Where are Grepow batteries made

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There is a lot of information about batteries on the net, much of it wrong or out of date. We have once again brought together the most important things to do with electricity suppliers and summarized them in an FAQ.

The Big ElectroPapa Battery FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Which batteries are used?

Come in modern devices Li-Ion batteries (lithium ion batteries) for use. These are characterized by a particularly high energy density and low self-discharge. The battery is therefore particularly light and small and can still be used even after a long period of storage. Due to many safety precautions such as electronic circuits but also mechanical protective measures, there is no significant risk during use.

There are other battery technologies that are based on different chemical compositions. Nickel cadmium (NiCd) and Nickel metal hydride (NiMH) are still widely used due to their low price and ease of use. Lithium polymer (LiPo) Cells can be made in almost any shape imaginable. This is particularly advantageous with increasingly smaller mobile devices. In summary, a small overview:

 

NiCdNiMHLi-ionLiPo
Memory effectYesPartiallyNoNo
priceLowLowQuite highhigh
Self-dischargeAbout 10% per monthAbout 15% per monthAbout 2% per monthAbout 2% per month
Energy densityLowmediumVery highHigh
Charging cyclesabout 1500about 1000500-1000about 500
Voltage / cell1.2V1.2V3.7V3.7V
application
  • toothbrush
  • Cordless screwdriver
  • Modelling
  • toothbrush
  • Cordless screwdriver
  • remote control
  • Laptops
  • E-cars
  • Modelling

 

Conclusion: The above types all have their pros and cons. It follows that they all continue to coexist and remain relevant. Only nickel-cadmium is now out of date and is generally no longer used.

2. What does the capacity mean?

It indicates how much energy can be stored in the battery. If the capacity doubles, the possible working time with the laptop doubles. More capacity often also means: a larger and heavier battery.

It is stated in ampere-hours (Ah), i.e. how much charge can be taken from the battery per hour. With the same voltage, the capacity can be increased by several cells connected in parallel. Both the voltage (V) and the current (A) are relevant for the resulting runtime of the device.

3. What is a high-capacity battery or a high-performance battery?

Batteries with a higher capacity (than the original battery) are offered for various devices. This primarily means a longer term. Since more cells are often required, the battery is also larger. That doesn't necessarily have to be a disadvantage, because especially with laptops, the keyboard is often placed in a comfortable angle and the ventilation is improved. Incidentally, there is nothing to consider when charging because the electronics automatically recognize the larger batteries.

4. Are there programs that increase durability and runtime?

Yes, the laptop manufacturers often include these. You can influence the loading behavior there but also other factors such as screen brightness and CPU performance.

Lenovo Energy Manager overview
Lenovo energy manager maintenance
Lenovo Energy Manager Battery Information

5. How long does a battery last, when is a replacement needed?

That still depends a lot on how and how often the battery is used. A modern battery can still have approx. 80% of its capacity after 2 years of average use.

6. Which factors influence the service life?

A lithium-ion battery increasingly loses its capacity with age. In addition, the number of charging cycles affects performance. There is a membrane in the battery, which is worn out by charging and discharging. Likewise, the electrodes are worn out by chemical processes.

7. What is a charge cycle?

A charging cycle describes the charging from 0 to 100%. Charging from 80% to 100% is therefore NOT a complete charging cycle. Charging twice from 50% to 100% is again a charging cycle.

8. How can I increase the shelf life?

If you try not to discharge the battery completely, but only to about 30%, you can gain up to 3x more cycles. During longer stationary operation, the battery can be removed from the device in order to avoid so-called “micro-charging cycles”. The battery should be stored when it is about 50% charged in a cool and, above all, dry place. The refrigerator is therefore only suitable to a limited extent.

9. Is there a memory effect?

With the currently used battery technology (Li-Ion) not anymore. This myth still comes from the time of the Ni-Cd batteries. Completely discharging the battery before charging it even damages its durability. “Conditioning” the battery does not work either. If this is defective, only replacement will help.

10. What harms the battery?

Many harmful factors are avoided by the battery electronics, including deep discharge, overcharging or excessively high temperatures during charging / discharging. The protective circuit intervenes in these situations.

You should avoid shocks that damage the battery membrane, or storage in very warm places (car in summer).

A typical 18650 cell next to an AA battery
Different batteries in comparison
Charging electronics of a laptop with a temperature sensor

11. What do you have to consider when buying?

Batteries are equipped with the latest technology inside, even if they look inconspicuous on the outside. The charging electronics and the protective circuit are particularly important. However, this is often carefully developed even for replicas and ensures that it can be used safely and without hesitation. The production date should also be important, because the aging of the battery begins immediately after production. It is best to send back batteries older than 6 months.

12. What do you have to consider when replacing the battery?

Not much, actually. The battery should be suitable for the device. The charging technology can still be used, even if no manufacturer's battery is installed. With many devices (especially with laptops) the battery is also intended for replacement and can be inserted very easily.

13. How is the battery constructed?

A laptop battery consists of several cells. You can think of it as the small batteries that make up the battery pack. If you connect the cells in series, the voltage (V) increases, if you connect them in parallel, the current (A) increases.

14. What happens to the old batteries?

Proper disposal at the designated collection points is important. There are poisonous substances in the batteries which must not be disposed of with household waste. With the old batteries, manufacturers sometimes still realize interesting projects, because the capacity is usually enough for lamps, for example. These can help people in crisis areas.

15. How does a Li-Ion battery work?

A battery basically consists of 5 components: 2 electrodes made of different materials, an electrolyte, a membrane and the housing. In addition there is the charging electronics or protective circuit.

Charging and discharging a Li-Ion battery

The movement of the lithium ions from electrode to electrode, which are separated from one another by the membrane, creates the flow of current. The battery is discharging or charging. At the same time, this process leads to wear of the membrane and thus to a decrease in performance. The effect has been reduced more and more over the years by optimizing the structure. In spite of everything, every battery has a limited life expectancy. There are different types of lithium ion batteries with different properties. It is therefore difficult to make a general statement about life expectancy and properties. Examples are: LiCoO2 or LiFePO4. Only the material of one of the two electrodes is described. The other is often made of graphite. The electrolyte is the transmitting substance. It does not consist of water and any contact with water can destroy the battery.

Since Li-Ion batteries are very sensitive, electronics are also installed. This protects the battery from harmful charging currents (a deviation of 0.1V will destroy the battery), but also from undercharging from excessively high temperatures or short circuits. The user can concentrate fully on working with the device and, under normal circumstances, does not have to worry about the battery condition.

Do you have any ideas? Then bring it on!

Do you miss something or have a question then write in the comments or email us (info.de [at] electropapa.com). We are open to new ideas and would like to bring them here.