossible.
Nobody is free from prejudice. Everyone thinks in generalizations, evaluates an entire group on the basis of a single experience or without any personal experience. The opinion is often held that prejudices are "positive" in the sense that they help sort out the many impressions that one is exposed to on a daily basis. It cannot be denied that categorizations help to order experiences and sensory stimuli. They are necessary cognitive strategies for the regulation of perception: One cannot Not categorize.
But this cannot legitimize prejudices. They need to be reflected in their effects. A distinction must be made between the effects of prejudices in the personal-private or in the professional-public context. "Private" prejudices have consequences for oneself in particular: one avoids certain groups or looks for them, one does not get to know them or is only with their own kind. Your own prejudices can make the radius within which you gain experience very narrow.
The consequences of prejudices that come into play in a public setting are completely different, especially from people who hold a position of power and whose ideas about other people have a major influence on decisions and processes, e.g. in educational institutions. Teachers are among those people who have more power in relation to children and whose values and norms have a great influence on the children they deal with, especially small children. Positive prejudices about the social group a child belongs to can encourage the child to make an effort and achieve a lot. Conversely, negative and derogatory prejudices against the social reference group of children can lead to them not trusting themselves and adopting the negative image that the educators have of them in their self-image. For this reason, it is important for educators to continuously reflect on themselves as pedagogical actors. One question is how one's own "cultural baggage" with all its traditional stereotypical and derogatory ideas about certain groups affects today's professional behavior. And also what constraints and contradictions in everyday working life lead to devaluing childish behavior, justifying exclusion, playing down teasing, showing little understanding and empathy for certain children and families, etc. If the connection is recognized, problem solutions can really be worked on - and blame on children and parents can be omitted.
In a workshop on the subject of discrimination, educators collect the labels for children that are common in their day-care center. There are a few: "Stänkerfritze", "Kicherliese", "Sleeping pill", "Princess and the pea", "Crybaby", "Luftikus", "Trample" - often said affectionately. But as a collection it becomes clear that the labels always have something offensive about them, because they attribute certain characteristics to a child and automatically ignore other aspects of their person. During the evaluation, the educators make an interesting discovery: Such labels are then used when children appear with a "specialty" and thereby "disturb" the process. The processes are so tied to a certain activity at a certain pace that children "disturb" when they are slower or faster, when they cry or giggle, when they do not want to do something or do something completely different. So what is the function of the labels? "To press all children to a certain mediocrity", say the educators and recognize in it a central law of movement of schools: the homogenization of the learning groups. It is a law that can be dispensed with in day-care centers, because fortunately there are neither grades nor staying in a seat here. It is also diametrically opposed to our efforts to "respect diversity". Why does it creep in anyway? It is an important point to continue reflecting on practice here: What makes us push for homogeneity without recognizable institutional pressure? Is it an anticipation of school pressures that we have already internalized? Why don't we notice that homogenization runs counter to our aspiration to take every single child seriously? And what about recognizing differences in the team? Is it allowed to commit to "extraordinary" ideas or achievements in the team or to opinions that differ from the majority opinion? (Example from the KINDERWELTEN project, www.kinderwelten.net).
Such self-reflection as a reflection of one's own practice cannot be carried out for oneself, it has to be done in a team of colleagues. By including different points of view, the reflection can become more differentiated and, above all, effective for action by helping to justify team decisions to change practice and make them binding. However, this is only possible if there is professional understanding within the team. It is at the core of team development processes and must not be confused with friendly interaction with one another. A professional understanding develops through the continuous examination of goals and procedures, through the illumination of theories and terms that contribute to the fact that a common language is increasingly spoken in the team.
Educational disadvantage starts early
What do successful educational processes depend on? Education, understood as the subjective process of appropriation in which people form an image of the world, means the processes in which one forms an image of oneself, of others and of wider world events. These processes always take place in a certain socio-cultural context in which there is a traditional way of dealing with differences, precisely the differences according to gender, origin, disability and socio-economic status. The context refers to the different starting positions of children, which influence their access to the world. Brain research emphasizes the importance of attachment relationships that provide security and orientation as the basis for curiosity, activity and exploring the environment.
But not all children grow up in secure attachment relationships and in stimulating surroundings. There are significant differences in how children are embedded in linguistic communication. If they have few caregivers, who also live in a narrow, closed world and are only interested in a few, communication remains poor. A lot then escapes children. They cannot have many experiences because they are insecure and their curiosity is not challenged.Your brain receives little "food" to form the complex interconnections. Your chances increase if you can build bonds with people who help to open up further aspects of the objective and social world.
Stimulating kindergartens and relationships with educators who make their skills, interests and basic attitudes tangible can stimulate these children in particular to engage in educational processes. Provided that they convey to every child that they are welcome, protected and recognized in this place. For most small children, attending a kindergarten is not just the first experience with a foreign, public institution, which functions in many ways differently from family life. For small children, attending kindergarten is always associated with separation experiences from the closest and most important caregivers. You can master this "crisis" if the kindergarten is a place that gives you a positive response, also to your origin and your family: "You are right here, you are safe here, you have your place here. We see you, we want you to be fine, we are interested in what you already know and can do. And we give you something that might interest you. "
If children do not find anything in kindergarten that they can build on with their previous experience, they remain passive. If they also get the message that their domestic culture is "abnormal" or not important, they are insecure and inhibited and can hardly show their skills. Then they can hardly use the opportunities in kindergarten and do not develop any further. If, on the other hand, children are encouraged in who they are and what they bring with them, they are more likely to become active. If you experience respect and approval for your family and for your family culture, you can establish a connection between yourself and the kindergarten learning environment. They participate with confidence and joy and show a desire to learn.
What is needed are educational concepts that take different starting points and living conditions into account, without stigmatizing the children and without reducing their educational requirements: "All children are the same"on their rights to development and education, to identity and protection. "And every child is special"in terms of his requirements, his approach to the world, his experiences, his family culture.
Prejudiced education and upbringing
Prejudice-conscious education and upbringing is an educational approach that was developed in California and adapted for the conditions in Germany as part of the KINDERWELTEN project (Preissing / Wagner 2003). The "Anti-Bias Approach" by Louise Derman-Sparks and her colleagues (1989) relies on the conscious examination of differences and similarities and, at the same time, on a clear positioning against prejudice, discrimination and one-sidedness. This practical concept for day-care centers is based on four goals that build on one another:
- The first goal is to strengthen all children in their identity, which includes the recognition of their previous experiences and family cultures.
- The second goal is to enable all children to experience diversity by actively and consciously experiencing it.
- The third goal is to stimulate critical thinking about prejudice, one-sidedness and discrimination.
- The fourth goal is to support children in defending themselves against one-sidedness and discrimination.
The work on first goal "strengthening children in their identity" is initially rated as simple, as these are demands that are familiar from kindergarten pedagogy. However, the goal of strengthening identity goes beyond what is commonly meant by strengthening personal resources. The child's identifications with their social reference groups, above all with their family as the primary reference group, are understood as an inseparable part of their personal identity. It is about their recognition, because small children construct their image of themselves and of others from the evaluations of social reference groups that they perceive in their environment.
Educational professionals need to know about this. And they have to know how to find out which reference groups are important for the respective child and what characterizes the reality of these reference groups. If this is very different from their own, educational professionals have to admit their "blind spots": Anyone who is not a single parent needs information from single parents in order not to get caught up in stereotypical images that may be related to the unreflective notion of "ideal families" (Father - mother - child) orientate. Those who are well educated and (still) have a job may find it difficult to imagine what it is like not to have both. Those who are monolingual know little about what it is like to organize their lives in several languages.
Family walls contain large-format photos of the children's families, attached at eye level, in a clearly visible place in the kindergarten. The selection and compilation is done together with the families. You define who is one of the caregivers of your child, who makes up your family. If the educator dominates the definition with her normal conception of family, then parents and children whose families deviate from this norm have no confidence. If the people who are close to the child are really shown, the family wall creates an important link between family and kindergarten. They represent families as the primary reference groups of every single child: "This is me and this is my family!" This representation in turn makes it easier for the child to identify with the kindergarten: "I and my family are welcome at this place!" The family wall can be a place of comfort for children, and it is often the occasion for children to talk about similarities and differences.
in the second goall Prejudiced education is about all children "Enabling experiences with diversity". A source of diversity is consciously used, which is present in every group and to which every child can consequently have access, regardless of their other learning opportunities and requirements: That people differ in appearance, clothing, behavior, language, skills and habits . That they handle different objects and produce different things. That different things are important to them and that they explain the world differently. On the basis of respect and appreciation for the peculiarities of each individual child and their family (goal 1: strengthening of self and reference group identity), experiences with people who look and behave differently from themselves are specifically enabled and discussed. Children should feel comfortable with them and be able to develop empathy and respect for diversity.
Contact alone is not enough. There are heterogeneous groups that have been together for years and in which there is hardly any rapprochement. Diversity must be actively experienced. Educators must very consciously bring aspects of diversity into the children's attention. This can include what and how someone eats, where their grandparents live, how someone climbs stairs with a wheelchair, what they like to play with, who has which eye color and how many eye colors there are, as one says "egg" in different languages. Children have to have active and sensual experiences with differences: Bake flatbread together with Mounira's mom, move around in a wheelchair, style their hair like Ben's brother. Differences must be addressed in such a way that they challenge children cognitively and linguistically by encouraging them to compare, relate to one another and differentiate. Discussions about it should take place in a language that is respectful, simple, factual, sober and direct.
It is particularly important to find respectful words for their observations and feelings when the children's statements about other people appear drastic, derogatory or impolite. And at the same time to make it clear that it hurts people if you talk about them with disparagement. To be able to do this, adults need to understand where their own discomfort about differences lies. Prejudiced adults encourage children to be impartial about differences. They help them feel comfortable with differences.
Parents are invited to contribute to the multilingual reading festival by reading a book in their family language or telling a story in certain corners of the kindergarten. It is stimulating for all children: some of them experience that their parents are doing something important in kindergarten and they also have material for conversations at home. The others hear stories in a language they do not understand, but they get something from the sound, from the concentration of the listener. And they too experience that the parents of children who have not been so active up to now can contribute something important.
The third aim to stimulate critical reflection on prejudice, one-sidedness and discrimination, seems spontaneously difficult to educational professionals. However, you can rely on the fact that children from around the age of 4 are able to recognize images and behaviors as "unfair" or "untrue" that stereotype or discriminate against people. They need support from adults in the form of assistance and factual information when they themselves are discriminated against. They need to be able to express what they mind when they are teased or excluded. You have to find words for it. Only then can they identify and reject unfair behavior towards others as such. This requires from educators and teachers to conduct a conversation that helps children express their feelings and thoughts. A conversation that asks about something in common, something that all children have something to say about.
In order to be able to intervene in the event of prejudice and discrimination, adults must be convinced of their harmfulness and illegality. The critical examination of one-sidedness and prejudice calls for a clarification of one's own moral "navigation system": Which values are important to me and for which reasons - and how are they violated? Critical thinking reveals the justifications and weightings with which one would like to mitigate the consequences of discrimination and injustice - in order to spare oneself the need to intervene. But children need adults whose advocacy for justice is clearly recognizable. You have to assure children of safety and security.
Communication in the facility and the learning environment must be carefully checked and examined again and again: Is that fair? Is that fair? Is this the truth or is it a bias to make fun of people? How is our books doing? Can all children find identification offers here? Which experiences and external characteristics emerge and which do not?
Persona Dolls are very special dolls because, like children, they have a biography, a name, a family history. Like the children, they speak German or another language at home, they have light or dark skin, curly or straight hair, are blond or dark-haired ... They come to visit the children's group and become friends of the children. They report on their experiences, beautiful and also less beautiful, like Anna:
"This is Anna. She is five years old. She lives in Berlin with her mom Tine. Anna's favorite color is red. That's why she chose red shoes. She got a red bike for her birthday. She loves to ride with it. And fast like the wind! Anna has brown eyes. And brown skin. Just like her papa, he also has brown skin. Anna's mom says she got the brown skin from her papa, and the little ears she got from her mom And then she tickles Anna's ear and Anna has to laugh. There is something that Anna doesn't like at all: When people ask her: “Where are you from?” And then also want to touch her hair. Anna doesn't think that's nice because people only do that with her and not with the other children. She doesn't want strangers to touch her hair. What could Anna tell them if that happens again? Do you have any ideas? "
The fourth goal calls for this, also beyond the walls of the group room to take action against one-sidedness, prejudice and discrimination. Children must be able to experience that it is worth being critical and taking concrete action against injustice. There is a great danger here that the adult's point of view and ambition will dominate and one will lose sight of the goal of the actions: the strengthening of the children ("empowerment"), in that they experience themselves as capable and in solidarity with others because they are together stand up for a just cause.
Unfair and unjust incidents in the day care center are reasons to take action. That means, first and foremost, bringing them out of the gray area of concealment into the light of day. By making it public, you show that you disagree and do not want to accept something. It goes against the tendency to tone down, justify, or ignore grievances and is therefore a bold move. Once the unjust act has a name, it can no longer be so easily dismissed.
Children also develop their understanding of fairness and justice through experiences and observations outside of daycare. A beggar on the street, someone who is drunk, the woman in a wheelchair - that provokes many questions from the children. Why doesn't he have any money? What if the drunk doesn't even notice that a car is coming? How is the woman supposed to ride the subway with the wheelchair, the stairs are so high? With the answers and information they get, they expand their knowledge base. They relate themselves to it, make comparisons, discover contradictions and indignant: some people have two houses and the homeless person has none! There are only boys in this film, no girls! Saliha doesn't come along because her parents don't have any money. The youngsters in the playground do not let the little ones play and annoy them.
Children are indignant about specific cases of injustice that they understand well and when they can empathize with those involved. Then the desire arises in them to do something to end the injustice. Her ideas are also concrete, small, direct steps that may not have much effect from an adult perspective: collect some pocket money for the beggar, push the woman in a wheelchair so she can rest. It is important to support them in these endeavors and not to slow them down with a more complex worldview. Children do not ask the system question and are not intimidated by doubts or failures. They want to help and do something about unfairness.
In a group of children, the inscription "skin-colored" on the plaster pack becomes the topic. "What does that mean, what do you think?" asks the teacher. The children say that this patch matches their skin color. A small investigation follows: Children compare the plaster color with their skin color, first in the group, then with children in the schoolyard, then also in their families. They find that the term "skin color" is incorrect and also unfair because most children and adults are of a different skin color. You write a letter to the plaster manufacturer and in response you receive a package with clear plasters. The children are delighted, they think these plasters are fair! (reported in Derman-Sparks 1998, p. 11).
Education and social responsibility
Adults who work for justice and fight against injustice are important role models for children. With them you get to know people who also resist, say "no" to some things and do not accept them. They are role models who stand for change and encourage children not to accept everything. If children in the day care center experience that their teacher addresses unjust and unfair actions, they can learn that helplessness and powerlessness can be overcome. That the impulse "You can't do anything!" but there are alternatives.
These are important learning experiences in order to be able to act in social conditions that are characterized by social inequality, exclusion and discrimination. In which people are asked who accept civil society responsibility and show civil courage. Prejudice-conscious education and upbringing aims at educational processes in exactly this sense.
Working in a prejudice-conscious manner means asking critical questions about one's own professional behavior and its effects in the knowledge that one-sidedness and discriminatory attributions hinder children's learning and thus contribute to educational disadvantage.
This becomes concrete in the design of the learning environment and the interaction with children, also the cooperation with parents and in the team. In a nationwide project, in addition to 40 day-care centers, elementary schools and kindergarten schools are also participating for the first time in implementing prejudice-conscious education and upbringing (4).You take responsibility for a prejudiced culture of growing up that combines the right to education with protection against discrimination and claims both for all children.
- The project planned by Diehm / Kuhn (2005) on the perspectives of kindergarten children on ethnicity could provide results on this complex for the first time for the context here in Germany.
- In one study, 30% of disabled children stated that they had been rejected and excluded by the others (Mac Naughton 2006, p. 11).
- In the KINDERWELTEN project, a concept for further training and practical advice was developed and tested with educators in project facilities who had applied to participate in the project and thus for a three-year practical development with professional support (Wagner / Hahn / Enßlin 2006).
- "Qualification of pedagogical specialists for prejudice-conscious education and upbringing". The project is funded by the BMFSFJ and the Bernard van Leer Foundation as part of the federal program "Diversity is good for you" (2007-2010). The sponsor is the International Academy at the Free University of Berlin.
Note on working with Persona Dolls
Further training offers at www.kinderwelten.net
Project Kinderwelten / INA gGmbH at the Free University of Berlin (Ed.) (2008): Getting into conversation with children. Prejudice-conscious education and upbringing in day-care centers. A film by Roswitha Weck (DVD), available for postage from the Kinderwelten project office
Enßlin, Ute: Persona Dolls. Puppets tell stories, ask questions and listen. In: Betrifft Kinder 2004, Issue 1, pp. 24-26
Müller, Heike: Konstantin is born. Working with Persona Dolls. In: TPS 2007, issue 2, pp. 32-34
Krause, Anke: magic with method. Persona Dolls support dialogues with children. In: Betrifft Kinder 2007, Heft 3, pp. 13-17
Derman-Sparks, Louise / A.B.C. Task Force: Anti-Bias Curriculum: Tools for empowering young children. Washington D.C .: NAEYC 1989
Diehm, Isabell / Kuhn, Melanie: Ethnic distinctions in early childhood. In: Hamburger, Franz / Badawia, Tarek / Hummrich, Merle (eds.): Migration and education. About the relationship between recognition and unreasonableness in the immigration society. Wiesbaden: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften 2005, pp. 221-231
Mac Naughton, Glenda M .: Respect for diversity. An international overview. The Hague: Bernard van Leer Foundation 2006
Preissing, Christa / Wagner, Petra (ed.): Small children, no prejudices? Intercultural and prejudice-conscious work in day-care centers. Freiburg: Herder 2003
Wagner, Petra / Hahn, Stefani / Enßlin, Ute (eds.): Macker, Zicke, Trampeltier ... Prejudice-conscious education and upbringing in day-care centers. Training manual. Berlin: Verlag das netz 2006
Wagner, Petra (ed.): Handbook Children's Worlds. Diversity as an Opportunity - Basics of Prejudice-Conscious Education. Freiburg: Herder 2008
Project of the Institute for the Situation Approach in the International Academy INA gGmbH at the Free University of Berlin
Project management: Petra Wagner
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Tel .: 030 / 225032-28 / -33 / -34
Fax: 030 / 225032-35
Email: [email protected] or [email protected]
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