Why are duckweeds always in pairs

My secret

It includes a number of extinct species as well as 5 residential sections including:

Casual Loss (Kazaar and EMU)

Casuar and Emu from Casuaro-shaped separation or Australian ostrich ( Casuariformes), are large, flying birds with long necks and legs. They have long feathers that resemble coarse fur, but the head and neck are almost bare.

There are four types of casuaro-shaped days received:

  • Slempus Kazaire ( Casuarius Casuarius.);
  • Orange Kazaire ( C. unappenticulatus.);
  • Kazaire Muluk ( C. BENNETTI.);
  • Emu ( Dromaius Novaehollandiae.).

Cywician Distance (Kiwi)

Experts disagree with the exact amount of species that belong to the detachment of the jaws ( Apterygiforms.) But there are at least three: South Kiwi, Big Gray Kiwi and Small Gray Kiwi. According to the latest data, scientists have assigned two more types: Northern Brown and Kiwi Apteryx Rowi..

Birds at this distance are endemic to New Zealand. Kiwi are not weird birds with tiny, almost rudimentary wings. They are strict birds, the larvae and earthworms dig at night with their long and narrow beaks.

National bird of New Zealand, kiwi, vulnerable, including dogs introduced to these islands by European settlers hundreds of years ago.

Mando Department (Nanda)

There are only two types of nanda in the division of mandons ( Rhiformes.), both live in and the steppes of South America. These common birds have long feathers and three fingers on each leg; They also have claws on each wing that are used in protection.

Nanda looks similar to Strauss, but the degree of their relationship remains controversial among scientists. The height of Nanda is almost twice the size of the ostrich.

Ostrich-shaped detachment (Ostriffen)

The only surviving representative of the beach-like detachment ( Struthiformes.) - African ostrich ( Struthio Camelus.), which is considered a real record holder. Not only is it the tallest and heaviest live bird, so the ostrich can still develop a speed of up to 70 km / h, as well as running long distances at a speed of up to 50 km / h. Ostriches have the largest eyes among any vertebrate animals, and their eggs, weighing up to 2 kg, are the largest among modern birds.

Subclass Newbody

Newcomb. (Neognathae)birds have a much larger history reaching the Mesozoic era and this subclass includes 25 detachments, e.g.

Detachment aistoid or galley (storks, herons, ibisa etc.)

Detachment of birds aistoid or galley ( Ciconiiformes.) Includes HERLIN, storks, ibis and others, only more than 100 species. All of these birds are long-legged, strict carnivorous animals that live in wetlands. Their long, flexible fingers have no membrane, which means they can stand thick dirt and not sink. Most of them are lone hunters who slowly pursue their prey before being quickly hit by their powerful keys; They feed on fish, amphibians and insects.

The earliest famous ancestors of today's Berlin, storks and their relatives are the era of the late, about 40 million years ago. The closest living relatives are flamingo.

Petrel-Detment (Albatrosses and Petrels)


Birds at the Petrbild department ( Procellariformes.), also known as the tube, belong to more than 125 living species in four extant families:

  • Burin ( Procellariidae.);
  • Albatrovoy ( Diomedeideie.);
  • Kachrkovy ( Hydrobatidae.);
  • Ducky burin ( Procellariidae.).

These birds spend most of their time in the ocean, flying over the water, and rushing in to catch fish and other small ones. The tubules are colonial birds that return to the ground only for reproduction (the places of reproduction differ by type, but in general these birds prefer remote islands and stormy coastal rocks), they are monogamous and form long-term ties between mating pairs.

The greatest glimpse of the separation is the wandering albatroster, the scope of which the wing reaches 3.25 m. Most small sight - Halocypta microsoma. - It has a wingspan of less than 30 cm.

Sparrow department (sparrows, starlats, crows, etc.)

Sparrow department ( Passeriformes.), are the most diverse group of birds made up of more than 5,000 species including: Sparrow, Chapters, Droces, Starlats, Crows, Swallows, Larks, and many others. These birds have a unique leg structure that allows them to enjoy thin twigs, reeds, and fragile grass trunks; Some species can even be kept on vertical surfaces, including mountain slopes and belly trunks.

In addition to the unique structure of the legs, the sparrows differ in their complex vocalization. Although these are not the only birds capable of outputting sounds with the help of syrics, this organ is the most developed in the Sparrow-like. Each member of the squad has unique sounds, some of them are simple, others are long and complex. Some species study their parents' vocalization while others are born with an innate ability to sing.

Gagaro-shaped detachment (gagars)

Detachment of birds ( Gaviiformes.) Contains five living species of Gagar: Red Changaru, Chernozey Gagaru,
WhitAusy Gagaru, Cherveli Gagaru and blonde Gagaru. Gags - freshwater waterfowl common in the northern parts and Eurasia. The legs that are behind their bodies provide bird power in water, but make these birds awkward on land. Gaviiformes. Fully connectable paws, elongated bodies, dagger-shaped beaks, well suited for capturing fish and other aquatic invertebrates.

These birds go to the ground to nest and build their nests near the water. Both parents take care of chicks who sit on the back of adults for protection until they are ready to be ready for independent living.

Doveless distance (pigeons and thorns)

Powder department ( Columbiformes.) Includes more than 300 species of pigeons including sizy pigeons, vilar, common canyon, ring devices, overcrowded pigeons, etc. Pigeons are small and medium-sized birds characterized by short legs, purple color, short necks and small heads. Pigeons are endowed with short beaks at the top, but softer at the base.

These birds are common in the meadows, fields, deserts, agricultural land, and cities. They also live, inhabit and also to a lesser extent.

Replacement of Hussy (ducks, geese, swans, etc.)

Bird replacement by Hussy ( Anseriformes.) Contains ducks, geese, swans, etc., which are usually somewhat irritable due to loud screams. There are approximately 150 living species in this division. Most prefer freshwater habitats like lakes, streams, and ponds, but some of them live in maritime regions, at least during the breeding season.

All street-shaped birds are equipped with a weave paw that makes it easier for them to navigate the water. However, you may be surprised to find out that most of these birds are exclusively herbivores; Few species feed on insects, mollusks, plankton, fish, and crustaceans. Street shapes often turn out not just on the back, not just because of the people who love their meat, but also because of the coyotes, foxes, raccoons, and even striped skunks.

Tooth market (dyatlah, toucanans, etc.)

On the detment squad ( Piciformes.) Party, tucani, carp, non-nunuli, monastery, brahigalba, yakamars, medicinal barrels, etc. are only about 400 species. These birds love in trees; And the most famous distance birds Piciformes.- Dyatlah - tirelessly scoop out holes in the barrels with their beaks. Some species are antisocial and show aggression towards other species or even their birds, while others do well in large groups.

Thanks to the structure of the paw, Oti easily climbs on belly trunks. In many Piciformes. There are also strong legs and tails, as well as thick skulls that protect their brains from the effects of chopping the wood. Beak shapes vary among members of this division.

Dyatla and its related species are found in most of the world, with the exception of Madagascar and.

Replacement of cranes (cranes, lyshi, shepherd, etc.)

Japanese zhuravl.

Crane department ( Gruiformes.) Contains about 200 living species. Detachment representatives vary in size and appearance, but are usually characterized by their short tails, long necks, and rounded wings.

Long-legged and necked cranes are the largest members replacement; The Indian crane height of more than 1.7 m has a wingspan of 2.5 m.

J.the compensation also includes birds that are not suitable for other replacements in their own specials. Currently the separation has 9 living families.

Gadgets are goat shape

In the depth of the goat shape ( Caprimulgiformes.There are approximately 100 species of bird species common around the world, with the exception of Antarctica. Their patterned feathers are often quite motley, so they will fit nicely into the preferred one for them (these birds usually nest either on the ground or on trees).

In the modern classification, the departure division is number 5 families:

  • Guacharo ( Steatororithidae.);
  • Flagshort ( Podargidae.);
  • Giant idol ( Nyctibidae.);
  • Soviet Guatoes ( Aeghothelidae.);
  • Real goatoes ( Caprimulgidae.).

Peeling cucubula (cuckoo)

Ordinary cuckoo

Permanent department ( Cuculiformes.) Contains the only Cocoschkov family that has around 140 species.

Cuckoo is medium-sized, fine-bodied birds that live in and Savannah and mainly feed insects and insect larvae. Some types of cuckoo manners are known to be clustered in other people's nests with the action of their eggs, and when the chick sucks on the cuckoo lever it sometimes pushes other chicks out of the nest!

Replacement of chrooty (measuring devices, pheasants, Rebiddges and Kraxs)

Ordinary pheasan.

Some representatives curo-shaped ( Galliformes.) Known to people who love to eat birds, including the pheasans, quail, turkeys, rangers, and others. In total, this division has 5 families and around 250 species. Many of the lesser known birds are prone to intense hunting pressures and are now facing extinction. Other squad representatives such as chickens, quail, and turkey were fully domesticated and often raised in huge numbers on farms around the world.

The smallest view of the churo-shaped quail, which is less than 15 cm in length; The greatest view from the department is North American Wild Turkey, which can reach the length of more than 1 m and can reach around 8 kg.

Pelican-shaped detachment (pelicans, herons and ibisa)

To the division of pelican-like ( Pelecaniformes.) Family families: Pelikan, Alarm, Kitsaal, Halloras and Ibisova. These birds are characterized by interfluent paws and their various anatomical adaptations for fishing - their main source of food; Many species are excellent divers and swimmers.

Pelicans are the most famous squad representatives, have special leather sacks at the bottom of the beak that allow birds to catch and hold the fish effectively. There are eight types of pelicans in total.

Tretment penguin (Pigvin)

Penguin-shaped detachment ( Sphenisciformes.) Contains six clans and around 20 species of penguins. The most diverse are topiary penguins, a genus that includes 6 species.

Parrots are monogamous and make strong pairs. Most parrots eat fruit, seeds, nuts, flowers, and nectar almost exclusively, but some species can have (e.g., invertebrate larvae) or small animals (e.g., snails).

Mouse birds

Bird camel Coliiformes. Features six live species of bird mice that pet themselves on trees in search of fruits, berries, and random insects. These birds are restricted to open forests, shrubs, and savanes of sub-Saharan Africa. Usually they will flock to thirty people, with the exception of the breeding season.

An interesting fact of the mouse birds is that they were much more numerous late than today; In fact, some naturalists refer to these almost unknown birds as "live fossils".

Rakchevy department (kingfisher, pike, rakshi, etc.)

Raksha-shaped ( Coraciiformes.) - This is a looser, mostly carnivorous bird that gives it Kingfisher, Chubs, Earthlings, Sulfur, Lifestyle, etc., some members of this division of Loners, and others form large groups. Many species are brightly painted, and each has three legs with fingers and one back facing forward. Coraciiformes. They love to nest in the holes in the trees or to dig tunnels in the mud on the coast of the rivers.

According to the modern classification, the division of Rakshoye is divided into 6 families:

  • Winters ( Alcedinidae.);
  • Earth raksh ( Brachypteraciidae.);
  • Summer or real raksh ( Coraciidae.);
  • Church ( Meropidae.);
  • Momotovy ( Momotidae.);
  • Todium ( Todidae.).

Detachment rzhanko-shaped

Detachment rzhanko-shaped ( Charadriformes.There are approximately 350 species of birds that live along the coastlines. Rzhanko-shaped are experienced pilots; Some species hold the longest and most exciting migrations in the bird class.

Rzhanko-shaped feed on a wide variety of foods, including sea worms, crustaceans and raindrops, but what is surprising, they almost never eat fish!

Square row (cooler and rinks)

Representatives of the detachment of waves ( Pteroclidiformes.) are second-sized birds, relatives for Africa, Madagascar, the Middle East, Central Asia, India, and the Pyrenees Peninsula. There are 16 types of waves, which are related to two types.

Ryabkovy is distinguished by their small heads, short necks, short coated struts and torn bodies. Their tails and wings are long, and sharp, well suited for a quick start to escape from predators.

Council replacement (owls, owls, Fibin, Sipuhi, etc.)

Social replacement ( Strigiformes.) It is composed of more than 200 species, medium and large birds, endowed with strong claws, good hearing and keen vision. As they hunt at night, owls have particularly large eyes (they help see in the dark), as well as binocular vision that helps them see better prey.

These are opportunistic carnivorous animals that feed everything - from small mammals, reptiles, and insects to other birds. Without teeth, they swallow their victims completely and in about six hours, indigestible, indigestible parts of the eaten extraction.

Owls live on every continent except Antarctica. They are found in a variety of terrestrial habitats ranging from dense forests to wide open grasslands.

Replacement falcon (prey birds)

Black crane.

Falcon ( Falconiformes.), Or birds of prey, including eagles, hawks, korshuns, secretary birds, skop, falcons, vultures, and vultures, only about 300 species. Representatives of distancing are formidable predators with powerful claws, swirling beaks, sharp vision and wide wings, well suited for flight and immersion. Falcusche hunt in the afternoon, feeding fish, small mammals, reptiles, other birds and abandoned padal.

The largest predatory bird - the and-condor, the scope of the wings, 3 m of which approach. One of the smallest painting birds It is a steppe curved, with a wing area less than 75 cm.

Detachment (Hummingbirds and Striges)

Detachment of haircuts or long, ( Apodiformes.) It is the most numerous in the class of birds after sparrows, it has about 450 types of haircuts and hummingbirds. In the classification of Silib - Alques this cadre rises to the supervision Apodimorphae.in which the hummingbirds are highlighted in a separate detachment Trochiforms..

Birds are characterized by small sizes, short legs, and tiny paws. Hummingbirds and haircuts included in this group also have numerous devices for a professional flight.

Hummingbirds are common in various parts of North, Central, and South America, and the haircuts can be found on every continent of the world except Antarctica. The earliest famous members Apodiformes. were fast birds that evolved in northern Europe about 55 million years ago in the early Eocene epoch; Hummingbirds appeared a little later, parting with early haircuts after the late Eocene.

Torgon-shaped detachment (Trunkrone and Kvzal)

In the high squad ( Trogoniformes.) There are about 40 species of tomblows and warriors, tropical forest birds that are southern in the Americas, South Asia and Africa. These birds are distinguished by their short beaks, rounded wings, and long tails, and many of them are brightly painted. They feed on main insects and fruits, as well as build their nests in trees or abandoned insects.

Mysterious, as well as their vague alien names, trogans and the convoy were difficult to classify: in the past, scientists associated these birds with all detachments, from the sovereign and the parrot to Tinamu-shaped. Recently, however, molecular data suggests that the tribes are closely related to the rocked one, with which they could be divided another 50 million years ago. These birds are rarely found in wildlife and they are considered particularly valuable finds by ornithologists.

Toraco Department (Turako and Bananoades)

Torse ( Musophagidae.) - detachment of birds previously associated with cuckoo. Recent genetic analysis confirmed that this is a separate detachment.

Musophagidae.- These are medium-sized birds, endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, where they live in forests and savannah. They fly badly but move quickly around the trees. The food is mainly fruit and, to a lesser extent, leaves, kidneys, and flowers that occasionally eat small insects, snails, and slugs.

These are flock birds that do not migrate but are collected in family groups of up to 10 people. Many species can produce piercing alarms that prevent other animals of the presence of predators or humans.

Flame-shaped detachment (flamingo)

Flamingo-shaped ( Phoenicopteriforms.) - This is an ancient detachment of birds consisting of six species from the genus Flamingo. These birds use their special beaks to remove tiny plants and animals from the water. Flamingo are very social birds that form large colonies made up of several thousand individuals. They synchronize mating and masonry eggs on the dry season, and when the water level drops, flamingos build their nests on the bare dirt. Their preferred habitats include lagoons, mangrove sponge, large alkaline or salted lakes, etc.

Birds - highly organized warm-bloodedanimals adapted to flight. Due to the large numbers and widespread on Earth, they play an extremely important and varied role in nature and human economic activities. More than 9 thousand modern bird species are known.

General characteristics of the organization of birds in relation to their adaptersfly to flight:

Cowardly. 45. Topography of parts of the body of birds: 1 - forehead; 2 - bridle; 3 - subject; 4 - crumbling ear; 5 - cereals; 6 - spin; 7 - Ability to 8 - upper cover tails; 9 - steering springs; 10 - lower luminous tails; 11 - frugality; 12 - shin; 13 - tail finger; 14 - Tsevka; 15 - Boca; 16 - abdomen; 17 - CIRCLE; 18 - neck; 19 - chin; 20 - cheeks; 21 - connected; 22 - Secondary; 23 - shoulder springs; 24 - upper crumbling wings; 25 - secondary handles; 26 - primary flies.

    Respiratory system - lung.Breathe with the flying bird doubleneo:Gas exchange in the lungs occurs both when inhaling and when exhaling when atmospheric air is released air bags.enters the lungs. Thanks to the double breath, the bird does not suffocate during the flight.

    A heart four-chamberall organs and fabric are supplied with pure arterial blood. As a result of the intense life process, a lot of heat is generated, which is held with feather cover. Therefore all birds - warm-bloodedanimals with constant body temperature.

    Options and types of finite products of nitrogen exchange are the same as in reptiles. There is only one bladder because it has to lighten the bird's body weight.

    As in all vertebrates, the bird's brain has five departments. Most developed great hemispheres of Front MozHasmooth bark and Cerebellum,thanks to which birds have a good coordination of movements and complex forms of behavior. Orientation of birds in space is carried out with acute visual and hearing.

    Bird separators, most species are characterized by sexual dimorphism. The females are only developed left ovary.Internal fertilization, direct development. Birds of most species give eggs in nests,heat them with the warmth of their body (rapid), hatched chick feed. Depending on the degree of development, chicks hatched from eggs nestsand brutbirds.

Features of the building and important activity

In birds, the head is small, the neck is long and extremely mobile. The jaws are robbed of teeth, elongated, forming a beak clothed by a horny case. The shape of beak varies widely due to the variety of food items. There are large eyes on the sides of the head, and under them there are external hearing aids.

The front legs are converted into an airplane wing. The hind limbs have a variety of structure depending on the habitats and food mountain railways. The bottom of the legs and fingers are covered with horny scales. The tail is short, equipped with a fan of steering springs and in different birds of an unequal structure.

leatherbirds are thin, dry, with no glands. The only exception is the cleansing gland, which is located under the root of the tail. It highlights a bold fashion secret on which the bird smears feathers with the help of beak. Iron is highly developed with waterfowl. The skin is covered with a kind of horny cover made of feathers. Poultry feathers are used for the purposes of thermoregulation, which primarily maintains heat, creates a "streamlined" body surface, and protects the skin from damage. Although the bird's body is usually completely covered with feathers (with the exception of some of the collected areas - around the eyes, at the base of the beak, etc.), the feathers do not grow all over the surface of the bird's body. Flying bird feathers are only marked on certain skin areas (body parts, suspension feathers - non-carrier feathers - APLIAIS) and do not cover the whole body uniformly.

Cowardly. 46th APLIADMENT AND PARTERIRIA on the bird's body. Pames are identified by Pteryl


Cowardly. 47.Building. fly feather: A - general view; B - The structure of the structure of Opala; 1 - Very 2 - Tail; 3 - foam; 4 - beards of the first order; 5 - beard of the second order; 6 - hook.

The overwhelming majority of birds have contour and dying feathers. The contour feather consists of a rod, an oblast and opp (Fig. 47). The farm, formed by numerous reinforcements from the core on both sides of plates - first-order bears, on which thinner, connected to each other, with hooks of the beard of the second order. As a result, the adhesive sheet is a light elastic sheet that is easily restored in the event of a break (e.g. the wind). The contour feathers form the flying planes of the wings, the tail and also give the body body a streamlined surface. The dying feathers have a thin rod and deprive a beard of a second order, thanks to the one on which they do not have whole potholes. Running springs are under contour. Their main function is to maintain the warmth of the bird's body.

skeletonvögel (Fig. 48) is characterized by durability and lightness. Strength is provided by the early instances of a number of bones, the presence of air cavities in them.

structure skullthe birds resemble the structure of the skull of reptiles, but differ by a great lightness, a mass brain box that ends with the beak, and with the sides that support large societies.

Cowardly. 48. Skeleton of birds: 1 - lower jaw; 2 - skull; 3 - cervical vertebrae; 4 - thoracic vertebrae; 5 - shoulder bone; 6 - fologists and finger bones; 7 - bones of the forearm; 8 - blade; 9 - ribs; 10 - basin; 11 - caudal vertebrae; 12 - cork bones; 13 - femur bone; 14 - bones of the leg; 15 - TSEVKA; 16 - Falangie fingers; 17 - keel breasts; 18 - greeting; 19-cracoid; 20 - Clavicle.

In an adult bird, the bones of the skull box will grow to the point of complete disappearance of the sutures.

Spine,in addition to all terrestrial vertebrates consist of five departments - the neck, the infant, lordost, OPrilat and tail. Only the neck department retains greater mobility. Thoracic vertebrae can be calmed, and the lumbar tracts and sacral grow together with each other (sacrifice) and with the pelvic bones. Some bones of the shoulder girdle grow: a saber-shaped blade with a crow, a collarbone with each other, which ensures the strength of the shoulder girdle, to which the front legs are attached - wings. They contain all the typical departments: shoulder, elbow and radiation bones of the forearm and the brush, the bones of which grow. Only three are saved by fingers.

The pelvic strap provides a reliable support for the hind limbs achieved by burning the iliac bones throughout the sacrum. Due to the fact that pelvic (pubic) bones do not grow and are widespread, the bird can displace large eggs.

Powerful hind limbs are typical of all terrestrial animals. To strengthen the tibia, there is a small Bertovoy bone in a large Bertovoy. The bones of the butt grow together with part of the bones, are written off with the formation of the bone features of only birds - tsevki.Of the four fingers, usually three, are directed forward, one - back.

Breasts form the thoracic vertebrae, ribs and chest. Each edge is made up of two compartments of bones - spinal and abdominal muscles, which are articulated to be movable with each other, which provides an approach or thinning of the sternum from the spine with breathing. Birds in the birds are great and have a large edge - the keel, attached to the pectoral muscles, leading wings in motion.

Because of the great mobility and variety of movements mudlatalural.vögel shows a high degree of differentiation. The greatest development was achieved by pectoral muscles (1/5 total bird weight) attached to the chest of the sternum and lowering the wings. Located under the thoracic muscles, they provide lifting wings. The flight speed of birds is different: 60-70 km / h in ducks and

65-100 km / h in Sokol-Sapsana. The highest speed is marked with a black haircut - 110-150 km / h.

The powerful legs of the legs in birds that have lost the ability to fly allows you to move quickly around land (ostriches, on average, run at a speed of 30 km / h).

Birds' intensive motor activity requires high energy costs.

over digestive organization system.Novemberit has a number of functions. The food is grasped and held by a horny beak, in the oral cavity it is passed through saliva and moves to the esophagus. At the base of the neck, the esophagus grows onto the cross, particularly well developed in granular birds. The food is accumulated, swollen, and sometimes subjected to chemical processing. In the front is the glandy of the birds' stomach, the chemical treatment of the incoming food, in the back, muscular, its mechanical recycling. The walls of the muscular department work as millstones, delaying hard and coarse food. This is also promoted and sword forest pebbles. From the stomach lining one enters consistently into the duodenum, a thin and short intestine that ends with closer. Due to the underdevelopment of the rectum, birds often clear the intestines, which makes it easier for them. Powerful digestive glands (liver and pancreas) actively mark digestive enzymes in the cavity of the duodenum and process depending on its type for 1 to 4 hours. Large energy bills require maintaining a significant amount of feed: 50-80% of body weight per day in small birds and 20-40% in large ones.

In connection with the flight of birds have a special structure organnew breathing.Light birds are dense spongy bodies. Bronchi by entering the lungs, strong in them, are branched into the most subtle, blindly closed bronchiole, excreted by the network of capillaries, gas exchange occurs. Part of the large bronchi, not branched, extends beyond the lungs and expands into huge thin-walled airbags, the volume of which is often several times greater than the lung volume (Fig. 49).

Airbags are located between the various internal organs, and their branches pass between the muscles under the skin and in the bone cavity. Breathing breathing in a non-flying bird is carried out by changing the volume of the chest due to the approach or removal of the sternum from the spine. In flight, due to the work of the pectoral muscles, such a breathing mechanism is impossible, and it is carried out with the participation of airbags. When the wings are raised, the bags are stretched and the air through the nostrils is forcibly sucked into the lungs and then into the bags themselves. When the wings are lowered, the air bags are compressed and the air from them goes into the lungs, where gas exchange occurs. Gas exchange in the lungs on the breath and exhale was given a name double breathing.Its adaptive value is obvious: the more often the bird waves its wings, the more actively it breathes. In addition, airbags protect the bird's body from overheating during fast flight.

Cowardly. 49. Respiratory distress pigeon system: 1 - trachea; 2 - simple;

3 - airbags.

A high level of bird life is in a more perfect way cyclecompared to animals of earlier classes, they had complete separation of arterial and venous blood flows. This is due to the fact that the heart of birds is four chambers and is completely divided into the left artery and the right venous part. AORTA ARC is only one (right) and departs from the left ventricle. Pure arterial blood flows, which supplies all tissues and body organs.

Cowardly. 50. Indoor birds of birds: 1 - esophagus; 2 - iron stomach; 3 - spleen; 4 - stomach muscles; 5 - pancreas; 6 - duodenal intestine; 7 - small intestine; 8 - direct intestine; 9 - blind powers; 10 - cloaca; 11 - cross; 12 - liver; 13 - trachea; 14 - Sub-Believers; 15 - light and air bags; 16 - seeds; 17 - seeds; 18 - kidneys; 19 - ureter.

The right ventricular leaves the pulmonary artery, which carries in pale venous blood. Blood moves quickly with vessels, gas exchange occurs intensely, a lot of heat differs. The body temperature is kept constant and high (in different birds from 38 to 43.5 ° C). This leads to the overall increase in the bird's life processes.

In response to a decrease in the temperature of the external environment, the birds do not fall into dormancy, like amphibians and reptiles, and improve movement - nomads or flights, i.e.. H. Migrate to more favorable conditions for existence.

selectionthe finite products of metabolism are carried out by the large pelvic kidneys. The bladder is missing. As with most reptiles, the product of nitrogen exchange is uric acid. When tapping, the water in the urine is absorbed and returned to the body, and the thick urine is mixed with the remains of undigested food and is displayed.

brainBirds differ from brain reptiles with large hemispheres of the front brain and the cerebellum. Birds own keen visionand excellent Listen.They have big eyes, especially in night and twilight birds. The inclusion of vision is double, which is achieved by changing the curvature of the lens and distances between the lens and the retina. All birds have color vision. The hearing body is represented by the inner, middle ear and outer auditory canal. The sense of smell is bad, with the exception of a few species.

reproductionBirds are distinguished by a number of progressive features: 1) fertilized eggs, coated with a robust shell, are shifted not only in the external medium, but in special structures - nests; 2) eggs develop under the influence of the warmth of the parents of the parents and do not depend on the accidental weather typical of the development of egg eggs, amphibians and reptiles; 3) nests are protected from enemies by parents; 4) Chicks are not left at the mercy of fate, but for a long time they have been fed, protected and trained by parents, which contributes to the preservation of young people.

Fertilization in birds internally. In connection with the laying of large eggs, driving birds only the left ovary is developed in women. The birds have the largest rivory kingdom of the egg at the expense of a large amount of the yolks contained in them. The egg's gland is isolated for a subseposition and clam shell through which numerous pores from which gas exchange of the embryo with an external environment occurs.

Origin of the birds.Birds have a related relationship with reptiles. Most likely, the separation of birds from the reptile group, who were the ancestors of crocodiles, dinosaurs, and flying lizards, occurred at the end of the Triad or the beginning of the Jurassic Mesozoic era (i.e. 170-190 million years ago). The development of this group of reptiles went through adaptation to adaptation to trees, and therefore the hind limbs served for the body support, and the front, which specialized in girding the branches with fingers. Subsequently, the ability to flush from the branch of the branch and the planning flight developed.

No direct ancestors of the birds have been found. Well-known paleontological finds of the intermediate between the reptiles and birds of the link - archeopteryix.

Nesting, nomads and flights.Seasonal phenomenain the life of the birds the birds are more vividly pronounced than in other classes and are quite different.

With the onset of the spring birds, they begin to reproduce, they are divided into pairs, marriage games appear (theect), the character of which is specific to each type. Many species pair for life (large predators, owls, herons, storks, etc.), others are seasonal pairs. There are species of birds that do not form in pairs, and all care for the offspring falls only on the proportion of one sex - female.

Birds' nests are varied, but each view has a more or less specific form: heap, nora, stucco and spherical sockets, etc. Some types of birds nest are not built (Kair, the goat).

The number of eggs in the masonry varies from 1 (cayra, seagulls, day fish, penguins, etc.) to 26 (gray and) for different types of birds. In some birds, the egg exercise from eggs from one of the parents (only from women - in chickens, sparrows, hurricane, owls, or only men - from Australian and American ostriches) from other birds. The duration of the accident is different and is somewhat related to the size of the egg - from 14 days in the sparrow to 42 days in the African ostrich.

According to the chick extinction, two groups of birds differ from eggs from eggs: brutand nests(Chick). In the first chicks appear in vigorous, covered in a flush, capable of walking and independently smooth forage (ostrich, chicken, hen, hen). In nesting chicks, completely or partially naked, blind, helpless, stay in the nest and fall like parents (sparrows, woodpeckers, haircuts, etc.).

In the summer, birds are connected, they grow, soaked nutrients. With the onset of the autumn cold, they do not decrease the level of their livelihood, like amphibians and reptiles, but on the contrary, they increase, increasing their mobility and nomads in search of food. In addition, birds are very fat and thus adapt to winters.

Created birds(White partridge, boobs, sparrows, carriages, crows, etc.) with the appearance of adverse conditions are kept in the same area. Washerbirds(Slistlee, Snegiri, Klezti, Czechetles, etc.) leave summer habitats and fly at relatively short distances. cardsbirds (storks, geese, sedentary, half, organizing, nightingale, swallows, cuckoo, etc.) leave the location of the nesting area and fly to the winter variety for many thousands of kilometers. Most of them fly the packs and only a few (cuckoos) fly alone. Large birds fly from a certain building (geese - shero, cranes - a wedge), small disorderly flocks. The first insect women fly away, then left, and later everyone - waterfowl and marsh birds.

It is believed that the flights arose as a result of the periodic change in climatic conditions in relation to the change of the seasons. Direct reasons for flights take into account complex interactions both from the outside (shortening of the light day, a decrease in temperature, the deterioration in food mountain dust conditions) and internal factors (physiological changes in the body due to the end of the reproductive period).

When studying flights, the bell method is of great importance. The birds are placed on the aluminum paw ring, which shows their number and the institute that runs the ring. In the USSR, ringing was carried out since 1924. All information about the ringing and mining of surgical birds enter the round center (Moscow). The ringing method made it possible to find out the paths and the speed of flight of the birds, the constancy to return from winter to the old places of the nesting place, winters, etc.

Variety of birds and their meaning.The bird class is represented by more than 40 detachments. Look at some of them.

Penguin-shaped detachment.Distributed in the southern hemisphere. Birds are good at swimming and diving with the help of the front discs converted into fins. Kiel is well developed on the chest. On land, keep your body vertical. Feathers are listed close together, which prevents them from inflating the wind and water ingress. Subcutaneous fat deposits add to the warmth. Feed in the marine fish, clams, crustaceans. Nest with colonies. Couples are stored for several years. TUTING chicks are covered with thick and short down. After reproducing the reproduction of penguins herds with a grown boy went into the sea. The imperial penguin nests on the coastal ice of Antarctica, its mass reaches almost 40 kg.

Ostrich-shaped.Characterized by the lack of keel on breasts and ability to fly. Feathers are permanent as the beards are not clicked due to the lack of hooks. Powerful hind limbs have two or three fingers associated with speed of movement. The African ostrich is the largest of the current birds - reaching a mass of 75-100 kg. Several women (2-5) lay eggs in a common nest weighing around 1.5 kg. The male takes turns beating females at night, at night.

Ostrich-like birds belong to Nandu (South America), EMA and Kazaire (Australia), Kiwi (New Zealand).

Replacement Aistoid.Living on the banks of shallow waters. A small membrane between the bases of the long fingers of the foam-shaped legs allows them to confidently walk along the fake places. Birds slowly actively fly or rise in flight. Feed a variety of animal foods, grabbing it long, hard, like tweezers, beak. 2 - 8 eggs in the nest; Chicks feed both parents. The division includes storks, herons, flamingos, etc.

Storks - migratory birdsWinter in Central and South Africa in some areas of South Asia. White stork - large bird with large black wings and long red legs. Nest with single pairs. The stork takes the prey, slowly through forestry, meadows, containers, reservoirs. The black stork nests in the forests of the auricular. It's listed in the red book.

Dummy tag birds of prey.Distributed in a variety of habitats: in the woods, mountains, steppes, on bodies of water, etc., birds have a short but strong but strong beak with a sharply curved book with a sharp junior des Implus. At the base of the empire there is a wax - a plot of bare, often painted skin that opens outdoor nostrils. Muscular chest and hind body limbs powerful. Fingers end with large curved claws.

Flight, fast, maneuverable, many types are steamy in the long run. Some species of predator only eat dead animals (vultures, vultures, SICs), others catch live prey (falcons, eagles, hawks, sheetory, mounds).

Most species of birds of prey brings benefits, arid unfortunate rodents, gophers, harmful insects. Species that feed on Padalja perform a sanitary function. The number of prey birds fell sharply due to changes in landscapes, pesticide poisoning, and direct extermination. Birds of prey are protected in many countries. In the red book are listed: skop, semperad, great podvorrick, berkut.

Council replacement.contains night birds (owls, fibin, owls, sipes) that inhabit all regions of the world. They are adapted to nightlife hunting: wide eyes, well-developed rumor, silent flight. Feed animal foods, mainly from mileleless rodents. Nest in Duplach. The woman shakes eggs, the man carries her food. After 3 - 6 weeks, chicks acquire the ability to fly. Triggering harmful animals. Demanding birds need protection.

Churel-shaped detachmentcontains terrestrial and terrestrial wood birds. They have a short and convex beak, short and wide wings. The commodity cross is separated from the esophagus. A muscular stomach is lined with a thick, ribbed cuticle. To improve the inheritance of the bird's food, pebbles are swallowed, which accumulate in the stomach and play the role of rails. Feeding on plant foods - vegetative parts of plants, fruits, seeds, in the implementation of invertebrates. Male varnished lighter women.

Almost all kinds of churo-shaped objects for sport hunting and breeding. Combined value has a ripper, white partridge, thermis, and in some areas - keklik and gray partridge. Due to the diverse economic activity of a person who did not hunt harmoniously, the number of the many species decreased, and the areas of distribution decreased.

Sparrow department.- The largest division, which includes about 60% of all living species. Its representatives are excluded on all continents except Antarctica. They differ greatly with sizes, external appearance and environmental characteristics. The nests are built in the branches (sometimes very cleverly) in the branches, crevices of rocks, dupelch, on the ground, etc. Chicks are lowered blind, naked and weak. Most sparrow-insectivore birds.

Zhovoronlive in open landscapes (in the field, in the meadows, in the steppe). Arrive early in spring. Eat only invertebrates and seeds on earth. Nest on earth. Men often sing in the air.

Swallowsnests along the valleys of rivers, forest edges, in human settlements. Insects catch in the air on the fly with a wide mouth. There is little on the ground. Some species (urban swallowing) build stucco nests out of lumps of mud and fix them with sticky saliva; Others dig holes in the cliffs (coastal swallows) or nest in dupes, crevices.

Sinitsanest in doublach, which concerns from 10 to 16 eggs. Often excited by the woman and the man feeding it, the chicks feeding both parents. Return with various insects and their larvae, eat berries and seeds. Easily attracted to cultural landscapes with an artificial nesting device. Very useful as fighters of various harmful insects.

The summary of the characteristics of the main group groups can draw conclusions about their importance in nature. Due to the high number and high level of vital activity the bird consumes daily a huge amount of plant and animal feed, which significantly affects natural biocenoses. Especially great role in regulating the number of insects and small rodents. Often times the birds serve food for other animals themselves.

In addition, birds contribute to the relocation of plants as a result of the distribution of the seeds. Spring juicy rowan fruits, elder, brukry, cherry, blueberries, they fly from their place and emit intact seeds with the litter.

Many birds are targeted in insect pests of cultural and valuable wild growth. Birds are also useful, destroying small rodents - pests of field crops and distributors of infectious diseases (plague, jaundice, etc.).

There is sport and fishing hunting on many wild birds. An important economic importance is the collection of a gagachy fluff, which has great softness and low thermal conductivity.

Seawater bird garbage (pelicans, cormorants, etc.) - guano - is used as a valuable fertilizer.

One of the low-cost sectors of animal husbandry is poultry farming, which provides a person with valuable meat products, eggs, pen. Poultry farming is placed on an industrial basis. On large modern poultry farms, the whole process of growth of birds (chickens, ducks, turkeys, geese) is mechanized.

Control questions:

    What features of the organization are characteristic of birds due to the device on the flight?

    What is the feature of the structure of the digestive system of birds

    What is characterized by the double breath of birds?

    What does the warmblood of birds do?

    What progressive traits are characteristic of the breeding of birds?

    What seasonal phenomena are celebrated in the life of birds?

    What is the role of birds in nature and in human economic activities?

Bird class - warm-blooded animals whose bodies are covered with feathers (the only group of animals), and the front co-unens became in wings; Fellows - legs. Birds fly beautifully and in this way surpass all other vertebrates. Birds are also well moved on the ground, climb trees, do a lot of diving and swimming in water. Birds are extremely diverse in size, shapes, painting, singing and adapting to the habitat in different climatic conditions. There are about 9 thousand species.

The outer structure of the bird

Birds have a head, neck, torso, limbs, and tail. The bird's head is small, there are beaks, eyes, nostrils. The beak is formed by the forward-facing bone cheeks, which are covered with hot covers from above. There are no teeth in birds, which makes it easier to skull. There are nostrils at the base of the top of the beak. Rounded eyes are covered with two centuries and a flashing meal. Pierced ears are hidden under feathers under the neck. The moveable neck connects his head with a compact torso.

Features body body


Body body functions

body shape


Dry skin covered with hot feathers

Types of Peryev.

1. Contour - creates a body shape and helps fly;

2. Feather and fluff down - keep warm

Simple and permanent because of:

Tearing bones (bone brushes, pelvis, skull)

Air cavities in the bones of the aircraft muscles are attached to the keel (chest)

Large chest (lower wings); Connected (raise wings)

Digestive system

Food digestion in 2-3 hours (rapid metabolism to maintain a pedigree body temperature)

Beak - \ u003e to - \ u003e Esword (with Goobom) - \ u003e Stomach (from two departments - Muscles and Iron) - \ u003e Intestines - \ u003e CLOAC

Respiratory system

Cellular lungs and additional airbags in body cavities and bones - improvement of gas exchange and protection against overheating. Double breathing.


Four-chamber heart (two atrium and two joy daughter), two circles circulation

Nervous system

The cerebellum is well developed;

The hemispheres of the front brain are developed (complex behavior, instincts)


Indoor fertilization, the female laying eggs, which contain the supply of nutrients for the embryo and are protected by a limestone shell and a subseposition shell

Evolution of birds.


formation of pairs - \ u003e change of men - \ u003e nest - \ u003e singing eggs (from 1-2 to 15-20 pieces) - \ u003e on-seated eggs - \ u003e for the purchases of offspring.


1.OUT - appear with the pup with their eyes open and can come out of the nest and follow the mother.

2. Nests - appear helpless, with eyelids, do not leave the nests for a long time.

The main compartments of birds

Troops of birds




Basically, forest birds have four sequin ends (three fingers pointing forward, one back); Fowl, nesting in pairs

Sparrows, Lark, Swallows, Skvorts, Crow, Drozda


Brood poultry, live on the coasts of rivers, sampling sites; Medium sizes, long legs and thin long beak

Kulik, Waldshnep, Chibis, Bekas


In the edges of the beak are the corneal plates or teeth, and at the end of the beak there is the thickening; Water Bird You Vodka Birds

Geese, ducks, swans


The wings are narrow, unsuitable for flight, there are plans on the paws, the legs are left behind, the skeleton of tearing, the feathers are very thick

Imperial Pin Guinea


Birds more openly pro-migrants, have long legs and necks


Big birds; Got a challenge unsuitable for the field of wings and strong legs

African ostrich

Short rounded wings (fly hard), four-foot palm, with large claws and close-fitting, relatively large beak

Ryabikov, Tetherov, quail, partridge, glukhari

Day predators

Long, sharp, hook-shaped claws; The beak is short, swings; Flight fast

Falcons, Eagles, Hawks, Vultures

Nocturnal birds of prey with watery curved beaks and excellent claws, sensitive hearing and keen eyesight, have loose and soft plumage so they can fly silently

Filin, owl, sipuha, owl-coil


Source of information:Biology in tables and schemes. / Edition 2e, - SPB .: 2004.

The main compartments of birds. There are about 40 detachments in the class of birds. The most numerous of them are a department. sparino-like. It covers more than 5 thousand species, including various types of larks, sparrows, swallows, shakers, starlings, ravens, forty, throsdov. Most of the sparrows live in the woods. The legs of the birds of this four-legged squad (three fingers are pointing forward and one back). During the nesting period, they live in pairs, building neat nests. Chicks appear on the light bare, helpless.

Based on the specifics of the structure, lifestyle, likely origins and related links in the class of birds, penguins, ostriches and typical flying birds.

Penguins are not flying birds, but they are excellent swimmers and divers. The front limbs of the penguins are modified into the fins. They have a fat and flexible neck, a strong and sharp beak, and very thick plumage. Most penguins have a black spin and white belly. They walk across the country with a torso vertical and clumsy fall. Penguins are mainly distributed in the cold parts of the southern hemisphere.

Of the other birds of the birds, the largest in terms of the number of species are rzhan-shaped, hourly, gentle, falcon-shaped, asistoid pigeons.

To the department rzhanko-shaped Take Valdshnepe, Chibis, Dust, Porters, and other bodies of water. Pairs are small and medium-sized poultry with long legs and a thin, long beak. They live in wetlands on the coasts of rivers and other reservoirs. Kuliki - breeding birds. They mostly feed invertebrates.

To the department gussey Believe geese, ducks, swans. These waterfowl are dense plumage with a developed, large cleaned gland, floating membranes between the fingers of the legs. The edges of a broad beak - with teeth or with transverse plates that make up the filter vehicle. Many hussy do a good dive, get food in water or at the bottom of the reservoir.

Squad austo-shaped, or galley (cranes, storks, herons, extracts), brings together birds of medium and large sizes with long necks and long legs. Walking on raw meadows, swamps or in the coastal parts of bodies of water, small fish, mollusks. Neset aistoids usually colonies.

Squad curo-shaped (Ryabchiki, Töterov, Glukhary, Quail, Prädücken, Pheasants, Wild Bankers and Homemade Chicken, Turkey) brings together birds with strong legs, adapted to unloading the soil or forest garbage, when mining, short and wide wings have a quick start and a Short flight. Kuro-shaped - breeding birds. Chicks mainly feed insects, worms and other invertebrates, adults fry.

From the department. doveless. The most common is vychyra, common and large thorns, clintuh and a nine pigeon. Pigeons - granular birds. They feed on the seeds of various plants and they are encoded with chicks. For pigeons, the evening and morning departures are characteristic of the fields where they find a lot of food. Live in pairs in the nest. The rest of the time is usually kept by small flocks.

In the squad like, or day birds of prey, enter the hawks, falcons, kernels, eagles and other birds that have strong legs with sharp curved claws drunk beak, acute vision. Wings of falonized or narrow, sharp, contribute to fast flight, which allows you to soar in the air in search of mining. The chicks in these birds are covered in vigorous, thick oaths.

To the department dyatloody. These are large and small Motley dyatli, green woodpecker, black woodpecker, or a wish, vertical. Dyatlov is an acute, bit-shaped beak, long, sharp, notched tongue, elastic and toward the supportive ends of the tail feathers, legs with two fingers, directed forward, and two - back, and other signs that contribute to the tree trunks. The exception is the vertical, which has a straight and weak beak, the tail rods are not elastic. Unlike other Woodwoods, the vertical is a wandering bird.