How can I learn Visual C ++

What's the best way to start learning C ++?

Get a book and go through from A to Z?

Yo. As long as the book doesn't say "from A to Z".

Maybe learn C ++ on the basis of a project where you only use a little of the C ++ resources at the beginning and then increasingly replace them with more complex language resources?

Yes. Reading code helps.

Watch Tuts or YouTube?

No. Such tutorials are usually very bad and the videos are too long. Read a book.

Which standard should you learn as a beginner: C ++ 98, C ++ 11, C ++ 14, C ++ 17

I would advise you to move between C ++ 03 and C ++ 11. For now. You know, after C ++ 03 a lot has been added. You should first deal with the language itself and leave higher / newer constructs aside for the time being. First learn the basics and then deal with everything that has been new since C ++ 11 to C ++ 17. Of course, you can also work immediately with a C ++ 17-capable compiler, which I also advise you. The choice of compiler should also be chosen carefully. For this I suggest one of the three giants, g ++, clang or msvc.

[...] Also, I don't want to use a lot of libs, but program everything myself, [...]

Keep in mind that libs like Boost and Co. relieve you of a lot of work and that people have already built sample solutions especially for you, which you only have to integrate into your project and start programming. Programming the whole thing yourself, well, you can do it for learning purposes, but for projects that are to be taken seriously, I still advise you to take the (for example) Boost solution. But on the other hand, this project also has its learning effect, so go ahead.

[..] in OpenGL [...]

OpenGL is C. If you want to use OpenGL in C ++, do it properly. Develop new classes that relieve you of the annoying C-work in one way or another. OpenGL + C ++, that's what C + - does. C + - is avoidable nowadays with all the libs and you should leave that to the people who have already understood everything.

It doesn't matter how many years it takes until I have the topics on it together with C ++. I have plenty of time.

Since it's all just a hobby, I don't need to worry about old standards. So I'm going to focus on C ++ 11 through C ++ 17.

Let's go.
Have fun.