What is the new name of Avadh

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Avadh, also known as Awad, Oudh, Oundh or Oude, is a region in northern India and covers about a third of the state of Uttar Pradesh.

In Avadhn there were until 1856 AD. a princely state with the capital Lucknow, which is still the capital of the state of Uttar Pradesh today. A separate dialect called Avadhi is spoken in the region. The kingdom of Kosala with the capital Ayodhya is considered to be the earliest forerunner of this princely state. The name "Avadh" is dated to the 15th century AD. returned.

In 1722 AD Saadat Chan was appointed Nawab (governor or governor) of the Mughal Empire and initially resided in Faisabad. He took advantage of the increasing weakness of the rulers to found his own dynasty.

Avadh was known as the "breadbasket of India" and also had an important strategic position. It was big and rich enough to be able to live in the second half of the 18th century AD. to maintain its independence against the Marathas and Afghans. Under the third nawab, Shuja-ud-Daula, a conflict arose with the British colonialists when he gave support to the fugitive Bengali Nawab, Mir Qasim. In the Battle of Buxar he was decisively defeated by the troops of the British East India Company and had to cede parts of his territory and pay heavy fines. In 1773 a British resident was appointed to oversee the princely state and to station British troops and to pay for them. The East India Company refrained from a direct annexation, as it did not want any conflict with the Marathas and the remnants of the Mughal Empire at that time. From 1773 to 1774 the Nawab led the Rohilla War with British help, as a result of which he annexed Rohilkhand.

In 1798 the fifth nawab, Wazir Ali Shah, made himself unpopular with both his people and the British and was forced to resign by Governor General John Shore. The British installed Saadat Ali Chan as a puppet ruler, who ceded half of his territory to them and also disbanded his troops in favor of a very expensive British-led professional army. This effectively made Avadh a British colony, albeit under the theoretical suzerainty of the Mughal emperor.

The Nawabs degenerated into symbolic figures who surrounded themselves with great pomp but had little influence on state affairs. However, the British became increasingly dissatisfied with this situation in the middle of the 19th century and wanted to bring the area under direct control. The pretext for this was provided by the extravagant and extremely expensive lifestyle of the Nawabs, which had to be abolished even though it was only an imitation of the British crown and its lifestyle.

In 1856 Avadh was occupied and placed under a chief commissioner. The area became a British province under the administration of James Outram and Henry Lawrence. These led to reforms that limited the power of the large landowners. The Nawab, Wajid Ali Shah, was arrested and exiled to Calcutta. This was a decisive trigger for the uprising of 1857, in which the troops stationed in Avadh played a key role. It took the British eighteen months to retake Avadh and the greatest atrocities such as the Kanpur massacre were committed in this area.

After the suppression of the rebellion, the leaders of the uprising fled to Nepal. Among them was the fourteen-year-old Birdschis Qadr, the son of the last nawab. Oudh (as the British officially called it) became a province of what was now the Empire of India. In 1877 the function of governor of the northwestern province of Agra was merged with that of chief commissioner of Oudh, and in 1902 the two provinces were formally amalgamated under the name United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. Today's state of Uttar Pradesh emerged from these United Provinces.

Ala-ud-din Avadhi is considered a famous poet of the region, whose poem is still recited today.