How is light an electromagnetic field

technology

overview

The term electrosmog is vague. The term is derived from the English made-up word smog, i.e. environmental pollution caused by the mixture of smoke and fog. Colloquially, the term electrosmog means environmental pollution that arises from the artificial generation of electromagnetic fields and waves that have an unfavorable effect on all living beings.

Electromagnetic fields and waves are a general physical term for the following three physical natural conditions, the physics of which differ like day and night. They must therefore be considered separately and taken into account in completely different ways in terms of measurement technology and when planning shields.

  • electric fields
  • magnetic fields
  • electromagnetic waves, which also includes light

Electric fields

Artificially generated electrical fields are always the result of an existing electrical voltage and are present in everyday life in the vicinity of electrical lines. That can be B. be high-voltage lines hanging on masts but also the lines of electrical installation in our living rooms and in electrical appliances.

For the generation of electrical fields it is sufficient that the lines are in operation, i.e. live. A flowing current is neither necessary nor a hindrance for the creation of electric fields.

In everyday life, AC voltages dominate the lines. These generate alternating electrical fields. Electric constant fields arise in everyday life during thunderstorms and through electrostatic charging (e.g. textiles made of synthetic fibers). They have no everyday connection with the power supply systems and the effects were already known in ancient times. Synthetic fibers and plastics in general should be avoided as far as possible because of the static charge and also because of the outgassing of chemicals.

The unit of measurement for electric fields is called V / m (volts per meter).

In principle, protection against electrical fields is possible by switching off the line: Fuse out - rest in the box. Of course there is no more electricity. Organizational protective measures and technical protective measures, which have very different effectiveness, are also possible without switching off.

Magnetic fields

Artificially generated magnetic fields are always the result of an existing electrical current in everyday life and are present in the vicinity of electrical lines. That can also z. B. high-voltage lines hanging on masts but also the lines of the electrical installation in our living rooms. The operation of the line alone, however, is not sufficient for the creation of a magnetic field. An additional requirement is that an electrical device that is connected and switched on causes a current to flow in the line.

Of electrical devices that contain coiled electrical conductors, e.g. B. Electric motors and transformers, particularly strong magnetic fields are generated with the same high current as in straight lines. That is why electric motors and transformers (transformers) should be avoided on the bed and in the sleeping area. However, strong magnetic fields are also generated by currents in straight conductors, if only the currents are correspondingly high. This is typically the case with electrically operated railways. Induction cookers and contactless battery charging devices also generate strong magnetic fields.

In everyday life, alternating currents dominate the lines. These generate alternating magnetic fields. Magnetic direct fields are created by electrical direct currents in everyday life on railways with a direct current supply. The earth's magnetic field is also a constant field, which is useful for living beings. It is superimposed by artificially generated magnetic fields. And it is made possible by magnetically conductive materials, e.g. B. steel, small or large-scale distorted. Steel beds and innerspring mattresses should therefore be avoided because the latter contain steel springs. For this reason, electric motors with magnets and loudspeakers should also be avoided on the bed or sleeping area.

For the unit of measurement of magnetic fields, it is not their field strength but their magnetic flux density in T Tesla that is used. In everyday life, the flux density of the magnetic fields is much smaller than 1 T. That is why it is usually given in μT (microtesla = 1 millionth of a Tesla)

In principle, protection against such magnetic fields, which are generated by currents, is possible by preventing a flowing current: Switch off all electrical devices or unplug them from the socket - rest in the box. Of course, there is no longer any electrical lighting, because lights are also electrical devices.

Organizational protective measures and technical protective measures, which have very different effectiveness, are also possible without switching off.

Electromagnetic waves in everyday life

Electromagnetic waves are not harmful per se. There are always extremely low-frequency natural electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere. B. caused by the permanent thunderstorm activity somewhere on earth with a total of several lightning bolts per second. Such electromagnetic waves are even vital and even have to be specially simulated in manned space travel.

Other, not always present natural electromagnetic waves of somewhat higher frequency burden people sensitive to the weather. Light, including the infrared that is perceived as thermal radiation from the sun, and UV light are also natural electromagnetic waves with extremely high frequencies. Natural radioactivity causes electromagnetic waves with even higher frequencies. Like light, they are referred to as radiation, namely as wave radiation as opposed to particle radiation.

In everyday life, artificial electromagnetic waves are largely the result of radiation from transmitting antennas and are therefore also referred to as radiation or colloquially as radio. The transmitting antennas can be broadcast and cellular antennas in the immediate vicinity or further afield. But all devices that exchange information with other devices on the basis of radio waves also have built-in or attached antennas.

Finally, microwave ovens have a (often rotating) transmitting antenna inside. It emits such a high output that the food becomes warm in a short time. This technology is used in a modified form in radiation weapons in the military and in many places also in the police force. And at home, the housings of the microwave ovens are not completely sealed.

Such devices as microwave ovens are e.g. B. Cell phones, cordless phones and their base stations, smartphones, WiFi routers, WiFi-enabled computers and toys with remote control. Furthermore, almost all electronic devices, e.g. B. computers, but also household appliances with electric motors inadvertently produce electromagnetic waves as a side effect.

The mobile radio networks based on digital transmission methods since the 1990s are so-called pulsed radio applications. Previously, only radar was a standard application of radio technology with pulsing.

The power flux density in W / m² (watts per square meter) is used as the unit of measurement for the intensity of electromagnetic waves. In everyday life, the power flux density of the electromagnetic waves is much smaller than 1 W / m². That is why it is usually given in μ W / m² (microwatts per square meter = 1 millionth of a watt per square meter).

In principle, protection against electromagnetic waves is possible by switching off the devices or by generally not using these devices. Even without switching off, various organizational protective measures and technical protective measures, which have very different effectiveness, are possible.

Natural light

Physically, light is an electromagnetic wave. We perceive it as light only because we are very sensitive to electromagnetic waves! Sensory organs have a narrow range of wavelengths, our eyes. Natural light penetrates as a mixture of colors from the sun to the surface of the earth, which is white at noon and reddish in the morning and in the evening.

The reason for this is the fact that not a single electromagnetic wave with a single color shines on the earth's surface, but a mixture of waves in a whole range of wavelengths, a spectrum. The spectrum does not contain a certain number of individual waves with different wavelengths but is filled in completely. Waves of all wavelengths of the spectrum are contained in infinitely close proximity. One speaks of a continuous spectrum. The waves contained in the spectrum, however, have different powers. In other words: the light output is unevenly distributed in the light spectrum.

The spectrum of the radiated light extends beyond the range that is visible to us, both far into the infrared range with larger wavelengths and into the ultraviolet range with shorter wavelengths. In the comparatively large infrared spectrum, in which we perceive the electromagnetic waves as thermal radiation, sunlight has by far the largest share of the power that is radiated in a spectrally distributed manner.

Artificial light

Artificial light differs from sunlight in terms of its spectral distribution. The light from incandescent lamps comes closest to sunlight, while classic incandescent lamps come closest to evening sunlight. The light from halogen lamps, which are also incandescent lamps, is somewhat more similar to daylight. Incandescent lamps have a continuous spectrum because, like the sun, they are so-called heat radiators and the proportion of visible light is only very small compared to the heat emitted.

All gas discharge lamps, which also include fluorescent lamps and energy-saving lamps, as well as LEDs, have a completely different spectrum. Their spectrum is not continuous because they are not heat emitters. Whole color ranges are missing in their spectra. Instead, one or a few narrow sections of the visible color spectrum dominate.

The light from fluorescent lamps, energy-saving lamps and LEDs appears cold because the red component is completely underrepresented. However, there are types in which the problem is less noticeable. The spectral difference to sunlight also has an adverse effect on color rendering, i.e. H. on the correct recognizability of the colors of illuminated objects.

Laser light is the extreme example of a spectrum of artificially generated light. It only has a single wavelength, no spectrum at all. It would be completely unsuitable for lighting purposes.

The light from fluorescent lamps and energy-saving lamps flickers, even if it is not visually perceptible. This is because the intensity of the light emitted by these lamps follows the variable strength of the alternating current with little inertia. The eye is too lazy to see the flicker. The light from incandescent lamps, on the other hand, hardly flickers because the temperature change of the filament can only slowly follow the changing strength of the alternating current.

The light from the LEDs follows a variable current with almost no inertia. LED lamps for operation on the normal AC network therefore usually also flicker. In addition, LEDs are often pulsed for various reasons, that is, they are switched on and off periodically in quick succession. In this case, the emitted light is also pulsed. The pulse frequency is always so high that it cannot be seen by the human eye due to its inertia.

All deviations of light from natural sunlight are something new in the evolutionary sense for living beings, something that they did not grow up with in evolutionary terms. First of all, artificial light poses a challenge to the immune system of living things. The greater the deviation from natural light, the greater the challenge. So far, only rudimentary research has been carried out on the health effects of the various types of artificial light on living things.

Measurement technology of electromagnetic fields and waves

All three types of fields and waves mentioned above are technically measurable. In their physics, however, they differ from each other like day and night. In addition, both types of fields and electromagnetic waves are very! different frequencies are generated. The two types of fields also occur as equal fields.

For this reason, a whole range of measuring equipment with expensive equipment is required for professional measurements in order to be able to measure all types of fields and waves in all frequencies. In addition, excellent specialist knowledge of the physics of electromagnetic fields and waves is required in order not to approach the measurement in an unsuitable manner and to be able to interpret the informative value of a measurement result (including accuracy, usability, corrective calculations, if necessary).

Inexpensive measuring devices for orientation

For laypeople, comparatively inexpensive devices are commercially available, some of which do not display a measured value but only noise depending on the field strength. They are still useful for the following applications. Firstly, it can provide a rough guide to the electromagnetic environmental pollution.

Second, they are useful for people who, mostly by accident, have noticed the connection between their symptoms and their exposure to electromagnetic environmental influences. Such people can gain very individual experiences with these inexpensive devices. With the help of the devices, they then know how to assess whether a current exposure is tolerable for them or whether it would lead to complaints after a short period of time.

Basic knowledge of electromagnetic fields and waves to a certain depth is also required to use the inexpensive devices. These devices are also only suitable for certain types of electromagnetic fields and waves and in limited frequency ranges.

Organizational protective measures

  • keep distance
  • only if necessary, short-term device operation
  • Switch off electrical circuits at night (switch off fuse or unscrew with the screw cap)
  • in buildings prefer communication devices that communicate with each other via cables instead of wireless. For this purpose, laid communication cables [link to section Communication cabling, p.6] are required in the building.
  • Prefer devices with low generation of electromagnetic fields and waves over those with higher field or wave generation
  • If possible, switch off the WLAN functionality for WLAN-enabled devices. This can be complicated in many cases. This works best with a button or switch, otherwise deactivate it via the menu, or it doesn't work at all.

Technical protective measures

Mains isolators can be built into the electrical installation to automatically switch off electrical circuits. They switch off the circuit when no device is consuming power because all of them are switched off, except for a small monitoring voltage. They also switch the circuit on again automatically as soon as a device is switched on.

However, caution should be exercised when choosing a suitable product. The different products are sometimes unsuitable. Electrotechnical expert knowledge is required for the assessment.

Extension cables, socket strips and the devices connected to them should be pulled out of the socket when not in use or switched off with two-pole switches. Such switches are built into standard adapter plug housings, which are first plugged into the socket, or into standard socket strips. However, it must actually be a two-pole switching switch.

Communication cabling and its use are very effective in avoiding electromagnetic waves in buildings. Then radio solutions for the communication devices are unnecessary. Another benefit of wired device communication is:

  • a higher data throughput
  • higher immunity to interference
  • higher security against eavesdropping

It is not always in our power to switch off devices and systems. Or we don't want to bear the consequences of the shutdown. In many such cases, protective measures are possible with which defined areas, e.g. B. a sleeping place or permanent residence, can be kept in an electromagnetically polluted environment with low fields and waves.

Due to the very different physics of the electromagnetic fields and waves, different shielding measures must be used. The effectiveness is not uniform. The planning of the shielding and the selection of the shielding materials and products require excellent specialist knowledge.

  • about the physics of electromagnetic fields and waves
  • for assessing the properties of the screen materials and products
  • for assessing whether and how a shielding must be connected to the equipotential bonding of the building and when this should not be done
  • for assessing whether the safety level of the electrical installation is inadmissibly reduced by the shielding measure in terms of the risk of electric shock

Communication cabling

In buildings, all types of technical communication can be transmitted via cables instead of radio. However, telephone, network or coaxial cables should be used for this, depending on their suitability. Data transmission via the wiring of the electrical installation backfires. Because these electrical installation cables

shielding

The closer it is to get to the root of an evil, the higher the chances of success in eliminating it. The root of artificial electromagnetic fields and waves is always their source of energy, namely an electrotechnical device or device. If it is possible to switch off the energy source, i.e. the electrical system or the device, it can no longer generate fields and waves.

However, that is often not in the power of a person who would like to. Or the person who wants to get rid of the electromagnetic fields and waves cannot or does not want to bear the consequences of the shutdown themselves. In such cases, shields at least basically reduce the fields and waves in a delimited spatial area, e.g. B. a place to sleep or in an entire building. Of course, it is counterproductive to bring objects that generate fields and waves into a shielded area.

The ability of a shield to reduce fields and waves varies widely. That only partly depends on the materials used for the umbrella products. Much more important, however, is the fact that electric fields, magnetic fields and electromagnetic waves differ from one another physically like day and night.

Very different approaches are required, which are effective in very different ways or can only be used under certain boundary conditions. When planning shielding measures, profound expert knowledge is required with regard to

  • the basics of electrical engineering
  • the physics of electromagnetic fields and waves
  • the technical rules of electrical installation technology.

In addition, a great deal of care is required in the manual implementation. Without the appropriate knowledge, it is even possible to improve the situation.

Electric fields that are generated by the electrical installation in a building can be z. B. shield very (!) Effectively. But only if the installation is shielded as such. Subsequent coatings on wall surfaces are less effective, especially if they are only applied to one wall.

Shielded lights, extension cables and socket strips are commercially available. However, they only develop their shielding effect if properly installed sockets with protective contact are installed. The latter is not the case with every old stock.

Shielding from magnetic fields is generally difficult and has only a limited effect.

The shielding against electromagnetic waves is technically very effective. The methods of real implementation can range from very moderate to technically feasible effectiveness. It's not just a question of money. A desired entry of light through a window also sets limits to the methods. Only moderate successes can be expected without any construction work.

Theoretically, rooms can be kept completely free of electrical fields by shielding. Shielding against electromagnetic waves is theoretically impossible. In the latter case, a certain so-called shielding attenuation can be achieved, which can be higher or lower.

The measure for the shielding attenuation is given in dB decibels.

A screening attenuation of 10 dB means a reduction of the radiation to a tenth.

A shielding attenuation of 20 dB means a reduction of the radiation to one hundredth.

A shielding attenuation of 30 dB means a reduction of the radiation to one thousandth.

etc.

In shielding cabins and halls in which any external radio influence is to be prevented for measurement purposes, up to 90 dB can be achieved. Of course, they have no windows.

For shielding products, the amount of shielding attenuation is specified in data sheets, catalogs and advertising brochures. This exploits the fact that laypersons in electrical engineering have no idea of ​​the subject. So watch out!

The specified shielding attenuation is the maximum value within the relevant frequency spectrum up to several GHz (gigahertz). Apart from the frequency at which the shield product has the maximum shielding attenuation, it sometimes decreases rapidly.

In the data sheet, the spectral distribution of the shielding attenuation factor must be considered, if this publication is not omitted. Furthermore, it must be considered and assessed which measurement laboratory has determined the spectral distribution.

The laboratory values ​​indicate the material properties. In practice, on-site processing, sometimes accepted at the planning stage, results in large openings, narrow gaps and other leaks in the area surrounding the area to be shielded. Ideally, the shielded area should be shielded from leaks both on the sides and above and below.

Already little ones! Leaks destroy the high attenuation values ​​of the processed material! If a total result of 30 dB shielding attenuation can be achieved when shielding a sleeping area in a building, it is the result of outstanding planning and craftsmanship. 10 to 20 dB attenuation in the overall result are common because they can be achieved with the resources that are usually available. In practice, nothing more can be expected. Even a screen material with the best material properties does not change this.

How much shielding attenuation does an electro-sensitive person need? The question falls short because it cannot be answered universally. A good question for an electrosensitive person is with which overall result of the resulting shielding attenuation his sleeping or living area is shielded, namely

1. in the local scenario of different transmitters in its vicinity

2. with its individual sensitivity.

He can only determine this by trying out different shielding measures, a question of money. Ready-made and tailor-made canopies made of shielding textiles are commercially available for comparatively little money. No expertise, planning, or craftsmanship is required to build. Electrosensitive people often find that the tried and tested canopy does not have a sufficient shielding effect for them.

Fields

Fields have a spatial extent around their source, but are fixed to this source. They contain energy. When a field is built up, the energy is applied by the source, namely an energy source, and is fed back into the same energy source by the field when it is broken down. In practice, the recovery does not take place completely because energy losses occur in the field.

If the energy source is stationary, its field is also stationary. The energy content of the field can be unchangeable. Even if the variability is very slow, one speaks of constant fields. The energy content of the field can, however, also vary periodically if the energy source periodically applies and withdraws its energy. In this case one speaks of alternating fields. The change over time can be comparatively slow, i. H. low frequency or comparatively fast, d. H. take place with high frequency.

Alternating fields

Alternating fields change their polarity periodically. Each period of the change back and forth usually takes place several times per second. The number of such periods per second is called the frequency.

Electric and magnetic alternating fields are generated in everyday life by the electric conductors of power supply systems and electrical appliances. There are no electric or magnetic alternating fields in nature.

Equal fields

The intensity of constant fields is constant or changes only slowly. There is no periodic polarity change several times per second with constant fields.

Both electric and magnetic constant fields naturally exist. There are constant electrical fields between the clouds and the earth. When there is a thunderstorm, their field strength is so great that an electrical discharge with an enormous flashover occurs, known as lightning.

The earth is both penetrated and surrounded by a constant magnetic field. With a compass this is used for navigation purposes. The polarity changes in very long time intervals. The change as such takes place comparatively quickly. Allegedly such a change is just about to be announced.

The intensities of the natural constant fields are much higher than those of the artificial alternating fields. There is nothing to worry about. With this, living beings grew up evolutionarily. However, there are weather-sensitive people who suffer when the weather changes. Even with cattle, if they live freely, e.g. B. on an alpine pasture, based on their behavior, it is assumed that it can perceive approaching storms. Electric constant fields may play a role here.

The Earth's magnetic field is has a geometry. It emerges from the poles of the earth and stretches around the earth between the poles. Its geometry is homogeneous over a small area of ​​the earth's surface, such as a piece of land. H. The same everywhere, even at a height of many meters.

For health reasons, the homogeneity of the earth's magnetic field should not be disturbed and its geometry should not be changed. That is why all magnetically conductive materials, in everyday life steel, as well as permanent magnets, in certain types of electric motors and in loudspeakers, should be avoided, especially in the sleeping area.

frequency

Processes which are repeated periodically have a shorter or longer period. This is a certain amount of time that passes before the process repeats itself.

The frequency indicates numerically the number of periodic processes per second and thus the number of periods per second. The term Hertz is used as the unit for frequency, abbreviated to Hz.

10 periods per second are 10 Hz.

1,000 periods per second are 1 kHz, KiloHertz.

1,000,000 periods per second are 1 MHz, MegaHertz.

1,000,000,000 periods per second are 1 GHz, GigaHertz.

Conceptually, a distinction is made between low and high frequency. However, no limit is defined at any particular frequency. Historically, the conceptual distinction can be traced back to the technical concept of voice transmission via radio. The high frequency is the so-called carrier frequency of the electromagnetic wave, which transports the low-frequency voice message, i.e. an audio frequency spectrum of up to 16 kHz, to the receiver.

Note: high frequency has to do with radio because electromagnetic waves are emitted by antennas. Low frequency is not radiated as an electromagnetic wave from antennas. This distinction applies even though exotic carrier frequencies, e.g. for radio communication with submarines, are well below 100 Hz, i.e. in the low-frequency audio frequency spectrum. In such exotic radio applications, 100 Hz is already the high frequency because it is the carrier frequency of a radio application.

The periodically repeating process can be an oscillation. All types of waves are also characterized by periodic processes. Finally, the energy source for light or another electromagnetic wave can be switched on and off in very rapid succession. This is known as pulsing, pulsing or pulsed. If the pulsing occurs periodically, a pulse frequency can be specified for it.

Frequencies of electric and magnetic fields

A frequency specification for fields means that the energy supply and its withdrawal by the energy source takes place periodically with the specified frequency per second. Electric and magnetic alternating fields always have the frequency of the electric voltage or the electric current, their energy source. Dominate in everyday life

  • 50 Hz in the German power supply networks and electrical installations (internationally inconsistent)
  • 100 Hz flicker frequency of fluorescent lamps with a conventional ballast (on German power supply networks; twice the frequency of the power supply)
  • 16.7 Hz on the electrified lines of Deutsche Bahn (internationally inconsistent)
  • Fluorescent lamps with an electronic ballast, energy-saving lamps, induction cookers and contactless battery charging devices (completely inconsistent and usually a superposition of fields of different frequencies)

At higher frequencies, the energy content of the resulting fields can be emitted as a wave. The transition is fluid, both in terms of frequency and in terms of the power component that is radiated as a wave.

Frequencies of electromagnetic waves

A frequency specification for waves [link to section waves or radiation, physics p.11] means that the energy exchange between the electric and magnetic field takes place back and forth with the specified frequency per second.

The known frequencies of natural electromagnetic waves lie

  • between 7.8 Hz and 51 Hz for the Schumann resonances
  • between about 4 and 50 kHz for the VFL Atmospherics
  • between 300 GHz (3 x 1011 Hz) and 3 PHz (3 x 1015 Hz) for light including infrared and ultraviolet radiation
  • over 3 PHz (1PHz = 1 trillion Hertz) for ionizing radiations, e.g. B. cosmic radiation or radioactivity

With the artificially generated electromagnetic waves, radio systems in the wide frequency range from a few 100 kHz to a few GHz dominate in everyday life. Radar systems are also operated up to around 10 GHz. Military radio applications may go a decade beyond that.

Unintentional emissions from electronic devices and the formation of sparks on sliding contacts of motors are well below 100 kHz. Exotic radio applications are also operated below 100 kHz, with submarine radio even below 100 Hz.

Waves or radiation, physics especially of electromagnetic waves

Waves also contain energy which they receive from an energy source. But there is no return for the energy, rather the wave spreads spatially and transports the energy away from the energy source.

The energy source of a water wave is the wind or is z. B. provided by a stone falling into the water. The energy for a sound wave is z. B. provided by the vibrations of components of a musical instrument. The energy source of an artificial electromagnetic wave is usually a transmitting antenna, either a specially constructed component or an unwanted one, because the arrangement and dimensions of any electrical conductor enable wave radiation. The latter is particularly true of conductors in electronic devices.

After all, any sparking creates electromagnetic waves. This type of generation was used in the early stages of their exploration, when no one knew that antennas could be constructed. This is where the German term funk comes from.

Because such devices can interfere with radio broadcasting, other radio applications, electronic devices and the transmission of information on cables, they must be sufficiently interference-suppressed. However, the relevant regulations do not require complete prevention of the escape of electromagnetic waves. That is why practically all electronic devices used in everyday life, e.g. B. Computers, but also household appliances with electric motors and microwave ovens electromagnetic waves.

An electromagnetic wave is physically created by the fact that its energy content is periodically exchanged between an electric and a magnetic field. That is why electromagnetic waves, but also all other waves, always have a frequency. [Link to the frequency section, see 9 below] The periodic exchange of energy between the electric and the magnetic field causes the electromagnetic wave to move forward.

The wave propagates spatially at the speed of light. The periodic exchange of energy between the two fields takes place along the path of their movement. Therefore there is a constant distance from places on the path where the wave is in the same state of energy exchange. This constant distance is called the wavelength. With water waves, the wavelength is nice to see, the distance z. B. from one to the next wave crest.

By the way, a wave is only colloquially a single wave crest. From a physical point of view, the wave consists of all of its wave peaks and valleys. With its constant speed of propagation, the entire construct moves further and further away from the energy source, which continues to generate new wave peaks and troughs and continuously attach them to the retreating wave.

There is a close relationship between the frequency, the wavelength and the speed of propagation of the wave. In the case of electromagnetic waves, the speed of light can be converted from the frequency to the wavelength and vice versa using a simple formula.

That is why both its frequency and its wavelength can be used equally as parameters of an electromagnetic wave. In radio applications, it is common to specify the frequency of the antenna voltage and the antenna current, which together cause the emission of an electromagnetic wave with the same frequency on a transmitting antenna.

In the case of light, physically also an electromagnetic wave, it is common to describe it by its wavelength. In the case of visible light, the wavelength is in the range of a few hundred nanometers, depending on the color.

1 mm millimeter = 1/1000 m meter

1 μm micrometer = 1/1000 mm of a millimeter

1 nm nanometer = 1/1000 μm micrometer

For the periodic exchange of energy between the fields, a special spatial arrangement of the two fields to one another is required.This special spatial arrangement can only be created if the electrical conductors for the voltage and the current have a corresponding spatial arrangement. The latter is achieved by the antenna construction or it arises randomly from the arrangement of conductors in electrical and electronic devices.

Electromagnetic waves are also referred to as radiation, especially in the case of light or ionizing radiation such as a-, b-, g-radiation, X-rays, neutron radiation.

Pulsation

Pulsing or pulsing and pulsed that means a lot! Fast switching on and off of voltage, current, light, radio waves or any other technical-physical condition. This does not primarily mean the chronological sequence of on and off, but the transition between these two states.

In pulsed radio applications, pulsing is a means to an end, among other things. the synchronization of transmitter and receiver so that they stay in step with each other. Pulsed radio applications are considered to be a particular health hazard.

In optical data transmission, pulsing is a prerequisite for a high data transmission rate.

In the case of LED lighting, the pulsing is used to control the brightness. In the case of luminaires with LEDs of different colors, pulsing can also be used to control the light spectrum. The pulsing takes place at a sufficiently high frequency that the human eye can no longer resolve, i.e. from approx. 100 Hz. This means that the LED is switched on and off once within 10 milliseconds, and that periodically.

Health hazard

All technically generated environmental influences are something new for living beings in the evolutionary sense, something that they did not grow up with in evolutionary terms. First of all, technically generated environmental influences pose a challenge to the immune system of living beings. The greater the deviation from the conditions of the natural environment, the greater the challenge.

Not every environmental impact that is harmful to health, whether naturally or technically produced, leads to symptoms in the short term. In such cases, and there are very many, the connection with symptoms that may appear much later is difficult to identify and prove. Because our immune system can cope with many challenges, at least for a limited time.

However, permanent challenges of a single species and even more a permanent mixture of different challenges of material and energetic species as well as psychological stress can bring the barrel to overflowing. And often only after years and decades, e.g. B. asbestos, wood preservatives and other chemicals that have now been banned.

Both the experience of electrosensitive people and scientific studies financed independently by the economy show that all electromagnetic fields and waves, provided they are not of natural origin, have a potential health hazard.

Both the experience of electro-sensitive people and scientific studies independently financed by industry also show that pulsed radio applications have an even more unfavorable effect on living beings than unpulsed radio applications such as classic radio.

Natural light is generally considered healthy compared to artificial light. According to current knowledge, this is due to the different, unnatural spectral composition in artificial light.

Some medical professionals warn of flickering light sources, the flickering of which is caused by a rapidly changing operating current, namely alternating current. These medics also warn against pulsed light.

The following conditions also suggest a health hazard, in particular from pulsed light. Firstly, from a physical point of view, light is also an electromagnetic wave, the pulsing of which is particularly unfavorable to health in radio applications.

Second, only in the wavelength range of light do electromagnetic waves penetrate from space to the earth's surface with such high intensity. All other radiations from space, including radio radiation from the universe, lag far behind the intensity of natural light. Amazingly, at least the land creatures have adapted evolutionarily to electromagnetic waves in the form of light even at high intensity, although electromagnetic waves of all other wavelength ranges are a challenge for their immune system.

Thirdly, there is scientific evidence that light also plays a role in both coordination processes between different cells of living organisms and possibly also in cell-internal processes. See page health. [Link to the sub-page health] Natural light is therefore an existential requirement at least for all land creatures.

It is therefore reasonable to assume that pulsing light is possibly even more dangerous for health than pulsing in radio applications.