How does a 2-chamber heart work

Atria, Ventricles & Aorta

The heart is divided into 2 pump systems by a muscular septum, the left and the right heart. Each half of the heart consists of an atrium (Atrium) and a heart chamber (Ventricle), so a total of 4 rooms.

The left ventricle is stronger because it has to pump blood around the body at higher pressure. The right ventricle, on the other hand, has to apply a much lower pressure to pump the blood into the pulmonary circulation - its muscles are therefore much weaker. Nevertheless, both halves of the heart form a unit with a perfectly coordinated working method.

Heart valves prevent the blood from flowing back

There are valves between the atria and ventricles that prevent the blood from flowing back after the heartbeat. Like a door, they can only be opened in one direction, namely into the ventricle. These heart valves, known as leaflet valves because of their appearance, act like inlet valves and hang in the shape of a funnel in the chamber. To prevent them from turning into the atria, they are attached to the heart muscle wall with sinewy fibers.

A large blood vessel leads from both heart chambers: from the left heart chamber the large artery artery (aorta) and from the right ventricle the pulmonary artery (arteria pulmonalis or Pulmonary artery). With each heartbeat, the left heart pumps blood into the arteries and thus into all areas of the body. The right heart drives the blood to the lungs through the pulmonary artery. Valves are also located at the origin of these blood vessels in the heart chambers. These pocket flaps work like outlet valves and prevent the blood from flowing back into the heart chamber after the pumping process.

Cardiac output

With each heartbeat, the heart pumps around 70 milliliters of blood, that is 300 liters in an hour and over 2 million liters in a whole year. In a 75-year-old person, the heart has already pumped around 179 million liters of blood. The amount of blood that the heart transports in one minute is called "cardiac output" or cardiac output "(CO). This amount of blood and the resistance in the blood vessels in the body determine blood pressure.