Which rivers meet at the Bihar Ganges Yamuna

Climate and hydrology

The Ganges Basin covers 1,086,000 square kilometers and contains the largest river system on the subcontinent. The water supply depends in part on the rainfall caused by the monsoon winds in the southwest from July to October, as well as the flow of the melting Himalayan snow in the hot season from April to June. The rainfall in the river basin accompanies the monsoon winds in the southwest, but also tropical cyclones that originate from the Bay of Bengal between June and October. There is little rainfall in December and January. Average annual rainfall varies between 760 mm at the western end of the basin and 2,290 mm at the eastern end. (The upper Ganges plain in Uttar Pradesh has an average of 760 to 1,020 mm of rainfall; in the middle Ganges plain of Bihar from 1,020 to 1,520 mm (40 to 60 inches); and in the delta region between 1,520 and 2,540 mm (60 and 100 In the delta region, strong cyclone storms occur both before the start of the monsoon season from March to May and at the end of the monsoon season from September to September. Some of these storms result in significant deaths and the destruction of homes, crops, and livestock. One such storm, which occurred in November 1970, was catastrophic and resulted in the deaths of at least 200,000 and possibly up to 500,000 people. Another killed around 140,000 people in April 1991.

Since the relief hardly varies over the entire surface of the Gangetic Plain, the flow rate of the river is slow. Between the Yamuna River in Delhi and the Bay of Bengal, a distance of nearly 1,600 km, the elevation drops only 210 meters. In total, the Ganges-Brahmaputra plains extend over an area of ​​800,000 square miles (800,000 square kilometers). The plain's alluvial mantle, which is more than 1,800 meters thick in some places, may not be more than 10,000 years old.

Plant and animal life

The Ganges-Yamuna area was once densely forested. Historical writings indicate that wild elephants, buffalo, bison, rhinos, lions and tigers were hunted there in the 16th and 17th centuries. Most of the original natural vegetation has disappeared from the Ganges Basin, and the land is now being intensively cultivated to meet the needs of an ever-growing population. There are few large wild animals except deer, boars, and wild cats, as well as some wolves, jackals, and foxes. Only in the Sundarbans area of ​​the delta are some Bengal tigers, crocodiles and marsh deer to be found.

Fish are abundant in all rivers, especially in the delta area, where they are an important part of the population's diet. Feathers (family Notopteridae), barbs (Cyprinidae), running catfish, gouramis (Anabantidae) and milkfish (Chanidae) are common in the Bengal region. The Ganges dolphins - or Susu ( Platanista gangetica ), a near-blind whale with sophisticated sonar skills - are found throughout the Ganges Brahmaputra Basin but are considered endangered as they interfere with human activity. There are many types of birds such as mynah birds, parrots, crows, dragons, partridges, and chickens. In winter, ducks and snipes migrate south across the high Himalayas and settle in large numbers in water-covered areas.


Ethnically speaking, the people in the Ganges Basin are of mixed origins. In the west and center of the basin, they originally came from an early population, possibly speaking Dravidian or Austro-Asiatic languages, and speakers of Indo-Aryan languages ​​were added later. In historical times, Turks, Mongols, Afghans, Persians and Arabs came from the west and mixed with them. In the east and south, especially in Bengal, people who speak Austro-Indian, Indo-Aryan and Tibetan-Burmese have joined the population over the centuries. The Europeans, who arrived even later, did not settle down and did not marry on a large scale.

Historically, the Gangetic Plain constituted the heartland of Hindostan and its subsequent cultures. The center of the Moorish empire of Ashoka was Patna (old Pataliputra) on the Ganges in Bihar. The centers of the great Mughal Empire were in Delhi and Agra in the western Ganges basin. Kannauj am Ganges in the center of Uttar Pradesh north of Kanpur was the capital of the feudal empire Harsha, which covered most of northern India in the middle of the 7th century. During the Muslim era, which began in the 12th century, Muslim rule extended not only over the plains but all of Bengal; Dhaka and Murshidabad in the delta region were centers of Muslim power. After the British founded Calcutta (Kolkata) on the banks of the Hugli at the end of the 17th century, they gradually expanded their rule in the Ganges valley and reached Delhi in the mid-19th century.

A large number of cities were built on the Gangetic level. Among the most notable are Saharanpur, Meerut, Agra (the city of the famous Taj Mahal mausoleum), Mathura (considered the birthplace of the Hindu god Krishna), Aligarh, Kanpur, Bareilly, Lucknow, Prayagraj, Varanasi (Benares or Kashi); the holy city of the Hindus), Patna, Bhagalpur, Rajshahi, Murshidabad, Kolkata, Haora (Howrah), Dhaka, Khulna and Barisal.

The Kolkata Delta and its satellite cities stretch for 80 km along both banks of the Hugli and form one of the most important concentrations of population, trade and industry in India.

The religious significance of the Ganges can surpass that of any other river in the world. It was revered from the beginning and is now considered the most sacred river by Hindus. Called during places of Hindu pilgrimagetirtha s are located on the entire subcontinent, those on the Ganges are of particular importance. This includes the confluence of the Ganges and Yamuna at Prayagraj, where a bathing festival takes place, orMela , takes place in January and February; Hundreds of thousands of pilgrims plunge into the river during the ceremony. Other holy places to immerse yourself in are in Varanasi and Haridwar. The Hugli in Calcutta is also considered sacred.

Other places of pilgrimage on the Ganges are Gangotri and the junction of the Alaknanda and Bhagirathi upper reaches in the Himalayas. The Hindus threw the ashes of him dead in the river, believing that this would give the deceased direct passage to heaven, and cremation ghats (temples on top of the river steps) were built in many places along the banks of the Ganges to burn the dead.