Will you join IISER

Illustrated aeronautical communications 1908

One of the first journals that dealt with the development of aviation and aviation at a scientific and academic level more than 100 years ago was the "Illustrierte Aeronautische Mitteilungen", at the same time the "Deutsche Zeitschrift für Luftschiffahrt" and the official organ of the German Airship Agency. Association that first appeared in 1897. It was about half-monthly booklets for all interests of the aeronautical engineering with its auxiliary sciences, for aeronautical industry and enterprises. All issues from the year 1908 are shown in text form on this page. The content was retro-digitized and converted into an internet-compatible reading format using electronic text recognition. Although the digitization and automatic conversion with the machine text and image recognition inevitably led to text, format and spelling errors because images, text passages or tables are unfortunately not always displayed correctly, it is still free and barrier-free access to the story of aviation for the year 1897.

Full text or PDF documents
The mentioned text, format and spelling errors are of course not contained in the original digital copies of the original magazine. These digital copies are available for download as PDF documents. These PDF documents contain all the individual issues of a year and can be printed out, comfortably enlarged or copied into your own publications. Every year from 1897 to 1908 is available for a download fee of ten euros at any time in the "Document Online Shop" of Digital River GmbH. So if you just want to “poke around” and read what has been reported about zeppelins, airships and early aeronautical findings, you can do so below for free. If, on the other hand, you want to receive the content as a PDF document in order to work with it scientifically, to cut out the photos and images or to quote text passages properly, you can do this for a fair price via "instant download".
Immediate download of the journal as a PDF document
Of course there are always misers who expect everything for free and for free. Those contemporaries should please take into account the cost of copying and fees that would arise if they were to order all editions of the Illustrated Aeronautical Messages as duplicates in German library and university archives. The cost of copying on the part of the libraries, if they have a continuous inventory at all, would amount to several hundred euros. In this respect, there is nothing to criticize about the more than fair download fee.

Incidentally, Digital River GmbH is not an East Asian "fake shop", but an absolutely reputable specialist provider that enables digital documents to be downloaded against payment ("pay per download"). Payment is made, for example, by credit card, PayPal or other payment services. This has the advantage that the documents are sent as a download link via email within a few seconds after ordering online. Because the old saying “trust is good, control is better”, there is of course also a reading sample. If you don't want to buy the proverbial “pig in a poke” and want to find out about the quality of the PDF documents beforehand, the reading samples of issue 10/1903 (October 1903 edition) are available free of charge.
Illustrated aeronautical communications 1908
Deutsche Zeitschrift für Luftschiffahrt - specialist journal for all interests in aviation technology with its auxiliary sciences for aeronautical industry and companies
Editor 1908: Hermann Elias
Alfred Albert Hermann Elias was born in Cottbus on October 2, 1876. After studying meteorology, Hermann Elias worked under Richard Assmann at the Aeronautical Observatory Berlin-Tegel from 1899 to 1905, and later at the Imperial Patent Office in Berlin. Elias was an active member of the Berlin Aviation Association and was elected editor-in-chief of the Aeronautical Communication in 1907. He was a passionate balloonist and set German long-distance records and height records. He also took part in aerological expeditions at the Lindenberg Aeronautical Observatory. Hermann Elias died on November 10, 1955.

Illustrated aeronautical messages-German magazine for aviation.

Organ of the German Airship Association and the Vienna Aviation Technical Association.

Semi-monthly issues

For

all interests of aviation technology with its auxiliary sciences, for aeronautical industry and companies.

Edited by Dr. H. Elias.

Twelfth year 1908.

Berlin W. 35.

United Publishing House Gustav Braunbeck & Gutcnbcrg-Druckerei Aktiengesellschaft.

Illustrated JTeronautiscbc notices.

XII. Vintage. January 3, 1908. 1st issue.

The stability of flying machines. 1)

By Hermann Zwick, cand. Malh., Neustadt a. Hdt.

Introduction.

One of the most important problems currently preoccupying mankind is human flight. And it almost seems that it should go with it as with so many other problems before: First the practical solution, then the theory, which then only offers the handle for further improvement. In fact, great practical successes have already been achieved while the theory is still so bad that men like Archdeakon, one of the greatest promoters of aerobatics, may speak of it with contempt and expect all goodness from the darkly groping trying. But the advantages of a correct theoretical foundation are indispensable in an area in which there are so many and dangerous wrong ways, and I hope. the following investigations will come just in time to expedite, if only a little, the full resolution of the flight problem; because today this only depends on the achievement of sufficient stability.

It may be appropriate to briefly discuss the basics of passive flight.

If a spherical body is thrown into the open, it moves under the influence of gravity and the air pressure, and the problem of determining its orbit can, as is well known, be solved with the aids of higher mathematics. The characteristic is that the body moves under the influence of two forces, one of which always keeps the same direction in space (gravity), the other always counteracts the direction of movement

The following explanations deal entirely with the helicopter and the hang-glider. In trolidem, the earlier, more general font was chosen, since it became increasingly clear in the last line that! which (ileil-tfirger forms the basis of all promising systems of Kliii; a |> |> aralen. The helicopter is also at high horizontal speed, which is best done by tilting the screw axis by shifting the. "A | i | Ulf Art de "Uleitflieger" cannot do without securing his stability, and the latter should also be the same for the Klugelflieger. - The work emerged from the "Verla-tscr * examination work For mathematics and physics, which was sent in at the beginning of May 11106 and whose theoretical part with a few l.rweiiermigeii under the heading: "Tirnndlagen einer Stahiliitllg-Theorie für [passive Klngai> | iarale (GIcilHieger; and for DraehenHicger: die llauntliedingiiiigen der stability," in the communications of l'ollieliia, a "natural science association" of the Rh <-iii |> falz, no. '11 LMM year IVUti published lat 1 st. In advance or to be obtained from the author against cash on delivery.

and is proportional to the square of the speed (air resistance), and furthermore that the direction of any straight lines established in the body is irrelevant; it can rotate around any axis. If you shoot an arrow, the latter is no longer indifferent; you want to keep your longitudinal direction in the direction of movement and let the air resistance do this by attaching a feather flag at the back. The task of determining the orbit is exactly the same as before; however, only rotations of the arrow about its longitudinal direction are left as desired. The orbit becomes approximately a parabola, which very soon approaches the vertical downward direction. The possibility of gliding, i.e. H. the possibility of modifying this trajectory so that the body slides downwards with a few degrees of incline is based on the fact that a flat surface which is hit by the air or moves against it (which always comes to the same thing) is always experiences an air resistance that is perpendicular to its plane, regardless of the angle at which the air occurs. (According to Lössl's law of air resistance, the magnitude of this resistance is proportional to the sine of the fold-in angle and the square of the speed). So let's attach a surface to our arrow "above" the center of gravity in such a way that its plane forms a very acute angle with the longitudinal direction of the rod, and we make sure that this surface always turns down the side facing the center of gravity and which is hit by the air, we can achieve that the air resistance that occurs is no longer directed in the opposite direction to the direction of movement, but counteracts the weight of the arrow vertically upwards, while it slides downwards with only a slight incline below the horizontal wildly by the rear flag, let's call it tail. That is how the solution was thought, and everyone who approaches the problem for the first time probably thinks it that way too. One tried to put the idea into practice, and believed that the main task was to always keep the center of gravity exactly below the "pressure center point" of the wing, as it was called. Most of them fell into a pitfall into which recognized authors in the field of aviation (we will get to know cases later) still get lost today. I would like to protect the willing readers from this pitfall from the start, insofar as they have not yet dealt with our topic in more detail. You get the feeling from habit that a missile can be treated like a pendulum: at the top is a suspension point (here you think of the wing) around which the pendulum swings. In order to keep the latter as safe as possible in its equilibrium position, the center of gravity is placed as low as possible, so the center of gravity of the flying machine is also placed as deep as possible under the supporting surface - so many believed and believe that they must infer from the theory and are extremely surprised that it is iti not in practice

Ii

proven. But the comparison with the pendulum in this form is fundamentally wrong; one searches in vain for a point on the wing that corresponds to the fixed point of suspension of the pendulum in its hollow; the pendulum rotates around a forced axis of rotation in that the suspension point does not give way in any direction; A flying machine, on the other hand, as a free body, is subject to the action of forces: gravity and resistance. One must therefore completely free myself from these and similar feelings brought along with me and only build on the simplest principles of mechanics about the effect of forces on free bodies. The most important of these are: A body, on which a force acts that does not go through its center of gravity, experiences not only an acceleration of its center of gravity but also a rotation around an axis through it. The acceleration of the center of gravity is the same as if the force attacked it, the acceleration of the rotation as if the axis of rotation (through the center of gravity) were fixed. A force through the center of gravity does not produce any rotation of the body. - We have strayed a little from the original train of thought; let's go back! It was thought that the solution could be achieved in the manner outlined above, but during experiments in the open air it was soon noticed that the tail in the direction of flight made the apparatus very sensitive to vertical fluctuations in the direction of the wind, easily causing it to rise up in front to shoot, resulting in loss of speed and crash. A radical remedy was therefore used and the tail was omitted entirely, especially since it was recognized that the wing in and of itself tends to adjust itself in a certain direction, which depends on the position of the center of gravity and the shape of the surface . (For flat, rectangular surfaces, Avanzin's law is decisive, according to which the point of intersection of the resistance with the surface "(0.2 + 0.3 sin a) times the extent of the surface in the direction of flight" is removed from the front edge of the surface , where i means the angle of incidence, so up to '/.-> this extension the edge can approach. Of course, other laws apply to curved surfaces, which do not even need to agree qualitatively with the Avanzinian.) One went even further; one felt the endeavor of the apparatus to follow the rotations of the direction of incidence of the air is generally a nuisance (after all, the flight of a bird appears to us the more stable the quieter its longitudinal axis remains) and deliberately constructed downwardly concave surfaces in such a way that they retain this property From the other side, however, a front was made against all concave surfaces, since it was felt, and was also found experimentally confirmed, that these tend to move towards the surface h to tip over below and continue flying on your back. Without clearly recognizing what the cause of the dangerous is, it was believed that they simply had to be discarded, and convex surfaces were demanded. Practitioners do not follow it, however, for the simple reason that \ ve; l

convex curses result in a much too unfavorable bearing effect!). That is how things are at the moment. The reason why one did not come to a clear understanding of the decisive factors for stability was that one neglected to give an account of the condition of the resistance in the position of the resistances by applying the basic laws of the mechanics of solid bodies mentioned above must so that the body does not have any unforeseen equilibrium. It was neglected to consider the totality of the resistances which occur in all possible movements occurring in the plane of symmetry. The prejudices already mentioned did their part to cloud the view. Many also fall into the mistake of making the task more difficult by breaking down the forces instead of making it easier by combining them as much as possible. The following remarks on a few appearances in literature which are of interest to our later compilations will make what has been said more clear.

A. Something about relevant literature.

A. v. In his "Mechanik des Vogelfluges" (1889) p. 94 Parseval deals with the case that all surfaces of a flying machine run in one direction, and comes because he disregards the Avanzinian law of the dependence of the position of the resistance2) on the angle of incidence, to the incorrect conclusion in such a sense that such a system is unsuitable for flight. Believing that it is important that the body should follow fluctuations in the direction of movement at all times, he gives as a stable arrangement the combination of two surfaces, of which the rear ( the tail) has a smaller angle of incidence of the air than the front; thus, if the direction of incidence deviates from the stationary one, a displacement of the resistance is effected in the same sense as required by the Avanzinian law Shifting the contradiction out with the change of the angle of incidence. That this is not expedient I am, we shall see later, and will also be caused by the complete failure of the attempts made in this sense by v. Parsevals and Sigsfelds proved to bring gliders to stable flight.

One of the most extensive publications on the subject is likely to be the work by Prof. Dr. Fr. Ahlborn in the "Hamburger Naturwissenschaftlichen Abhandlungen": "On the stability of flying machines" (1897). Since Ahlborn is assuming a wrong assumption on one essential point, he also comes to the same point on essential points

'l Middle «i-ilf t» iiul tnnigi "l'liiKl't'linikfr ilagn Hb ^ ri * <, iral) K <> n,« rru'. 'itrriN mnrn T

ϖ '. (In zur f! I'4i> i1ipn-j mal ch ! L im conclude '.!" «Im ji Hr

IS

to incorrect conclusions.This author introduces the term "epicenter" into his considerations, by which he understands the point of intersection of the perpendicular and the wing, passing through the center of gravity of the apparatus, and claims that the apparatus is then in equilibrium when the resistance passes through the epicenter According to the principles of mechanics, the body experiences a rotation as long as the resistance does not go through the center of gravity; because apart from the resistance of the air, only one force acts on the body, the heaviness, and this can, because always attacking the center of gravity, The body is not in equilibrium as long as the resistance only passes through the epicenter, so Ahlborn comes to incorrect conclusions, e.g. that increasing the distance between the center of gravity and the wing increases stability that when the body is rotated, the moments turning it back would increase no reason to keep the concept of epicenter; I had to briefly motivate this, since not long ago Ahlborn himself had occasion to refer to his treatise.

Senior engineer A. Samuelson reports in an article entitled "The automatic flight by means of the Kress flier" ("JH. Aer. Mitt," 1890, pp. 2-6) about attempts to achieve a stable flight by means of a Penaud's tail (one calls such a Tail, which lies in the direction of movement of the stationary flight) and says: "Such an adjustment (of the tail in the direction of movement) with the necessary accuracy did not seem to me to be possible after the experiments ..." and then mentions one Arrangement which allows a slight mobility of the tail (elasticity) and promotes the stability of the apparatus without his giving an explanation. We shall have to discuss this later.

What Mr. Engineer W. Kress says in the "Zeitschrift für Luftschiffahrt und Physik der Atrn." 1896 page 6'iff. "About the stability of the hang-glider in calm and moving air" is insufficient and is partly incorrect. For he says at the bottom of page 68: ...... if fortunately two important factors were not to automatically counteract this dangerous endeavor (the rebellion) immediately; because at the moment when the apparatus begins to assume an upward inclined position, the center of gravity shifts forwards ... but when the center of gravity shifts forwards and the center of pressure backwards (the latter according to the Avanzinian law) So it goes without saying that the hang-glider will be forced to

tilting your head down again ..... "The first of the two

Factors that shift the center of gravity forwards do not exist (from the drawing that Kress gives you can see how he came to the assumption; he gives in the second position, in all positions of the

Missile also increases resistance vertically upwards, while it remains perpendicular to the wing) and the other factor, the displacement of the resistance, generally does not act immediately.

Such minor omissions about stability could be made more, but they are all not general enough and fail to get to the heart of the matter. In the meantime, various people have succeeded in constructing apparatuses which have good stability when flying, even in the wind, and thus to prove in practice that the general view a decade ago that a flying apparatus should be balanced like on the tip of a sword is fortunately erroneous is. Except for W. Kress, whose device, however, according to his own statements, tilts up and down with its nose and moves in sideways serpentine lines, there are z. B. Captain Kiefer in the 1902 year of “III. Aer. Mitt. "P. 82ff. The description of an apparatus that has always shown itself to be stable in many flights in windy weather; but he does not go into the theory. Regarding the apparatus, he says:" It consisted of an actual wing and two slightly cranked ones (This means that the wing feathers are turned towards the upper side of the wing) on ​​each side, together with a short, vertically elastic tail surface. "

Finally a work should be mentioned that does not deal with the stabilization of flight, but which deals with the problem in detail: Which orbits describe missiles that always maintain the same position in relation to the direction of movement, i.e. for which the air has a constant angle of incidence? It is the treatise by Joukowsky "Vom Schweben der Vögel" (communicated in the Moscow mathem. Society 1891), of which a German translation was available to me through the kindness of Prof. Dr. Finsterwalder. The content of this treatise will be given later be the Hede in more detail.

B. Theory of the stability of flying machines.

The actual investigations should be preceded by a classification of the stability, which should make a clear insight into the situation much easier. A flight apparatus must first be expected to have sufficient stability when the air is calm, but then also that it has sufficient stability when the air is moving. For stability with moving air, all requirements must obviously be met as with calm air; but also special ones that relate to the effects of fluctuations in wind direction and individual gusts of wind. A distinction must be made between vertical and lateral stability. Furthermore, the position of the missile in relation to the direction of movement must be stable, as must the desired form of movement, i.e. straight flight in Hegel. This results in the following structure:

Vertical stability.

I. In calm air.

a) Stability of the situation.

b) Stability of the form of movement. II. In moving air.

a) Stability of the situation (gusts of wind).

b) Stability of the form of movement (fluctuations in wind

direction).

Lateral stability.

I. In calm air.

a) Stability of the situation.

b) Stability of the form of movement. II. In moving air.

a) Stability of the situation (gusts of wind).

b) Stability of the form of movement (fluctuations in wind

direction).

Vertical stability of the situation in calm air.

In order to preserve the character of the general validity of the considerations, first of all no further prerequisites may be made about the missile itself than that it has a plane of symmetry. For if any body moves through the air - in this section it is only important to move in a straight line and one can therefore also think of the body in boom and hit by a stream of air from a certain direction; this mode of representation is more convenient in many cases - so he suffers resistances which in general neither fall in the same direction of motion nor have a common resultant. But if the body consists of two symmetrical halves, the contradictions that occur when moving in the plane of symmetry can be combined in pairs so that they only result in resistances that run in the plane of symmetry. All these resistances lying in the plane of symmetry can be combined into a single resistance lying in the plane of symmetry. If one assumes that the position of the resistances of any surface is independent of the speed of the movement, and that the magnitude of all resistances depends on it in some degree, but consistently in the same degree, then it follows that the change in magnitude of the components follows it In relation to the position of its resultants, the fact that for every direction of movement in the plane of symmetry there is a total resistance of a certain position has no influence. If a straight line is fixed in the plane of symmetry (g of Fig. 1), the angle that the direction of movement of the body forms with it is designated by * (under direction of movement is in the following

s

which, unless expressly stated otherwise, always understood that of the surrounding air in relation to the body or that of the body in relation to the surrounding air), and names the angle that the resistance (from now on, this is always understood to mean the total resistance ) with the direction of movement, then 'f is a unique function of 1. For a given apparatus, this function is determined by its construction and can either be determined by experiment or derived from a complete knowledge of the laws of air resistance. Is (in Fig. 1) the direction of movement of the body indicated by the double arrow, the resistance indicated by the single one, and is the angle measured? from the tip of the double arrow, then 9> 90 0; 90 ° is the

i'.g. 1

ideal limit. Solid glide angle of the apparatus, «1. H. the angle of the trajectory with the horizontal. 'i °, it is necessary that the center of gravity lies in a resistance for which' f - 00 0 +. Is z. B. in Fig. 1 the center of gravity S in the resistance W, the h perpendicular to W will have to fall into the horizontal during stationary flight. so that \ Y and the apparatus j / ewirhi P can be oppositely equal (which is the condition for stationary flight it), will therefore amount to ('f - 90) ". If the center of gravity lies in the resistance of the smallest -f., the body sinks at the smallest possible angle of inclination of its orbit with the horizontal. In a certain resistance one can move the center of gravity as desired without changing the glide angle of the stationary flight, but the sta-

'> Forces smrt in ilcn t'i your ilurrli «diirrh simple Pd-il" ltittrjfuia'sr t lilmii; i> n represented by I> o |>]> e] | jfeilc.

can be changed. To understand the following, imagine the plane of symmetry covered with all the resistances that occur in it if the direction of movement is allowed to change continuously until it has finally performed a rotation of 360 °, i.e. H. one thinks of the totality of the resistances as a structure proper to the body recorded in the plane of symmetry. Sequel follows.

*

For Count Zeppelin's 50th military anniversary.

From V. Duvernoy, Lieutenant Colonel ret. D. ')

General of the cavalry Ferdinand Adolf August Heinrich Graf von Zeppelin was born on July 8, 1838 in Constanz, where his father was a landowner. After attending the secondary and polytechnic school in Stuttgart, he entered the former war school in Ludwigsburg on October 21, 1855 as a regular war student. In September 1858 he left this institution as a lieutenant in the 8th Infantry Regiment, was transferred to the engineer corps in May 1859 and in August of the same year as a first lieutenant to the general quartermaster's staff. As such, he was given a leave of absence in 1863 to continue his military training in North America to take part in the Sonderbund War. After an audience with President Lincoln, he received a general passport for free movement within the United States Army. During his entire stay in the Potomac Army, he was the guest of General Hoocker, before Charlestone he shared Gilmore's tent, in Virginia he was the guest of General Karl Schurz. Fr took part in the battles at Frederiksburg and Ashby-Gap in Virginia. In the latter, in which Pleasanton led against Stuart, he accompanied a horseback attack outside the flank, ventured too far forward and was pursued by a squad of southerners with constant shooting. He owed it only to the speed of his horse that he was not caught. It was then that he made his first ascent in a tethered balloon used by the Mississippi Army. Then he took part in the siege of Charlestones. Count Zeppelin had asked for this leave in order to check the value of a militia army, an idea that, as is well known, Riistow vigorously advocated at the time. - He returned well healed.

In March 1866 the count became a captain and adjutant wing of the king. During the war in 1866 he took part in the battles at AschafTenburg, Tauberbischofsheim and Würzburg. Since 1869 he has been Freiin v. WolfT is married and has an only daughter.

M With Grinohiniguiie iU> * \> iT. to

During the Franco-Prussian War he was General Staff Officer of the Württombergisehen Heiter Brigade. His daring patrol ride at the time made him famous far beyond the German army. However, in the interests of younger readers, I cannot fail to describe this Hill a little more precisely than the General Staff Works, according to the records kindly left to me by the Count. The Württemberg cavalry brigade had mobilized earlier than the rest of the troops in the field division and was subordinate to the Baden field division until they arrived at the deployment area, but lay in the secondary position. On the evening of July 23, the chief of the general staff of the Baden field division, Lieutenant Colonel v. Leszczynski, the situation with the general slab officers gathered in Karlsruhe. The need arose to find out what was going on south of the Lauter. A violent reconnaissance was to be avoided because it was to be feared that the French would trumpet the return to the goal achieved as a great victory. The count agreed to lead a reconnaissance patrol and was given the task of finding out whether Mac Mahon was deploying to break into the Palatinate and whether there was a third division in his corps, since so far only troops from the 1st and 2nd divisions were available had ascertained. Thereupon four officers were assigned to him by the Baden dragoons, who were initially on the border. Wechmar and the lieutenant v. Yiliez vom Loib-dragonerregirnent and the lieutenants Winsloe and v. Geyling of the 3rd Dragoon Regiment to Prince Karl and seven men from both regiments and the departure for the 1st. set early.

After a short hill the little crowd crossed their own outpost line and reached the border through the Bienwald near Lauterburg. The gate of this so-called fortress was open, the drawbridge was lowered. The small garrison, made up of douaniers and gendarmes, was completely taken by surprise; rode through the town at a gallop to the scream of cheers, the saber in the display forward, rode through. It was Sunday and a large number of churchgoers were out. She stared in amazement after the bold cheers, which, as quickly as they had come, disappeared again through the gate on the other side. After the telegraph line had been destroyed, the journey continued until the great heat around noon made it necessary to hurry up at Nee-weiler for a moment. L'm 5 You reached the Trimbach patrol, where they danced in the village inn. The residents willingly brought out refreshments; the horses were saddled and watered. The count, busy cutting off the Maueraiisehlag containing the proclamation of Napoleon, suddenly found himself attacked by two cheers coming from the opposite entrance to the village, a gendarme and a lancer. His guardians hurried up on his hoof, but his horse had already been wounded by a lance and had become unusable. The count gave the lancer a blow over the head and over-

directed him to the following by shouting out. But the lancer managed to escape, leaving his horse behind, in a tusker house, while the count turned on the gendarme and took his horse by the reins, whereupon he surrendered. Valuable information-giving papers were found in his pocket. After these were removed from him, he was released again. The count had mounted his horse, but at the first ditch it was supposed to jump, it fell in. Now Zeppelin got on the lancer and it went on to the Hunspach station of the Weissenburg-Hagenau railway, where the batteries of the telegraph apparatus were destroyed and the wires cut. During a brief stop that followed, the count decided to take the youngest officer, Lieutenant von. Geyling, send back to Karlsruhe with two dragoons and the report of previous experiences. The gendarme's horse and his own wounded one were given. Geyling took the route over the Bienwaldmühle, hid himself in the forest from an enemy squadron, learned in Schleithal that the Bienwaldmühle was occupied by the enemy, but, under cover of darkness, blew past the post by telling him: "Bon jour, Messieurs "exclaimed. The French only recovered from their astonishment when the patrol was a long way off, and sent in a few unsuccessful shots. The Germans were now on their home soil.

The count's patrol had meanwhile crossed the Sulz-Weissenburg road in the dark of evening and settled down for a short night's rest in a high-lying wood. At the first gray of the day it went on to Wörth, which was found vacant. Word of the patrol's intrusion had spread like wildfire in the area; hostile cheer streaked after her, and the inhabitants showed a threatening demeanor. As a result of the great heat and insufficient watering, the horses were no longer as fresh as the day before. The count had learned that at the northern exits of the Hagenau Forest, where infantry had previously stood, there was only cavalry, and that columns of all weapons were marching on the Hagenau-Bilsch highway via Reichshofen. From this it could be concluded with certainty that there would be no deployment against the Lauter, and that the third division of Mac Mahon's corps, if it was with him at all, could only stand at Hagenau.Since this area could only be viewed from the west, in order to get there one had to cross the Hagenau-Bilsch road. However, this risk only holds a chance of success if the horses have been refreshed beforehand by watering and feeding. All smaller watercourses were dried up, so watering was only possible within the localities. Count Zeppelin decided to ride to the Scheuerlenhof, the title of which was favorable for his purposes. The closest place that was known to be in the hands of the enemy was Gundershofen, 21 * km away. So it could be about one

An hour passed before the enemy there learned of the presence of the patrol in the courtyard and was able to be on the spot. Accordingly, the patrol had to be back in the saddle in less than an hour, which necessitated watering and feeding at the same time and did not allow vedettes to be exhibited. All measures had been taken to ward off enemy cavalry patrols that had not been closely watched over eight horses.

While the count is with us in the inn, which is a bit apart from the other farmsteads. discussed their behavior with the officers in the event of an attack. - namely, every officer should try to reach the border in a different direction with his orderly - the guard standing in front of the inn called out, as he saw two chasseurs galloping past, firing acheval. These were soon followed by eight more men; it was the head and advance party of an squadron of the 12th Chasseur Regiment of the Bernis Brigade in Reichshofen. Mounted gendarmes had reported the presence of the patrol in Woerth early in the morning, and General Bernis had sent two squadrons to lift the patrol. Lieutenant v. From the courtyard gate, Viliez sent a few torn-offs from the apparently fleeing detachment and wanted to see where they were turning when they suddenly made the front again and the rest of the squadron galloped up from the opposite direction. "Now there was a brief relaxation in the small courtyard of the inn, but very lively firefight. The leader of the avant-garde procession, who repeatedly cheered on his people with shouts, fell, and almost at the same time Lieutenant Winsloe was fatally wounded after he had rejected the invitation to surrender; the slightly wounded Viliez and v. Wechmar were surrounded and thus forced to surrender with the Dragoons. The horses still standing in the barn were partly dead and partly wounded. The count, who had previously fired at the French through the locked lower half of the door of the inn, then went outside through the rear exit, mounted an unmarried Chasscur horse kept there by an old woman, called out to lieutenant v. Viliez added: "Save yourself, there's nothing left to do," and galloped up the slope. He blew through a small wood that the chasseurs chasing him were chasing, and thereby gained a head start so that they gave up the chase. After crossing In another part of the forest he came across the other squadron, which had rushed over as a result of the shooting. They surrounded the forest with vedettes. After five hours - 5 you in the afternoon - the count sneaked out and found the road Reichshofen-Wörth occupied by a row of vedettes He blew up between two vedettes, and they immediately started his chase through the wooded mountains. It was not until 11 o'clock that an unusually violent thunderstorm broke out that the pursuers left him, and he reached via Windstein and Obersteinbach happy the Palatinate, but the next morning he had to face the opponents in front

Diligently patrolled the Weißenburg-Bitsch road, but met Bavarian outposts at 5 o'clock. From there he telegraphed the results of his investigation to Karlsruhe. Lieutenant Winsloe succumbed to his wound in the course of the afternoon; he was the first officer to fall in the campaign, v. Wechmar and v. Viliez and four dragoons were freed on the day of Woerth when they captured Niederbronn, where they had been taken, one private in the fall of Metz, the other two only after the end of the war.

In 1872 he was assigned to the Schleswig-Holstein Uhlan Regiment No. 15, in 1874 a major and regular staff officer in the Dragoon Regiment No. 26, in 1879 Lieutenant Colonel in the Uhlan Regiment No. 19, the Count became the commander of this regiment in 1882, in 1885 as a Plenipotentiary in Berlin and in the following year as a commander of the 27th Cavalry Brigade. In 1887 he entered the diplomatic service as an extraordinary envoy and plenipotentiary minister at the Prussian court, while remaining in the position of wing adjutant, in 1888 major general, on January 13, 1890 commander of the 30th cavalry brigade and in November of the same year, he became lieutenant general in December Approval of his resignation request made available. In 1905 he received the character of general of the cavalry.

Our readers are familiar with his experiments in the field of aviation, so they need only be mentioned briefly. Before the besieged Paris, the Count first had the idea of ​​building a dirigible airship. The idea had already taken on tangible form when it was passed, and from then until 1892 the construction drawings for Flying Ship No. 1 were drawn up; he opted for the so-called rigid system, i.e. H. a frame made entirely of aluminum with special gas containers inside. In order to prevent damage during landings, as long as the construction was not completely fixed, a floating hall had to be built, and the count chose the town of Manzell on Lake Constance for this. In the summer of 1900 the first flying ship was ready. Three flight attempts from July to October proved that the question of steerability had been resolved. Unfortunately the airship had an accident in the hall due to an unexplained accident, it broke through in the middle; W: attempts to restore it seemed pointless. The count immediately went to build a second flying ship, using the experience he had gained, but it took five years to raise the funds. The most important improvement was the increase in engine power with almost the same weight. Each of the two gondolas received a machine with a horse power of 85 and a weight of 400 kg. The first flight attempt did not produce any significant result due to unfavorable wind conditions. During the second attempt, made on January 17, 1906, a wind flow of over 15 m per second, not observed from below, prevailed above that of the propellers

had grown. The airship drifted inland and landed in the Leutkirch area without being damaged. The possibility of a landing on land was thus already proven, while the erroneous opinion is still widespread today that the Zeppelin flying ship is up to now incapable of landing other than on water. Since no devices for proper anchoring were provided at Leutkirch, the airship was so damaged by a thunderstorm during the night that the count had to order its demolition the next day. With that, his hopes seemed to be gone.

Nevertheless, it was possible to bring together the most scanty resources for the flight of Flugschi IT No. 3. In each of the gondolas, which are attached under the aluminum frame, which is covered with a strong fabric cover, there is a motor that drives the screws. The rear end of the ship has two tail fins, which give it great stability and prevent stomping even during rapid flight. The rudder controls are located near them, and the front and rear hooks allow you to get on and off without losing throttle or ballast. How important this fact is for the military usability of the balloon, in order to be able to evade the bombardment at any moment, is easy to see. The first ascents in October 1906 were already a complete success for every impartial assessor, and the Technical University of Dresden awarded the Count the title of doctoral engineer on this success. But the funds available had only allowed the construction of a non-rotating hangar on land, from which the flying ship could only be brought out with great danger when the wind was at an angle. However, after these undoubted successes, the count succeeded in getting the Beich interested in his system. At the suggestion of His Majesty the Emperor, the Reichstag approved a grant of $ 1 million, and the Count could now start building a large floating hall. The climbs from the 2't. until 50. September 1907 showed perfectly that the Zeppelin airship obeys the controls perfectly, can change its altitude at any moment and that it travels through the air at an average speed of more than 50 km, even against strong winds, making it the largest cruiser in terms of speed of all navies. The flight time is the longest ever achieved: on September 30th, vehicle H1., Hour in the air and, according to the judgment of all experts, could have driven at least the same time, depending on its gasoline and ballast supply and the condition of its gas envelopes. The ascent on October 8th in the presence of His Majesty the King of Württemberg. His Imperial Highness the Crown Prince and Archduke Franz Salvator once again confirmed the final victory of the Zeppelin system over all airships currently in service in the world. There is no doubt that business interests will soon lead to the establishment of routes through the air. The distance

between London and Berlin is 850 km as the crow flies, so it could be covered in 11 hours with good winds, whereas the journey now takes 24 hours. The main importance of the Zeppelin invention lies in the field of warfare, since its vehicle allows projectiles to be dropped depending on its size. The German Reich owes this rare man's tireless talismanism to an airship that all other nations rightly envy.

For years the count did not fight the hardest fight against the opposition of the air, but against the almost generally negative judgment of the people around him, for the majority only shrugged pityingly for his partial failures. For years he was thought to be a fanatic who chased an unreachable illusion. Now he steers as the victor, high above the human applause, with the proud awareness of actually ruling the sea of ​​air. Once again the truth of Schiller's word has been proven:

"Nature is in eternal alliance with genius. What one promises, the other certainly does."

May the general, who was able to look back on such an extremely rich "" activity on October 21st, be granted to serve in the German army for many years to come.

The Jatho Flyer.

From F. VV. oelze-Hanover.

Many constructive aeronauts go through a metamorphosis in the course of time, which often leads them to completely different views. Santos-Dumont first constructed steerable balloons, then a helicopter and now flying machines, and Lilienthal was initially a fan of personal gliding and aerobatics, and then went on to do some flying.

About eight years ago, Karl Jatho, Hanover, also first built a single-decker without power drive, a so-called glider with a surface area of ​​16 square meters, with which he performed various tests and experiments, then in 1902 a three-decker, 48 square meter wing with 9 to 12 hp beech -Motor, which was also exhibited at the International Sports Exhibition in Berlin in May of this year. This apparatus proved to be not entirely functional and stable, so Jatho took the golden mean and implemented the current two-decker.

This two-decker is much simpler and more stable compared to the previous planes. In the execution, less emphasis was placed on extreme lightness and more on strength and durability. As a result, the current 9 to 12 P. S. engine has proven to be a little weak

and will probably have to be replaced by a 35 to 50 P. S. engine of the same weight.

The flying machine consists of a gondola with a motor and the sail and control surfaces.

The gondola, which runs on five pneumatic wheels, is made of tubular steel; it carries the magnesium seat for the helmsman at the front, along with the elevation and rudder controls operated by just one steering wheel, and the single-cylinder engine and propeller at the rear. It consists of two wings made of 3 mm thick magnesium sheet with steel tube reinforcement and has a diameter of 2.50 m.

Since the flying machine is set up for only one man, the controls had to be operated by a single steering wheel. It is in practice

Hang glider Jatho, side view.

It is quite impossible for a man who has to constantly operate two levers to also turn his attention to the operation of the engine, etc. For this reason, the elevation and rudder control of the Jalhos flying machine is effected by an automobile steering wheel, the turning of which, as usual, adjusts the rudder sails. But now the axle rod of this wheel runs inevitably between two tabs so that it can be pushed back and forth by the driver; as a result, the upper horizontal sail is tilted more or less. The steering wheel tends to adjust itself so that the height steering is horizontal; the driver can tell by just feeling how the steering wheel is. A contact is also attached to the steering wheel, which enables the ignition to be switched off immediately. The controls are so easy that they can be operated with one hand (the right) with ease. This gives the pilot one hand free to use the two levers on the left-hand side (ignition and air regulators) for the engine

to adjust. There is also a lever on the right side that is used to engage and disengage the propeller. But this is probably out of consideration for the duration of the journey. With his two hands, Jalho has both the flying machine and the engine completely under control - an advantage that is extraordinarily great in practice.

The sail areas, which "" consist of kschenholz strips with underslung Konlinental balloon material, are composed of a lower base sail that has a span of 8 m, a maximum depth of 3.60 m and an area of ​​24 square meters. In the event of the engine failing in free flight, this sail would serve as a parachute. 2 m above there is a second horizontal sail, which also serves as a height control sail

HSM

Hang glider Jalho, back view.

is trained; the same has an area of ​​12 square meters. The flying machine has a total wing area of ​​36 square meters.

Between these two horizontal sails are the four Yertikal sails, two on each rope, of which the front, movable up to 45 ° after each rope, has an area of ​​2.3 square meters and the rear, fixed, an area of ​​1.75 sqm has. Of »Uesen six sail areas, three are movable. The uppermost sail steers up and down and maintains balance forwards and backwards, the two front rudder sails are used to maintain lateral balance and, in conjunction with the vertical pegs behind, to describe side curves.

When it is blown up, the five strangely attached quarrels play a huge role. The plane travels on the front three bathrooms with the sails set horizontally only on the knees. If he has then reached a sufficiently high speed (about 10 to 12 m per second),> <> the helmsman puts the upper sail easily. This causes the plane to tip over

on the rear strikes, including the large base sail, is tilted, strong pressure is exerted on the air, and the plane rises from the ground. However, this maneuver requires no small amount of routine and practice if the pilot does not want to recklessly put himself and his apparatus at risk. Therefore, up to now Jatho has only made start-up attempts to test the effect of the propeller and the strength of the entire flying machine. Various deficiencies emerge, of course, which are immediately improved.

The apparatus has proven to be solid and durable in spite of a strong wind of 8 m per second. The uneven and sandy, 200 m long approach road on the Vahrenwalder Heide near Hanover, which allowed a speed of only about 6 to 7 in per second, will be leveled and paved in the very near future.

But it is only through such constant trying and improvement that inventors like flying machines become capable of carrying out a real flight test, such as one that is to take place in the near future, with a prospect of success.

*

Our national and international obligations in relation to the

Gordon Bennett Flies 1908.

By H. W. L. Mofdebeck, Lieutenant Colonel.

As a member of the Sports Commission of the German Airship Association, I feel that I am not only entitled, but also obliged, to briefly point out the obligations that arise in a national as well as in an inland respect through our excellent Gordon.Bcnett Prize Leader Mr. Erbslöh us grown up.

There can be no doubt that each and every one of us was pleased about it (but for the ambition of our nats it also corresponds if we are not satisfied with "flying with" but with "fighting" * in the noble competition of 1'J08.

If everyone agrees with me on this, it must not be limited to words and thoughts; action must be taken as immediately as possible.

I remind you that in the Gordon Bennetl-Fly lliOfi of Paris we emerged from this competition with a brilliant fiasco. The then internationally emerging appearance of a self-complacently initiated decline of our German airship sport prompted me in January 190 ". Accepted an invitation from the Secret Reg. Hat Busley to give a lecture in the Berlin airship server:" about the Tasks of our LuftschifTerver-ein ", in which I have the whole previous driving system as" Hiedermeterfahrten "harshly geliramim.okt and submitted new suggestions for a healthy development.

I do not know to what extent these proposals fell on fertile ground; regrets high i. that there was no substitute leader from Berlin at the start in St. Louis, after the always willing Baron von Hewald had to take Absland from the trip to St. Louis, to his grumbling regret, as a result of his illness.

On the other hand, it was a pleasure for every aerial skier to see the warmth with which our Niederrheinischer Verein viewed the sporting development, and it is to him alone that we owe the laurels we have won.

But these laurels did not easily fall into our lap! According to the directives that I was able to develop in my lecture mentioned above, I was soon allowed to take advantage of a happy economy in Mannheim to develop the first German-national competition.

At my suggestion, Herr Hauptmann von Abereron, the tireless leader of the section in Düsseldorf, succeeded in doing the same thing in Düsseldorf, and after we had practiced here and recognized the diversity of our balloons and the quality of our guards, we were able to use the dress rehearsal for the Gordon Rennett flies with more confidence for the first time compete internationally in Liège and Brussels.

So we won the prize through systematic practice in the face of tough competition from the French, and we must be clear that we can only claim it through continued hard work.

We first have to decide three main questions as a matter of urgency:

1. Where is the Gordon Bennett Flying in 1908 supposed to take place?

2. Which balloons can we allow?

3. Which leaders can we allow?

The question about i. must soon be dealt with by a German Lurtsehif Day or by written agreement.

It is obvious that for long-distance flights, as required by Gordon Bennett flying, the southern German aeronautical centers in Munich, Augsburg, Freiburg i. B., Strasbourg i. E., Mannheim, Frankfurt a. M. and Würzburg are most conveniently located.

Let us first examine the technical side of the question, where is it at all possible to fill at least the probable number of 24 balloons, for which we have to assume 2200 cbm as a unit size. H. So to deliver 52,800 cbm of gas, this capacity is limited to Munich and, if need be, to Mannheim.

Thanks to the kind support of director Lux in Ludwigshafen, I am able to publish the following data from the material collected for processing the aeronautical maps:

Munich ............ 83,000 cbm

Augsburg ........... t; 000 ..

Freiburg i. B ........ 29,000 "

Strasbourg i. E ...... 3 »800"

Mannheim .......... 53 700 "

Frankfurt a. M. only has Olgas Würzburg ........... 13 500 cbm

One recognizes that Munich alone could come into question here. Now the space stretcher still comes into consideration, which would have to be determined on the spot. Finally, "at last but not at least," it is the costs which cannot be borne by the associations alone, and which have been collected everywhere, in Paris and St. Louis, by generous aeronautical experts and the city administrations are to be taken into account.

But if we disregard the aeronautically favorable location of Munich, if we avoid the north, Cologne and Düsseldorf because of the proximity of the North Sea, of all other cities only Berlin could be chosen, which in Tegel gasometer with 260,000 cbm mixed gas and over infinity Hardly any large free space and has all other technical facilities that promote filling.

After the decision on the question of the location, the organizations provided for in the regulations of the International Airship Federation will then have to be chosen, which, as we know from experience, have a large field of work and therefore only consist of really hard-working and suitable members

should be. We have to keep in mind that these Gordon Bennett flies also set a standard for international courtesy and hospitality, and I am convinced that we want to keep our good old hoof here too. In any case, the French and Americans have preceded us with the best possible example.

The question of which balloons should fly is a technical one, which in my opinion can only be decided by the sports committee of the German Airship Association. Here the highest sports authority must claim the pike for itself to be decisive here, otherwise it would be superfluous. But I am convinced that those gentlemen, who with me have the honor of belonging to this sports committee, will think in the same way as I and you will do everything possible to do everything in the best possible way.

First of all, only balloons that have the required size of 2200 ebm can be considered for wet weighing. 1) For the long journeys, the driver needs to be relieved from time to time, the guide needs an assistant.

Now one can say that we are going to let the preserved balloons "Pomerania", "Düsseldorf" and "Abercron" fly again. We could, but it must be remembered that these vehicles are in service for their third year , with the exception of "Abercron", who, however, can only grasp \ ebm, and in the Kalle the ocean does not again set a destination for the onward journey, but would be very disadvantageous compared to others.

So I repeat once again, so we have to have new balloons of the largest permitted cubic capacity at the start. The decision on this should be made before February 1st, ty08.

My final question, one that requires the greatest care and the most work, is: who should be driving?

First and foremost, one will have to give the winner Mr. Erbslöh the pike to defend his mash personally.

So it is just a matter of appointing two more leaders. In my opinion it must be left to each leader to choose his own assistant. However, the assistant may also only be one of the D.L.V.

Reading out the guides is again a task of the sports commission of the German Air Raiders' Association. Not every arbitrary leader can be admitted who reports, that could cause dissatisfaction, but we have to eliminate and determine the most worthy leaders by immediately organizing national pre-races.

It is often said that winning in a free balloon is pure luck. If that were true, it would have to be a strange coincidence if names like Erbslöh. Abercron, Niemeycr, Emden, de Hcauclair, and many others always come first in national and international races!

Field Marshal Moltke once said: "In the long run, only the able have luck!" And I believe that the latter can be said of our airshipmen all the more effectively when I know that they enjoyed a different and more thorough preschool than all airships abroad.

The deep understanding of the weather situation and its influences on free travel, a knowledge that we owe to the meteorological scientific epoch in the development of our aeronautical club life as well as the easily accessible weather maps in our newspapers, is what our proven winners have so far, in addition to the quality of our material has secured priority.

But our competitors are also developing, and the failure of the competition becomes more and more difficult and more dubious for us.

') Oer for «ni« Hi »« ϖ! Π <■ Ballon .l'Mi- * Hi-atiniirmngren allow me the (irüGeii I bi> V. «I. b. to xu 3200 ebm. i'iniihl. .V ', leeway. 2110 ehni.

However, we have places for the preliminary exercise in all of our club centers. First of all, targeted price rides should be used on a small scale for club competitions, as I recommended a year ago instead of the "characterless" Biedermeier rides, which should actually be removed from the list of real sports clubs. But we must also ask the Berlin club to give some "Practice races" of the German leaders who apply for the transfer of leadership to the Gordon Bennett Prize, organized under the most favorable conditions. The great interest that the whole nation shows in flying competitions can only serve to strengthen a talc, and I would like to emphasize this word here, to promote the airship association.

Furthermore, taking into account these preliminary exercises, it is advisable to set the date of the Go; \ lon-Bennett-Flieg; 'ns, for which a period from April 1st to April 5th is recommended. November is calm, not to start too early. That, too, is a question of where the Sports Commission will throw its decisive "judgment into the balance, because in point X of the provisions on the Gordon Bennett Prize, which unfortunately seem to be little known to us," the Sports Commission of the owners association is entrusted with the organization of the competition ".

Since we only have one permanent sports commission in the German Airship Association, it will be their task to get to work as soon as possible.

However, it can also expect that it will be most enthusiastically supported, especially by the club in whose sphere of interest the flying competition takes place and which consequently has to form the organizing committee and appoint stewards and starters, and that will no doubt be the case with the likely large scope of participation in 1908 can only be put into action in capital Berlin by the ropes of our active Berlin association.

From aeronautical practice.

II.

By R. Scheues, Hamburg.

Following a flattering request with pleasure, I hereby report on the status of my flight attempts.

After I had been using the rhythmic flapping of the wings of large birds since 1901 and thus covered distances from 22 to 415 in, I intended to switch to insect flight because, as I have seen in my earlier essays (cf. Issue 3 1906 and Issue 4 1907 of the IAM) proven that a so-called fall impact is a precondition for the rhythmic flapping of the wings, which requires a higher land of departure or a high jump. Since these cannot be fully replaced by any other known take-up device for the time being, the rhythmic flapping of the wings without a suitable take-up device must be considered impractical, despite the favorable results achieved with relatively little effort.

That insects with oscillating wings fly up from the plain without jumping up could be determined by a simple experiment. A fly, which had its legs cut off on one side of its body with scissors so that it could not jump (the purpose excuses the cruelty), flew up and away from the flat table top, apparently without impairing its ability to fly. Then I set up the iris, which were made of tightly stretched, stiffened flight membranes, of my flying machine No. 6, at a flapping frequency of 600 flaps per minute and at a flapping angle of HO '. It turned out that taut flying skins are not suitable for this high number of blows, because the elastic trailing edge of the wing skin, despite it being stretched to the extreme

did not follow the rigid leading edge and that, as a result, no lifting effect could be achieved. - It follows that for insect flight, respectively. for flight with very fast swinging wings, rigid wing surfaces are required. Since these in turn do not cause propulsion when swinging up and down like the elastic bird's wings, they have to be rotated when swinging so that (according to Prof. Dr. Wüstenfeld) they draw the figure of a pressed 8 with the tips, i.e. H. Go from top back to bottom front, then top front, bottom back, and top back. These rotatable wings therefore require a complicated mechanism, and before I try this, I want to try the ascent of the flying machine equipped with rhythmically swinging wings like the hang-glider by means of a squabble and screw drive, with the locked wings until the moment when a corresponding Height is reached, act as a kite flat. - With the same lever with which the screws are disabled, the locking device of the wings is released, the apparatus falls, the wings go up and come back due to the elastic connection, they vibrate, whereupon the motor is coupled with the tie rods of the wings. In this apparatus, the advantages of the swing plane: "high speed with little power consumption" 1 combined with the advantages of the hang-glider: "easy ascent" " As noted above, you can also convert a hang glider into a swing flier the other way round. — As soon as I have a more powerful engine, the experiments are resumed.

*

Berlin Association for Aviation.

At the 268th meeting of the Berlin Aviation Association on September 23rd, the chairman, Privy Councilor Bu «Iey, gave a detailed report both on the German airship campaign held in Cologne in the second quarter of September and on the subsequent annual meeting of the Federation Aexonautique Internationale in Brussels, The former congregation is in the October-November 1907 issue of this journal on page 407 and IT. has been reported extensively. There is also a report on the conference of the Aeronauliqiie Federation in the same issue on page 404 and ff., And there are three detailed reports on the successful balloon race from Brussels that followed on September 15 on ropes 393 to 402. - - 43 new members were admitted. Free rides took place from June 28th to September 22nd on the whole of 31, including some very notable ones, about which exact reports are reserved for one of the next issues of the magazine. It was also announced that the construction of a hall had proven necessary for better recovery of the club's balloon: the necessary cost was approved by the board at 14,500 Mk. The hall will be completely open on one giebel side. A. F.

*

Various.

A Belgian military air reef. The commander of the Belgian Airship Company, Major Le Clement De Sainl-Mareq, has drawn up plans for a dirigible, as soon as the Chamber has approved the required sum, CHF 100,000, to start construction. What else you learn about it sounds a bit puzzling. For example, the balloon should be provided with a device that allows the balloon to be set up either for fast or long-term travel. In our opinion, this can be done by any balloon whose motor part can be changed. The supporting body is divided into bulkheads. The pounding should not, as usual, be reduced by damping surfaces, but by a completely new means. The Ballonet should also be dropped and

be replaced by a new arrangement, which also acts as a parachute when the balloon ruptures. A new screw should also be rounded, which theoretically (!) Gives an efficiency of 84 "" {exactly?) Higher than the previously known. One can only look forward to the appearance of this airship, which is something very special.

A society for the university of kites was founded in Issy-les-Moulineaux 83, rue Erncst-Renan. Contribution 20, respectively. 6 Fr.

The German military airship used the calm weather to make practice trips. On December 18, 1907, it rose with Captain Sperling as its guide and maneuvered about an hour over the Tegel shooting range. This trip was immediately followed by a second one of approximately the same duration to Charlottenburg with changed passengers.

Aerographic maps. The preparatory work for the cards in France has gone so far that II. Saunier. President of the Aeronautique Club de France, now has all the material in his hands and can start putting it together.

A new type of lift was tested on a 13 "cbm model in Paris at the beginning of December.The support body is interrupted in the middle, so that the balloon actually consists of two balloons lying one behind the other, which are connected by four tubes so that the gas pressure is the same in both. In the resulting slot, the screw rotates in such a way that only the wings protrude from the slot. The drive therefore takes place precisely in the central longitudinal axis of the support body. This idea is said to have already been voiced by the late Colonel Renard. The model worked very satisfactorily in the gallery of machines and drove around the hall several times.

French-British Exhibition 1908. At the exhibition, group 13 will include the exploration of the air. The committee of this group consists of Dr. Shaw. Dr. Mill, Major Baden-Powell.

A new world record was set by a pilot balloon that was released together with many others by the newspaper "Eclair" in Paris on October 20, 1907. It was set two and a half hours after it was released at Lndermannlaain, near Kausala, between Helsingfors and Wiborg in Finland found. The distance flown is 1970 km, so it is longer than the world record of 1925 km held by the Comte de la Vaulx. The free buoyancy of the balloon is said to have been about 1 g, its diameter was 35 cm. The mean speed of the trip is , assuming that the balloon was found immediately after landing, 82 km per hour, but has probably been much more significant, especially at higher altitudes.

Russia has now also started building an airship. General Ko-wanko, who is also well known in Germany, has been entrusted with the management of the work. E. R.

The balloon "Fides", under the guidance of Prof. Dem. Heibig, made a dangerous journey from Rome. The balloon "landed" in the sea, the occupants were taken up by a fishing boat.

The first hang-glider in Italy, based on the model of the Farman plane, is characterized by its extremely low weight. We'll come back to this plane as well as the trip of the "Fides" in the next issue.

Third photographic competition of the Aero-Club de France. Results:

1st prize (500 francs in cash given by Jacques Balsan) to Mr. E. Wenz for recordings made automatically from the kite.

2nd prize (100 francs in cash given by Prince Roland Bonaparle) Lieutenant Bellenger for stereoscopic recordings from the balloon.

3rd prize (Aero Club medal) Mr. P. Tissandier, "France from the balloon".

4th prize (medal of the Automobile Club) Mr. A. Scheicher, photos of Paris (at the same time awarded the "Noveau Paris" badge).

5th prize (touring club medal) Mr. A. Omer-Decugis.

6th Prize (Photo Club Medal) Mr. M. Bourgeois.

7th prize (Aero Club medal) Mr. Hauptmann Hinterstoißer, Vienna.

The medal of the Societi frangaise de Photographie was given to Mr. E. Moussard for taking long distance shots from the Eiffel Tower.

Despite the relatively difficult conditions, many submissions were received that provided valuable material for recording the terrain from the balloon or kite.

The Draehenflieger Mangln-Gastambide is now finished. The wings of 10 in span are easily removable and stiffened by narrow steel bands that are stronger and offer less resistance than wires. A 50 HP is used to drive the screw directly. 8 cylinder Aiitoinettemolor, which is attached to the front part of the flyer. At the end there is a horizontal tail and a vertical tail, which carries a rudder. Altitude control has been avoided, the only way to achieve altitude control is by changing the speed of the plane, i.e. the number of revolutions of the engine. The total weight of the manned apparatus is about '00 kg. The attempts should be started after Christmas.

Arronautlral Society oil (t'reat BriUin. The Aeronautical Society held a meeting on October 7th, at which Et. Colonel FC Trollope was elected vice-president. The experimental fund received an increase of 2,100M from a foundation of the Mercer Company was awarded to the company by the Transportation Exhibition held last May.

*

International Commission for Scientific Aviation.

In 1908, simultaneous ascents will take place on the following days: January 2nd, 3rd, 4th (small series promotion), February 6, March 5, April 1st, 2nd, 3rd (small series promotion), May 7th , June 11, July (large series promotion), August 6, September 3, September 30, October 1st, October 2 (small series promotion), November 5, December 3.

Various members have suggested the beginning of the month for the big Juliet Lieg. Since the determination depends primarily on the great expeditions, and detailed negotiations have to take place about the organization of the same, more details will be communicated at that time.

*

Personalia.

Dr. H. Entmann, Prof. at the Tcchn. Berlin University of Applied Sciences, a member of the Berlin Aviation Association, has been awarded the 4th grade Red Eagle Order.

The English Meteorological Society (Royal Meteorologica Society) has awarded its golden Symons medal for the year 1908 to the French aerologist Teisserenc de Bort for his great contribution to the study of the upper layers of the air.

Major Groß, Commander of the LuftschilTer Battalion, left the Russian Order of Stanislaus 2nd Class.

Major Meister was awarded the Officer's Cross of the Italian Order of Mauritius and Lazarus.

George and Sachs, first lieutenants in the airship battalion, were awarded the Knight's Cross of the Italian Order of Mauritius and Lazarus.

Geerdtz, Lieutenant in the Luftschiffer Battalion, was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Order of the Italian See Crown.

Illustrated aeronautical communications.

XII. Vintage. January 18, 1908. 2nd issue.

The loss of the "Patrie".

By G. Bspitalmer.

The loss of an airship like that of a torpedo boat is certainly a regrettable event, but it is not a national calamity unless the earthquake of human beings has perished.

If one wants to push optimism to the extreme, one can even argue that accidents are necessary means of progress, because they undoubtedly point us, albeit in a somewhat brutal way, to the sensitive points that absolutely must be improved on the initially primitive machine . The lesson is a little expensive, but that's all. It is lucky if it helps avoid serious disasters by shaking up spirits.

Let us try, therefore, to take advantage of the loss of the "Patrie" from this point of view.

+ *

In his short career, the handsome maneuverable man at least had the opportunity to show his capabilities. His drive from Paris to Verdun, 236 km as the crow flies in 7 hours 50 minutes, was enough to show what he can do. It was his 42nd ascent.

On November 23, 1907, at 8:40 a.m., he left the airship training area in Chalais-Meudon in S-SE winds of up to 11 m per second, according to observations on the Eiffel Tower. He flew one after the other over Coulommiers at 10.50 a, Chälons sur Marne 1.10 p, Sainte-Mene-hould 2.10 p and landed at 3.45 p in Verdun, right in front of the hall that was specially built for his reception. The average speed was 34 km per hour in spite of the wind, which came most of the way from the side and sometimes even a little from the front. The weather was everything else, just not favorable for a long journey. Between Chaumes and Coulommiers the wind had turned east and was blowing quite hard. For the remainder of the ascent he had turned back south and came almost exactly from the side.

The weather itself was quite fine on departure, but it soon became foggy and around noon the airship came in thick clouds, which burdened it with water precipitation. The cold was sensitive and very uncomfortable for the crew, which consisted of six people, namely the commandant Bouttieaux, head of the airmen's department in Chalais-

Meudon, the commanding officer Voyer, sub-chief at the same department, the captain Bois, the lieutenant Delassus, the adjutant Duguffroy as mechanic and the auxiliary mechanic Girard. The journey was initially started at a height of 490 m, but the balloon had to be carried up to 800 in order to cross the wooded plateau of the Argonne.

Despite the stress of the rain and the relatively high altitude, only 50 kg of ballast were given out, the rest of the vertical control was done by the altitude control. Of the 290 liters of petrol that were taken along, only 140, i.e. less than half, were used. That means that the "Patrie" could have returned to Chalais if it had been necessary without having to land in between.

*

In Verdun, the man who was directable immediately took up his exercises to instruct the new garrison; the accident that actually caused the loss occurred, a completely accidental accident that can happen at any time.

On Wednesday, September 29, at 11 o'clock in the afternoon, the "Patrie" under the leadership of Captain Bois made a reconnaissance voyage on board

Drive

were the General Andry, governor of Verdun, and his orderly officer, the lieutenants Lenoir and Delassus, and two mechanics, the adjutant Duguffroy and Girard.

Less than a quarter of an hour after departure, the assistant mechanic's trousers got caught in the magneto-ignition gears, and because bits of cloth got stuck in the factory, the engine stopped. It was decided to try to repair the damage in the air, as had been done on the climb with Mr. Clemcnceau, where a broken pipe was repaired without going down. But a brief inspection showed that the damage was quite severe and that there was nothing left but to land, all the more so as the balloon drifted towards Bar-le-Duc.

The landing was very smooth at nightfall, about 1,500 m from the Gouhesmes railway station, 14 km from Verdun, with the help of two officers of the hussars and the gendarmerie brigade of Souilly, who came immediately. The Verdun fortress immediately sent a telegram to a detachment of pioneers and riflemen to support the fort's garrison, who were already on the spot. The night

was very restless, because an icy east wind was blowing across the square, and one was often forced to relieve the people who held the balloon with the tip against the wind. On Saturday morning a squadron of hussars, a company of infantry, and a division of military workers arrived, and at the same time, for example, a cart of gas bottles which had been dispatched in a hurry from Verdun. Commanders Bouttieaux and Voyer were also there now. Despite the wind, one could hope to hold out until evening, when a replacement magneto would arrive, which could be used immediately and allow the return to Verdun. This hope was justified, because the wind subsided around 3 o'clock, and one was looking forward to a complete calm in the evening. This explains why one had not emptied, because one tries to postpone this extreme measure as long as possible, on the one hand because it entails a fairly significant expenditure of money, on the other hand because the emptying is a critical time during which the envelope flutters around and through the Wind is easily torn, and can cause severe damage to the material, which is still quite fragile.

When the wind seemed to want to subside completely, everything was ready for departure and the balloon was refilled. This measure was also criticized and it was said that it would have been sufficient to top up the air. In this connection it must be remarked that if one wishes to keep a steerable in service for a long time, one must be very careful with this air, which only separates a simple wall from the hydrogen and which with the gas can easily get through at the rather high pressure Endosmosis can mix. In any case, it is better to deflate the balloon and make the balloon plump again by refilling it with gas.