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StuDeO. Studienwerk German Life in East Asia e.v. StuDeO - INFO

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1 StuDeO Studienwerk German Life in East Asia e.v. StuDeO - INFO

2 Studienwerk German Life in East Asia e.v. (StuDeO) Headquarters: Munich, VR Homepage: StuDeO was founded as a non-profit association in 1992 by East Asian Germans with the aim of keeping alive the connection with East Asia, looking back on their own memories and open to constant change. StuDeO has set itself the task of maintaining contacts between the German-speaking and Asian cultures, making new ones and collecting contemporary testimonies in order to preserve them for posterity and make them available for research. Please support our work and become a member of the StuDeO. Annual membership fees, due in the first quarter of the current year or within three months if you join. Membership fee individuals 20; Married couples 27; legal entities 75 Association account Studienwerk Deutsches Leben in Ostasien (StuDeO) Postbank Hanover, account number, bank code IBAN DE BIC PBNKDEFF Our non-European members are asked to issue transfers and checks in euros only, taking into account the bank charges incurred. On transfers and checks, domestic and international, please note membership fee "or donation" and state the sender, if necessary the name of the member for whom the transfer is being made. Contributions and donations are tax-deductible, up to 200 the bank receipt is valid as evidence. The treasurer issues donation receipts for larger amounts. Please send your declaration of membership in writing to Dr. Siems Siemssen. Board of Directors CHAIRMAN Dr. Alexander Röhreke Mauerki rcherstraße l Munich - DEPARTMENT V. CHAIRMAN Hilke Veth - ESTATE MASTER Elke Meiler ARCHIVE, LIBRARY, COLLECTION POINT Renate Jahresling CONTACTS JAPAN Freya Eckhardt - StuDeO maintains the Wolfgang / Oberbayernuth house left by its founder. It serves as a meeting place for friends of East Asia and also houses the archive and library. If you wish to visit it to do research or rent it as a holiday home, please address it to Dr. Ursula Fassnacht. WOLFGANG MÜLLER HOUSE: ADMINISTRATION Dr. Ursula Fassnacht Imprint StuDeO-INFO lssn EDITOR Studienwerk Deutsches Leben in Ostasien e.v. (StuDeO) The StuDeO-INFOs appear twice a year. Editorial deadline in each case !. April /!. October EDITOR Ernst Dietrich Eckhardt t Renate Jahresling (provisional) Collaboration: Martina Bölck - SPECIAL TASKS Henning Blombach Please send your manuscripts to the archive collection point in Eichenau z.hd. by Renate Jahresling. Subject to review and possible reductions. Cover picture - watercolor Soochow. City wall with gate and guard house "by Friedrich Alfred Leekney, signed album sheet from travel studies from China, Japan, Siam, Manila" (StuDeO archive * 2594). - See p. 9f. SPECIAL TASKS Dr. Siems Siemssen - 2 -

3 These days many people come to our country fleeing war and bombs. We can be all the more grateful that in 2015 we were able to celebrate the end of the Second World War 70 years ago. In China, the end of the war was also celebrated with a large ceremony and the descendants of Germans who had campaigned for the Chinese population during the Japanese occupation were invited (p. 38). You can read about the role of the Japanese emperor and his official transformation from a divine to a human monarch in the democratization of Japan after the war in the article by Werner Schlieper (p. 34). We learn something about the time of the war and National Socialism in China from the perspective of a German diplomat (in the fifth and last part of Hermann Gipperich's memoirs, p. 24), a scientist (Freyeisen: Shanghai and the politics of the Third Reich) and from the biography of the Jewish emigrant Wilhelm Mann (reviews p. 42). We have also put together a colorful and interesting mix for you: the second part of Jerzy Czajewski's report about Germans in Harbin (p. 12), memoirs from Shanghai, Japan and Sumatra and book recommendations. At this point we would like to thank everyone who has contributed to this issue. But we don't just look into the past, but also into the future: On October 2nd, the association China Brücke Deutschland e. V. "was founded. The idea for this came about at the Germany meeting of the Evangelical German Language Congregation (EGDS) in Beijing, where a new bell was cast for the Beijing congregation. And because the bell fits so well into the Christmas season, we have the report about it right at the beginning (page 6). With this in mind: Merry Christmas and a happy new year! Your editorial team wishes you dear members and friends of the StuDeO Whoever wishes for Christmas and the New Year under the sign of the "Holz-Schafs", of which it is said that it promotes the arts and the formation of the heart in people ", may now have to think of the destruction of the ancient Roman cultural heritage in Palmyra (and not only there). 2500 years ago Herodotus wrote that when people travel, they would discover a world beyond their own hometowns and cease to take for granted the seemingly unchangeable of their own (cultural) origin. The curiosity of people, their urge to discover and their joy in experimenting can lead to catastrophe when cultures meet (example: the Inca Empire), but also to developments from which something new emerges, a creative synthesis that enriches us. The cultural melting pot of Palmyra was such a great moment of human creativity. What does this tell us for our club? That the memory of the fertile cultural heritage that connects the Germans and the Chinese, for example in Tsingtau (Qingdao), will not necessarily endure in the stone evidence that has been preserved, but in the ideas and worlds of thought as they are in the archive material we have collected manifest; especially if we make these materials available to as many interested people as possible. With the Internet, modern technology has given us an additional instrument for this. It is said that the virtual world never forgets, and that can only be in our interest, because after months of initial difficulties, we have now begun to renew our web presence. Until the new year we hope to give us all a Christmas present with the new website. And to give the legacy we manage another chance not to be forgotten. With this good news, the Board of Directors wishes you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year. Sincerely, I am your - 3 -

4 If you are looking for me, look for me in your hearts. Once I have found a place there, I will always be with you. Antoine de Saint-Exupery Niels F. Dahlmann Lilo Ertelt née Wilfert Edith Weinkopf (Sr. Simone OSB) Dorothea Lehmann Edgar Arnhold Wolfgang Herterich Antonia (Toni) Woike née Wietz Gerrit Kreling Günter Meissner Udo Meske Eva Bodenstein née Skoff Wolfgang Haas Karl -Heinz Grundmann Helga Selig née Trapp Martha Gerhart née Steybe Blanca Hedi Arndt née Renner almost 77 years years years almost 69 years years years years years almost 83 years years years years years years years old memorial of old tombstones of Chinese Germans in the German embassy Beijing (since 2000) Eugen Bressan / Heinrich and Yuksin Cordes / Max Debus / Ernst and Erich Fechner / Max Fechner / Kurt Heinze / Therese Heiss / Carl Hübner / Max Karius / Hermann Mahnke / Gertrud Mahnke / Bernhard Riidorjf / W. Tamatmagil / Alexander Thiirmer - 4 -

5 The StuDeO warmly congratulates its members and friends who celebrated their birthday in 2015, very old, and wishes them all the best. Reached 100 and more years of life: Rose Joedicke 102 years in Lugano Dieter von Hanneken 10 l years in California Hertha Woelcken-Gipperich l 0 l years in Detmold Anna-Kath. Koch-Blume 100 years in Aumühle Helene Sonntag-Triebe 100 years Allambie-H./ From 90 and more years of age: Lotte Amt 99 years in Wetzlar Berta Kleimenhagen-Steybe 99 years in Stuttgart Maria Wichmann-Redlich 99 years. in Berlin Elinor Hoffmann-Göldner 97 years in Naples Helga Becker 95 years in Fellbach Elisabeth Huwer in Berchtesgaden Ursula Jensen 95 years in Ahrensburg Ursula Frommelt-Statz 94 years in Düsseldorf Edith Günther-Körner 94 years in Wentorf Lilli Hachmeister- Wömpner 94 years in Berlin Jutta Jäger-Maurer 94 years in Bremen Inge Koch-Kniepf 94 years in Williamson / USA Wera Schoenfeld-Siemssen in Aumühle Martha Strasser-Klein in Icking Lola Westendorf-Parge 94 years in Hamburg Lydia Ambühl- Eidenpenz 93 years in Breitenbach / CH Inge Küthe-Cordes 93 years in Willingen Max Kupka 93 years in Hungenroth Peter H. Müller-Brunotte 93 years in Stockholm Günther Skull 93 years in Bischofswiesen Emilie Schwamme! 93 years in Vienna Gisela Bowemrnn-Lange 92 years in W.-Horsley / GB Günter Dölling 92 years in Hamburg length Glässel-Koehler 92 years in Biberach Wiltrud Gohdes-Ticfcnbacher in Aumühle Carla Greis-stairshauer 92 years in Dayton / USA lrmgard Grimm 92 y. In Kronberg Herwig Herr 92 y. In Grafing lnge Kraut-Trapp in Leinfelden Desmond Power 92 JW-Vancouver / Ca Eddy Stengel 92 y. In Dortmund Wolf H. Weihe in Brarmenburg Gertrud Atzert-Schulze 91 y. Hann.-Münden Erika Dello Sault Ste. Marie / Ca Barbara Helm-Schinzinger 91 years in Seattle / USA Hildegard Herr-Pietzcker 91 years in Grafing Fritz H Üotter 91 years in Berlin Harold G. Lenz Tinton Falls / USA Armin Rothe 91 years in Radolfzell Mi li tina Walther -Kohlmetz 91 years in Hausham Norrna Hachgenei-Gertis 90 years in Aschaffenburg Kascha Kloos-Schmidt 90 years in Stellenbosch / RSA Karl Kranz 90 years in Bruce / Aus Elin or Kupka in Koblenz Lud \ ig Lange 90 years in S. Y annouth / usa Gertrud Leopold-Mucks 90 years in Gelsenkirchen Walter Leubner 90 years in Oberau Karl-Heinz Ludwig 901. in Vienna Christian Macke 901. in Hamburg Adelheid Meyer-Antosch 90 years in Halle Keiko Refardt-Kuboka 901 in Kobe Friederun Reichelt-Grimm 90 years in Berlin Lilo Schmidt in Seeheim-Jugenh. Gerhard Schreck llse-marie Steger-Simon-E. Wolfgang Troeger Jimmi Wolter 90 years in Tokyo 90 years in Wasserburg 90 years in Stafford / From 90 years in Hamburg 85 and more years of age: Helga Eggers 89 years in Bremen Hanns Hachgenei 89 years in Aschaffenburg Christi Hickrnan-Skoff 89 years in San Diego / USA Elise Hofmeister-Bahlmann 89 years in Darmstadt length Huetter-Mohrstedt 89 years in London / Ca Gisela Kallina-Riedler 89 years in Seibersdorf Marlis Klare Rothe 89 years in Bremen Renate Kurowski-Kessler 89 J. in Allschwil / CH Peter Stickforth 89 years in Göppingen Karl-Arnold Weber 89 years in Betzweiler-W. Fritz Wittig 89 years in Berlin Anne-Marie Chow 88 years in Beijing Dirk Bomhorst 88 years in Caracas / Venez. Length de la Camp 88 years in Chicago / USA Carl Friedrich 88 years in Leonberg Nina Hohmann-Wilhelm 88 years in Erlangen Undine Kaiser-Pinks 88 years in Heidesheim Marianne Kleemann-Bass 88 years in Düsseldorf Helmut H. Meyer 88 J. in Bad Homburg Hellmuth Pflüger 88 J. in Hamburg Harry Poulsen 88 J. in Sao Paulo / Brazil Horst Rosatzin 88 J. in Rieben / CH Bernd W. Sandt 88 J. in Midland / USA Gert Stolle in Ahrensburg Gerhard Wolf 88 J. . in Hamburg Jöm Anner in E.Warburton / from Martin Braun 87 years in Hamburg Heinz J. Eggeling 87 years in Vienna Gustav Hake 87 years in Celle Heinrich Jahresling 87 years in Melboume / from Heinrich Kranz 87 years in Hamburg Dagmar Albert-Lassen in Vancouver / CA Helmi Raatschen-Kroh in Duisburg Siegfried Richter 87 years in Bahama / USA Christa Schwanke-Meyer-G. 87 years in Hamburg Alessa de Wet-Hudec 87 years in Chandler / USA Malte von Bargen 86 years in Dresden Paul Erik Höne 86 years in Mülheim Lothar Köppen 86 years in Aichwald Gerda Li.lck 86 years in Mülheim Lotti McClelland-Krippendorff 86 years old in New Orleans / USA Joachim Rudolf 86 years old in Hamburg Gertrud Wahner-Wetzel 86 years old in Marbach Adi Adelinde Brunner-Jess 85 years old in Dorval / Ca Lore Bürgermeister-Körner 85 years old in Hamburg Edith Fessmann -Gadow 85 years in Neumünster Karin Hackmann 85 years in Geesthacht Theodor Heinrichsohn 85 years in Leverkusen Barbara Julius-Dietrich 85 years in Hamburg Anna Mann-Hugnin 85 years in Berlin Wilhelm Matzat in Bonn Ruth Munder-Böhler 85 years in Ulm Hermann Saefkow 85 years in Smithers / Ca Heinz Töbich 85 years in Vienna Edmund Vidal 85 years in Hamburg - 5 -

6 A new church bell for Beijing Renate Jahresling As part of the second meeting of the Evangelical German Language Congregation (EGDS) in Beijing from July 17-19, 2015 in Herborn / Hessen, a bell was cast for the Beijing congregation in the Rincker bell foundry. Church without a bell - a look back The first German Protestant parish in Beijing was founded in November 1916. Initially, a hall in the north hotel served as the church. Three years later the community received its own building in the legation quarter, namely Barrack 9 of the former Waldersee Kaseme, the quarters of the former German protection force. The church interior was quickly furnished with the necessary items and so services, baptisms, confirmations, weddings could be celebrated in the German Chapel ", but without the sound of a bell call to the community. The first church bell, Beijing That only changed in 1938 when the Family members of the medical council Dr. Edmund Dipper () donated a bell. An inscription on the bell rightly praised him as a pioneer of German medicine in China ": In the first years in Tsingtau he made merits in the fight against epidemics, especially cholera, and from 1913 on he was chief physician of the German military hospital or hospital in Beijing. Dr. Dipper also served on the church council for many years. In the bell foundry J.G. Pfeiffer's Dipper bell (tone B ', 300 kg), cast in Kaiserslautern, only called the congregation in Beijing together for a few years, as the expulsion of most Germans from China after the Second World War also heralded the end of the first Beijing parish " The fate of the first bell is unknown. It was last seen lying on the ground in the early 1980s, in the rubble of the demolished barracks. Bell without a church - an initiative by Pastor Schell On June 10, 1993, a parish was founded for the second time. It is called EGDS Beijing for short "and celebrated its twentieth anniversary two years ago. Karl-Heinz Schell took up his post in the Beijing community. There is no church there, services are held in the "Europa Hall", the multi-purpose hall of the German embassy. Nevertheless, after a research stay at the Evangelical Central Archives in Berlin, Rev. Schell developed the project A Bell for Beijing ". In the past twenty years a chapel without a bell, and today a bell without a church? - Why not! In 2013 the parish council launched an appeal to parishioners in the anniversary week: Become a donor! "And added: We regard this bell as a first step on the way to building a German church in Beijing." 2 he was successful! Thanks to generous donations from ten families and the collections from the anniversary congregation, the new bell will ring in Beijing this year. About Pastor Schell's vita: He was born in Marienberg / Westerwald in 1960 and studied Protestant theology in Bethel, Texas (USA), Heidelberg and Bangalore (South India). In Japan, he completed a DAAD scholarship to study the Japanese language and the doctoral course at the University of Tsukuba and accepted the pastor's position at EGOS Tokyo-Yokohama for one year (). 1 See StuDeO-INFO December 2013, p. And the two anniversary volumes From the North and the South. "And From the East and the West." the EGOS Beijing. 2 Poster with a call, shown in the volume Von Norden und von Süd. ", P

7 He is fascinated by foreign countries, from 2008 to 2015 he was the pastor of the EKD (Evangelical Church in Germany) for northern China in the EGDS Beijing parish with great success. This is testified by the returnees who - like the community in Beijing - continue to feel connected to him and the EGDS Beijing. They have met once a year in Germany since 2014. A parallel to Pastor Wolfgang Müller () emerges here. After his return from Tientsin in 1946, he succeeded in holding together the East Asian Germans repatriated after the war or scattered all over the world, initially only those from northern China, later also those from all over China, Japan and the Dutch East Indies. This success story culminated in the founding of our StuDeO in 1992. so that the bells may succeed, held by Rev. Schell, solemnly initiate the bell casting process. An impressive event !! Now the reader will wonder how the Beijing bell is supposed to work without a church tower. It is like this: The Rincker company constructed a 100 kg mobile iron frame in which the bell will hang. Both result in a total weight of 300 kg! During the following visit to the Glockenwelt Burg Greifenstein "bell museum" near Herborn, we learned that the home of the bell is in China. Around years ago, bell stones were used there and metal plates were struck. The plates were formed into hollow bodies, which ultimately gave rise to the bell shape. The casting of the bell during the EGDS Beijing meeting in Germany The casting of the bell on July 17th, 2015 was the highlight of the second EGDS Beijing meeting in Germany and was chaired by Rev. Schell, who held his parish office in Beijing in February Meeting On the second day we visited the historically interesting small Protestant church in Dreifelden im Westerwald, which Rev. Schell looked after for ten years (). The incumbent Rev. Oliver Sigle described the historical changes and extensions he left, 3 and Edna Li, the Germany from an originally small right agent of the parish council in Beijing.We both witnessed the great meeting. Already the place: Herborn on the eastern edge of the Westerwald with its half-timbered houses, the castle, the narrow alleys gave a foreheadful frame. angular building, the walls of which were made of stones laid in a herringbone pattern. Part of the wall has been preserved. Since the pastor of Rev. Sehei 1, changes have been made inside, of course in accordance with monument protection and safety regulations, from We drove to the Rinckcr brothers bell foundry in Sinn near Herborn, which makes bells for churches all over the world. The family business, which is around 400 years old, has a long, eventful history that is recorded in a book. "'We had time to look around the old walls with fireplaces to dry fountains, utensils, and display boards about work processes and to learn a lot about the craft of bell-casting from willing employees. Finally, we see briefly from a flat mound of earth in the hall white ventilation pipes protrude, and on one of the three signs we read Beijing ": Indeed,. Solidly bricked in the earth." (Schiller) the assembled forms are Fez / bricked in the earth! the form made of fired clay. "Devotion before the casting of three bells, the bells! The time has come! The temperature in front of the Beijing bell. Left: Son and father Rincker of the metal (bronze) crosses C. The bell devotion and the blessing, 3 See StuDeO-INFO June 2015, S Gustav Ernst Köhler: Die Glockengießer Rincker. Giessen: Brühlsche Universitätsdruckerei (2nd edition). to which both pastors knew how to report. It's good that the little church still exists in Dreifelden, because Pastor Sigle is the only public "person in the town, all other offices (town hall, school, post office) have been withdrawn over time. StuDeO - INFO December

8 After a tour around a pond in the Westerwald lake district to exercise, we dealt in the large Protestant parish hall in Herborn with the subject of the Beijing parish: yesterday, today and tomorrow. " first Beijing parish and its bell. Thoughts and suggestions for today and tomorrow were exchanged with active participation. Rev. Schell concluded this wonderful day with a moving service in the city church of Herborn. The afternoon brainstorming was analyzed in the late evening and you decided to found an association to sustainably promote the work of the German congregations in China, to accompany posted workers and returnees and to help shape German-Chinese ecumenism (see addendum). The third day was dedicated to Altenberg Cathedral near Cologne and an organ concert by Daniel Tappe. In 2010, Mr. Tappe was a co-founder of the Deutsche Kantorei Beijing. Until 2013 he was their cantor and organist for the Protestant and Catholic. German language communities in Beijing as well as organ expert for a Chinese concert agency. Unfortunately, neither of us could hear the concert because we were still visiting Max Kupka 5 and family on our way home. Max, aged 93 5 Max Kupka was born in Harbin in 1922, the son of the Troppau music professor Richard Kupka () and a Russian woman whom his father had met in Siberian captivity. The family moved to Beijing, where Prof. Kupka worked as a pianist, Conductor and music teacher worked. The marriage soon fell apart, so that Max grew up without a mother, but was lovingly cared for by his Amah Christine. From autumn 1939 Prof. Kupka directed the newly founded church choir of the German Chapel. Max attended the German school and was allowed to take part in the Stickforth family's lunch menu (Dr. med. Kurt Stickforth was a brother-in-law and colleague of Dr. Dipper). After completing an apprenticeship as a businessman at Carlowitz & Co. (his teacher was Ernst Jahresling), shortly before the start of the German Russian campaign in June 1941, Max took the Trans-Siberia to Germany to do his military service. His father lived in Beijing until his death, cared for by his Chinese students. one of the very elderly parishioners from Beijing and his wife Elinor (90 years old) are doing well and greet the StuDeO and parishioners. We came home very moved by the dynamism and open-mindedness of the congregation in Herborn, which was gathered in an ecumenical spirit. And with eight new member registrations for StuDeO in your pocket! The meeting was a special experience that was wonderfully organized by Edna Li. Thank you very much! And a big thank you to Rev. Schell, who knows how to keep the congregation together. The new church bell for Beijing (/ 99 kg, 70.5 cm diameter, tone: des) Addendum: The casting of the bell was successful, from the helmet to the wreath it plays like sunshine "(Schiller). It was launched on October 7, 2015 in Herborn Sinn was picked up by a forwarding company and brought to Bremen, where she started the sea voyage to Tianjin port on October 18. Her arrival at the German Embassy in Beijing is expected at the end of November December (Nikolaus Tag) can succeed. In the meantime the new association was founded in Bonn / Bad Godesberg. It is called China Brücke Deutschland ev ". October 2nd, the bridging day between the Chinese and German national holidays, was symbolically chosen as the founding day. The goals of the association are: the promotion and support of German-speaking Christian life in China the accompaniment of those leaving and returning from China the strengthening of the individual and the community through prayer and worship the participation in shaping the German-Chinese ecumenism. In performing these tasks, the association actively participates in cultural and religious dialogue and promotes international understanding between Germany and China StuDeO - fnfo December 2015

9 memories of traveling around Shanghai Wenzel Krieg Source: Wenzel Krieg: Meine Jugend in China (written around 1983), 11 p., StuDeO archive * Introduction: Wenzel Krieg () was the first son of Prof. Dr. Paul Krieg () and his wife Lea (). His father spent the years 1899 to 1903 as a doctor in Hong Kong, then he went to Shanghai. Prof. Krieg is one of the founders of Tongji University (it goes back to a medical and engineering school for Chinese that was founded by Germans in 1907 or founded). He went to Germany, where he took part in the war as a senior staff doctor. From 1921 until his death he worked at the German Hospital in Beijing. 1 Shortly before his death, Wenzel Krieg wrote down several incidents and observations from his youth in China - trips during the semester break to his parents' visit to Beijing, the imperial city, means of transport in northern and southern China, provincial governors at the time, trips to and around Shanghai graduated from Tongji University. Of the total of eight stories, two are presented here that deal with the area around Shanghai. On the waterway from Shanghai to Moganshan, storms in the mountains Before the First World War, my parents lived in Shanghai and I was born there. In Shanghai the summer climate was hot and humid and difficult to bear for Europeans. That's why my father rented a summer house in the mountains near Hangchow [Hangzhou], where we spent the Sonuner. My father, who could not stay away from the hospital for so long, only came up to see us temporarily. The journey from Shanghai to the mountains, which were called Mogans h a n ~, was always very 1 Obituaries see StuDeO-Archiv * 1851 and StuDeO INFO December 2008, p. 14f. 2 The mountain region of the Moganshan (719 m high) is about ~ 00 km southwest of Shanghai and 50 km northwest of Hangzhou. Up until the Second World War, Moganshan was a popular summer retreat for wealthy, mostly foreign, Shanghai residents and is now a place of relaxation for the general public. See Tess Johnston StuDeO - IN FO December 2015 exciting. It lasted several days and we went there for the most part in a houseboat. In southern China, people and ~ M ~~ - ~: _ - == - :: ~~~ At the Kaiserkanal Source: Nachlaß Krieg or Studeo-fotothek? 0625 goods mainly took place on canals, of which the Kaiserkanal is a special one Role played. 3 The houseboats were very comfortably furnished with two or three cabins, there was also a kitchen, and you could also sail with these boats when the voyage went over the Tai lfoo (Taihu Lake, large lake). At the beginning of the journey from Shanghai, when it went through the canals, we hung on to a chain of boats that was pulled by a steam launch, for which one had to buy a ticket. First we drove through Soochow Creek, which passed through many cities, of which Soochow [Suzhou] was a large city. The houses were on high stone walls directly on the canal and Dekc Erh: Western Architecture in China's Old Summer Resorts (1994), S The construction of the Imperial Canal (also known as the Great Canal) began years ago, in the 13th century it finally connected Hangzhou with Beijing - the longest canal in the world

10 built, which was crossed by various stone bridges [see title picture]. At one point, namely at the confluence with the Kaiserkanal, it had to be turned at right angles. Since the chain of boats was boats, it was very difficult to get past the stone walls at a right angle. At that moment it was not allowed to speak. When we were detached from the boat train, we continued our journey partly by sail, partly by oar. The oar was operated in China by a kind of sculling, 4 with at least four coolies [coolies] working on the oar, which represented a kind of fish tail. The pacing of the coolies gave the boat a pleasant rocking experience. Sailing over the Tai Hoo was very exciting, it took about two days; 5 during the night was moored on an island. Once, when we had to spend the night in a canal, the Laoda (captain) came to my father and told him to fire a few shots so that the robbers would be scared. My father said that was probably unnecessary, because they were only harmless farmers. Laoda replied that during the day it was, but that they would be robbers at night. Source: Wolfgang Träger After the boat trip was over, we went up into the mountains in sedan chairs with columns of girders (approx. 60 men). The transfer took a long time because the porters wanted the loads to be evenly distributed. Everything had to be carried along, such as beds, kitchen utensils and what was necessary for a household. If it happened to rain that day, everything had to be wrapped in oil paper. My father had four, my mother three, the Amah with one child and I with my rabbits, which had reproduced along the way, two carriers each. At first it was 4 Only one rudder that moves the boat forward by moving sideways. 5 The Taihu - far larger than Lake Constance - spreads south of Wuxi (Wuhsi), an old city on the Imperial Canal. through rice fields on narrow paths and then through bamboo forests up to our house. Halfway through we were greeted by the police with a gun salute. The command line of the troops came the next day to receive his obulus. It rained for three months one summer and the plain in front of our mountains was completely flooded. The boats could no longer pass under the bridges, even the mail boats, which were long and narrow and were moved by two or three rowers, could no longer get through. (The rowers standing on one leg operated their oars with the other leg, so they had their hands free.) We were completely cut off from the world. The mountain wall behind our house softened and a landslide poured into our lower rooms. A very large boulder had stuck in this mountain wall, which slowly but surely landed in the mud stream on the tennis court. The Chinese had always maintained that there was definitely a dragon under this rock, but were now reassured that it was not. The boulder had to be blown up during the later clean-up work. To our astonishment, this happened without powder and dynamite. Instead, a mighty fire was kindled under the rock for 24 hours and then cold water was poured over the rock. This created fine hairline cracks in the rock. Steel wedges were driven into these, and so the boulder was gradually shattered into pieces. [...] Hangzhou, means of transportation in southern China In the summer of another year we went on a trolley ride to the nearby town of Hangchow . The trolley was driven by four workers and ran on four wheels on the railroad tracks. We sat on a bench in the front. I found it very exciting that when a railroad train approached, the danger had to be lifted off the rails by the four workers to let the train pass. [Hangzhou is known for its annual spring tide, the Si-Berner Dragon ", which occurs when the tidal wave coming from the bay shoots up into the narrower Qiantang Jiang river at the highest tide.] The wave several meters high hits the harbor basin with a great roar The junks and boats, which usually reach the harbor wall with their mast tips, are suddenly at the same height as the astonished spectators who wait for the spectacle at the quay wall. This spectacle can only be seen in a few places in the world. So that this regularly - l 0 -

11 and neatly going on, there is a huge pagoda on a hill, from where one can see the whole estuary of the river. 6 Pagoda of the Six Harmonies (Liuhe Ta), Hangzhou Source: StuDeO photo library P Hangchow is the center of a very well-known tea plantation area. There is also a famous spring there, the water of which the tea tastes particularly good when poured. 7 The Chinese differentiate between green and red tea. The green tea is the more valuable and better one. These are the young leaf tips from the spring harvest. These must be turned very carefully and carefully by hand in tubs heated from below. As soon as the tea leaves are overheated, the tea sublimates and the leaves become worthless. The red tea, on the other hand, from the later harvests, is subjected to a fermentation process and is not of such good quality. Hangchow is also known for producing and processing silk and brocade. These exquisite fabrics were shipped on the Imperial Canal as a tribute to the imperial throne in Beijing in earlier times. As a result of the many canals in southern China, the transport has been shifted more to the water. This was also due to the fact that with the Chinese, a peasant people, each farmer was buried on his own land; there were no cemeteries. Since the ancestors were not allowed to be disturbed, it was very difficult to create enough space for continuous large roads, railways and airfields. Only Chiang Kai Chek changed this situation. The first railway built in China ran from Shanghai to Woosung. 6 The 60 m high Pagoda of the Six Harmonies (Liuhe Ta) on a hill on the banks of the Qiantang Jiang was supposed to protect against floods and served as a lighthouse (Baedeker). Walking Tiger Spring (Hupao Quan), Dragon Well Tea (Longj ing Cha). SruDeO - INFO December 2015 (Wusong), but soon had to be demolished because the population feared the revenge of the ancestors. 8 Chinese wheelbarrows and sedan chairs were mainly used on the paved paths that ran through the rice fields. A man was able to load a fat pig on each side of the wheel on a Chinese wheelbarrow (see also photo on p. 51). In order for the animals to behave calmly, they were given a certain herb to eat, which stunned them a little. In some areas with constant wind directions, a small sail was hoisted on the cart so that the farmer received some support from the wind. In other areas, a donkey was harnessed to the cart. The two modes of transport mentioned above had the advantage of taking up little of the precious land. Source:! -! To Suy in: China (1979) 8 English merchants who in 1876, after receiving permission to build a carriage road "from Shanghai to Wusong," instead laid the tracks for a narrow-gauge railway on the line ( 762 mm) with a length of 15 km. Against the resistance of the Chinese, the railway was operated according to schedule from July 3, 1876. After an accident, by order of the authorities in autumn 1877, after more than a year, the V crkchr was discontinued and the It was not until the coal line from Tangshan to Xugezhuang, 175 km east of Beijing, that became the first section of today's railway network one finished the first 9 km Source: Dost / Hartwig / Weicker: Deutsch-China und die Schantungbahn (Röhr-Verlag 1981), see foreword by Peter Mohr p. 9. In June 1897 one began for the second time with d Construction of a Shanghai-Wusong railway line. The lead engineer was Peter Hildebrand (). The railway engineer Luis Weiler describes the status of the work in a letter to his parents on January 16, 1898 (see book recommendations, p. 44)

12 Some sketches about the Germans in Harbin and Manchuria / Manchukuo 2nd part (conclusion) Jerzy Czajewski (Szczecin / Stettin) Source: Jerzy Czajewski: Few sketches of Germans in Harbin and Manchuria / Manchukuo, 2014 (StuDeO archive * 2668 ). Translation: Martina Bölck. For color photos, see p. 51. The first part of the record (see StuDeO INFO June 2015, p. 3-7) dealt with the Protestants and the German Church as well as various German merchants, experts and entrepreneurs in Harbin. The present 2.Part is slightly shortened compared to the English original. Baltic Germans in the service of the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER, East China Railway) Germans from Russia's Baltic provinces, such as Livonia or Courland, had been in the service of the Russian Empire since the beginning of the 18th century, when Russia assigned these territories to Swedes and Poles (Courland and the so-called . Polish Livonia) snatched away. Some, usually impoverished country nobility or townspeople who lived outside their homeland, were Russified through their service far from home and even adopted the Orthodox faith while immersed in Russian culture. Others, such as aristocratic landowners, pastor families and the local urban population, more or less stuck to the Evangelical Lutheran Church and to its Germanness. The Baltic provinces were relatively autonomous until the end of the 19th century, and Germans, as supporters of the Romanovs, were treated very differently than other non-Russians, such as the Poles, who were seen as rebels who could overthrow the throne at any time. Among the minority churches in Russia, the Evangelical Lutheran Church was somewhat favored by the Russian authorities, at the expense of the Catholic Church, which was primarily a Polish church. The national consciousness of Germans in Russia was somewhat blurred, and in many In some cases, German names in combination with typical Russian surnames do not really "indicate Germans. Religion is undoubtedly a better reference point for Germanness, but it is not always mentioned in Russian sources. That is why I use typical German first names and surnames as a guideline for nationality in my little research, but with a few exceptions. Some with real German names may in fact have been Russians in their hearts. Colonel Alexander von Gerngross () from a Russified family who lived in the Smolensk area, held the important post of military commander of the so-called Railway Guard (Railway Protection Corps, later the Hinter Amur Special Border Guard Corps) of the CER in Harbin from 1897 to 1901. His two brothers and his son Alexei also served there for a long time - in lower military ranks. He received the rank of major general for the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion in 1900 and took part in the Russo-Japanese War (). During the Russo-Japanese War, two other high-ranking Baltic generals were briefly and not very successfully on the battlefields of Manchuria. One, Lieutenant General Alexander Wilhelm Anders Baron von Kaulbars (), was a Konunandant of the 3rd and later the 2nd Manchurian Army. The second, Paul-Georg Edler von Rennenkampf, began his career as the commander of the Russian special forces to put down the Boxer Rebellion. He was famous for his "flying" execution commands on the CER stations from Harbin to Chita, which put down the revolutionary movements of 1905 in the Far East Nevertheless, because of their poor performance in this war, both were accused by the Russian media of being Germans with no fighting spirit. We can recognize many German names in the officers' staff of the CER Railway Guard, among the non-Russians they come after the Poles Second, on the Railway Guard's 1914 officer lists, they take about five percent

13 of the higher ranks. We see, for example, the captains Georg Ebert, Nicolas Sommer, Konstantin Schaefer, Roman von Arnold, Adolf Hallerbeck, Adolf Heberlein, Wladymir von Krusenstern (he was already Russified, his daughter was a Russian poet and writer known in Harbin and Shanghai), Alexander Pohl, Michael von Ziegler, Karl Burbach, August Otmar Stein; the colonels: Alexei Gibert von Greiffenfels, Richard Grossmann, Harry Peters, Konstantin Uthoff, Matthias Baron von der Recke; the captains and lieutenants Wilhelm Schroeder, Siegfried Schneider, Alexander Gettich, Nicolas von Gurtius, Eugene Ober, Ferdinand Eichfuss, Ludwig Grueland, Karl Koch. In the service of the CER there were many Germans in higher positions, both in construction and in operation. Gregory Jost (Russian: Iossa) (), a graduate of the prestigious Institute of Communication Routes (ICR) in Saint Petersburg, built many railways in Russia. He was responsible for the operation of the CER traffic during the Russo-Japanese War and was a member of the railway's board of directors. He participated in the construction of the makeshift Protestant church in Korpusnyi Gorodok for the Lutherans in the Russian army. His ancestors had come to Russia from the Principality of Hesse, Dannstadt, at the end of the 18th century, and his family members were well-known miners and metallurgists in Russia. A lexandcr Wenceslaus (), also a graduate of the renowned! Cr in Saint Petersburg, worked on the Kiev-Kursk, Moscow-Kazan and other railway lines. From 1903 to 1920 he replaced the Pole Stanislaw Kierbedz as a representative of the management of the CER authorities in Saint Petersburg. (Nominally the managing director of the CER was a Manchu, but after his assassination by Boxer in 1900 "there was until now no other Chinese representative on the board of directors of the railway company.) Wenceslaus was buried in the Lutheran cemetery in Saint Petersburg. Roman von Arnold took part in the Russian-Japanese Participated in the war and was police commander in the Manchurian leased areas of the CER from 1907. Under his command, the police in Harbin were given the same structures as those in Saint Petersburg. From 1918 he was in command of the counterintelligence network of the CER. Alexander Hintze (), engineer, graduate of the ICR, was traffic manager of the CER from 1906 and head of the association of Russian orientalists in Harbin. He already belonged to the Orthodox faith, so his Germanness is doubtful. Engineers like Johann Ott, Karl Jacobson, Emil von Ziegler - the first general director of the board of directors the CER in Saint Petersburg -, Udo von Wildeman-Clopman and Wladymir Blumberg were n employed at the headquarters of the CER in Saint Petersburg. For many years, the chief geologist of the CER was Eduard Ahnert (), well known in scientific circles, who made a detailed map of Manchuria's mineral resources. He was one of the founders of the Manchurian Research Society in Harbin and the author of many articles and books in Russian and German on geology in northern Manchuria. He received German citizenship. His grandfather Adolf was an emigrant from Saxony who had settled in Russia. His father, also called Eduard, was a military engineer. Eduard jr. was born in Novo-Georgievsk near Warsaw, where his father was involved in the construction of the fortress there. As a result, Ahnert spoke Polish very well. After the Soviets took power in Russia in 1917, the CER saw itself until 1924 as a kind of independent organization under the influence of the largely French-dominated Russian-Asiatic Bank. During this time, the former headquarters of the CER in Saint Petersburg was relocated to Harbin, where Karl Richter was the representative of the Chinese managing director and Leo von Hoyer was one of the members of the board of directors. The administration of the CER was then headed by the Russian engineer Boris Ostroumow, his representative was Stephan Baron von Offenberg, a Polonized Baltic German. O ~ PTAll \! '$ COfJ "/ m

14 Japanese war destroyed and the company was not continued afterwards. German Refugees in Manchuria After the collapse of Tsarist Russia and the beginning of the civil war [the civil war after the October Revolution] thousands of German prisoners of war poured from the prison camps into Manchuria and Harbin on their way to Vladivostok and Dairen, from where they entered wanted to be shipped back to their homeland. 1 After this massive exodus, hundreds of other groups of Russian Germans also fled the Soviet Union to Manchuria, especially the so-called Volga Germans and those who had been resettled to Siberia in the late 1920s and early 1930s. In the Amur district, the Soviets established seven German collective farms with names such as Energie, Stern, Rote Fahne, Signal, Thälmann, Engels, Arbeit. But for the Germans who settled there, mainly Mennonites and Evangelical Lutherans, it was only the first step to get near the border and then cross it illegally. Families came to Canada this way in the first quarter of the year alone, and by autumn of the same year around 300 people crossed the border and arrived in Harbin. In December 1929 the next 72 families (about 500 people) from Vladivostock and the Amur district joined the previously detuned in Harbin. At the end of 1930, the next 32 families (202 people) from the villages of Schumanowka and Friedensfeld came to Harbin via the frozen Amur. From 1932 to 1933, 17 families from the kolkhozes again came to the city, so that the number of refugees increased to almost people. They lived a miserable life in Harbin until they moved to the USA, to Canada 1 After the October Revolution, which brought the communist Bolsheviks to power, a bitter civil war broke out between the reds "and whites". In the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 3, 1918) the exchange of prisoners of war between the Soviets and Germany or Austria was decided. After all, by the end of 1918 all prisoners from the European part of Russia were transported home. The remaining prisoners in Siberia were under the influence of the "white" and later the Czechoslovaks [who fought on the side of the Allies for their independence from Austria-Hungary} {...}. The return of these prisoners was therefore largely only possible after the victory of the Soviet Army in 1920. "Source: Inge Scheid !: Rolf Geyling (). The architect between wars and continents (2014), p. 155f. Or Brazil. Many Catholic Germans received help in Polish churches in Harbin. In 1932 the Tygodnik Polski (Polish Weekly) "published very compassionate articles about them., Tleutjcbe füicf /. Preu! Jen. 260, - RJll V multifunctional clock. (Administrative fee schedule dated 30.XII.11126). ~ ~~ I tfro.u Kreis Nikolaew ~ udm1ll4 'The Preu [Jifdi ~ government inspector. ) i ~ The Volga German Johannes Wormsbecher, a Russian citizen, and his wife and children thus became Germans. Overleaf: Issued on June 14, 1928 in Harbin, The German Consul Source: StuDeO-Archiv * 1598 (17) The German community in Harbin 2 In my opinion, the German community was made up of these groups: the Baltic Germans mentioned at the beginning in the service of the CER , Volga German soldiers who stayed in Harbin after the Russo-Japanese War, former World War I prisoners who married Russian women and stayed in the city, refugees from the Soviet Union who were able to organize a stay in Manchuria, and Reich Germans with ilu-en families who worked in German trading houses, industrial companies or for Japan, an ally of the Third Reich ". In Manchukuo 3, Germans were involved in the 2 cf. Gipperichs Harbin reports in the StuDeO INFOs June 2014, p. and December 2014, p. 28f., also the two-parter by Adolf Felsing: The post-war period in Harbin (1945 to 1950), excerpt from In my memoirs, in the StuDeO-INFOs of December 2006 and April at the end of 1931, Japanese troops invaded Manchuria, which under the name Manchukuo "was formally independent (February 18, 1932), but was in fact under Japanese supervision

15 undoubtedly preferred to other Europeans, but they were still not entirely trusted. 4 When Harbin was declared a free trade zone in 1908, the first German consulate was established. The Russians closed it during World War I, and it reopened during the Weimar Republic to take care of German citizens who appeared in Manchuria as a result of the civil war in Russia. 5 In the late 1920s, it was also an important authority on the import of soybeans, negotiated the German consul Dr. Georg Stobbe on behalf of the Soviet authorities when there was hostility over the possession of the CER with the Manchurian warlord Zhang Xueliang. The consul also looked after the Soviet citizens who had been interned by the Chinese in a makeshift concentration camp near Harbin. After the Nazis took power in Germany, the gradual harmonization of the German community (NSDAP, HJ, Bund der Reichsdeutsche, Hindenburg School, the German Labor Front, German Club) and the connection to the Japanese ally were certainly among the tasks of the consulate. Hindenburg School We can estimate the German population in the city to be less than 300 in the late 1930s. According to Japanese data, there were 459 people in Manchuria in 1935. In order to keep up appearances, the Japanese installed the former emperor of China, Puyi, as ruler. 4 In Japanese-occupied China, the Germans described themselves as "friendly enemies" of the Japanese. 5 German consuls in Harbin from 1925 were: Hermann Gipperich (,), Dr. Georg Stobbe (l), Karl August Baiser () , Dr. Joachim Schulze (), Dr. August Ponschab (). Ponschab was arrested by the Russians on August 23, 1945 when they invaded Harbin and survived several Siberian camps, and was released at the end of 1953. 5 Fourth Linc Germans six classi11: e high school for boys and girls with elementary school and kindergarten Aug. Schoeps, chairman Dr. K. Kuehl, headmaster Eugen Schill, teacher Prof. Alex. Redlich, teacher George Nearing, teacher Pastor H. Rosin, teacher Ms. E. Rogenhagen, Kindergarten teacher E. Freilang, caretaker Sources: Author and ADO 1939, S see origin, in 1936 there were 352 and most of them lived in Harbin and the rest in Hsinking (today Changchun), Dairen (Dalian) and Mukden (Shenyang) shows that W7 people in the Lau I left Manchukuo for a year. This was also a common occurrence among the other Europeans who lived in Harbin. As the grip of the Japanese occupation increased and the working and business conditions deteriorated in favor of Japanese citizens, many Europeans, including Germans, left the city and went to Tientsin, Shanghai, Hong Kong or back to Europe (if they had enough reserves for a ship ticket had). Polish-German relations We had our religious institutions very close to one another. The Polish and German churches on Grand Prospekt Boulevard were not far from each other. My late mother 7 vividly remembered visiting the Evangelical Lutheran church after the Catholic mass "to listen to the beautiful sound of the organ. The connections between the two congregations were rather loose. The Poles tended to have closer ties with them Slavic Russians as with Germans, Latvians, Estonians or Lithuanians. At the famous Polish balls ", which took place twice a year in the large theater of Gospoda Polska on Glukhaja ​​Street - the seat of the Polish Cultural Association in Manchuria - one could always many Germans see 6 Dr. Kühl and Prof. Redlich - husband and father of Helene Kühl () - died in Siberian camps after the war. 7 Emilia Wanda Czajewska (), graduate of Polish middle and high school, then student at YMCA College in Harbin, from Polish teacher for lower grades at high school. Her innate talent for writing (she won the Tygodnik Polski literary competition in 1939) did not pursue her after her return to Poland. StuDeO - IN FO December

16 just like the whole beau monde "of Harbin used to be there. From 1938 our consulates were also in the immediate vicinity, both on Ashykhejska Street (German at number 20, Polish at number 67) Germans did not have their own newspaper (apart from the short-lived German-Manchurian News "at the beginning of the 1930s), so there was some anti-Polish propaganda about the seasonal state," 8 the rights to the Polish Corridor "or to Danzig" in the Belarusian press as Zaria "or Rubiesch" published. This of course caught the attention of Tygodnik Polski (Polish Weekly) "and the bimonthly illustrated magazine Daleki Wschod (Far East)", who responded with anti-German propaganda articles. But these were more or less Verbal skirmishes that did not affect the rather tolerant coexistence. The fall of Poland in 1939 inevitably led to some changes in mutual relations, at least on o official level.The Soviet and German consulates tried to convince the Japanese authorities in Manchukuo to close the Polish consulate and schools and to shut down the press, all things that would represent a non-existent state "and a community that would affect German-Japanese relations Fortunately for the Poles, the Japanese, who never completely trusted either the Germans or the Soviets, were unwilling to take any harsh measures until the end of 1941 when the Pacific War against the Americans began The consulate and the press were closed, but Polish citizens were not interned like other allies. Until then, Nazi propaganda was doing its best to obstruct Polish celebrations such as Corpus Christi and national holidays. Organized groups of the Hitler Youth made a terrible racket with drums, loud whistles and shouted anti-Polish insults to the event nong to bother. Then Polish scouts (harcerze) intervened and everything ended with stones being thrown at each other, slingshots were also used. Stones on the swastika flag at the German Consulate or 8 The founding of the Second Polish Republic on November 11, 1918 was not welcomed in most European capitals, especially in Berlin and Moscow, and was therefore mocked as a short-lived seasonal state "on the house of Pastor Hermann Throwing Rosin 9 was also fairly common among Polish youth, but apart from a few fanatical Nazis, Germans and Poles, like other whites "in Japanese-occupied Manchuria, tended to be more tolerant and collaborative than arguing in this unpredictable Asian environment. At least one could speak of neutrality in everyday life. The reality of the war and occupations in Europe was not really known because of Japanese censorship. Sources (for parts 1 and 2): General Survey of Conditions m Manchukuo, Hsinking 1935 and 1936 The Manchukuo Yearbook 1939, Hsinking 1939 Tygodnik Polski (Polish Weekly), Harbin, Daleki Wschod (The Far East), Harbin, Flight. The Aircraft Engineer and Airships. London 1923 Stefan Berleb, "... for China's Benefit": The Evolution and Devolution of German Influence on Chinese Military Affairs,, Brisbane 2005 Etnicheskije niemtsy Rossii: lstoricheskij fenomen "Narod v Puti" (Russia's ethnical Germans: Historical Phenomenon of the "Nation in the Move"), Moskva 2009 JN Trifonow, BV Lematschko, R.V. Lapschin, Parahodstvo Dalnego Vostoka (Steamship Companies of the Far East), St. Petersburg 2012 Spisok lichnogo sostava Ministierstva Putiej Soobshchenija (List of the staff of the Ministry of Communication), Petrograd 1916 Velikaja Manchzhurskaja Imperia. K desatiletnemu jubileju (The Great Manchurian Empire. For the 10 1 annivcrsary), 1-larbin 1942 Journal of Contemporary History, 12 (1977) Modern l-listory ofrussia, 2012, no.2 lstoricheskij obzor KVZhD (Historical view on CER), Harbin 1923 Spisok generalam, shtab i ober-ofitseram klasnym chinam Zaamurskogo Okruga Otdelnogo Korpusa Pogranichnoj Strazhy (List of generals, and higher officers in Transamur Special corp of Frontier Guard), Harbin 1914 GW Melichow, Belyj Harbin: seredina 20-tyh (White Harbin : middle of 20-ties), Moskva 2003 Ves Harbin 1923 (Harbin address book), Harbin local group leader of the NSDAP Harbin until his transfer to the Eastern Front in 1943, where he fell on November 4, 1944

17 Memories of the Dutch East Indies and Japan Part 1: Childhood on plantations on Sumatra Erika Seele Source: Erika Clairiot nee Seele: Memoirs of life (20 p.), StuDeO archive * 2034 (slightly abbreviated). ' Photos by the author. Why Sumatra? When I have to give my personal details, I am often asked why I was born in Sumatra / Indonesia, and then the explanations start and a long story begins: After completing his studies, my father [Wolfgang Seele] wanted to be Graduated farmer absolutely must have his own clod, as he wrote in his letters to his mother. He had to either buy a farm (he had no money for that) or try his luck in another country. He thought he could find his own clod on Sumatra, because young planters were wanted for this land who could and should clear the land and make it arable. In 1924 he signed up with the Dutch company Senembah Maatschappij, which planted tobacco and Gununi in the Sultanate of Deli in Sumatra. He first worked there as an assistant after taking a three-month course in Holland to learn Dutch and also the basics of growing tobacco and rubber. Wo (fgang Seele (right) with colleagues, 1924 As he wrote to his mother), the first years in Sumatra were very, very difficult, the transition from Europe to an as yet undeveloped country, the primitive conditions, the heat, the hard work, to subordinate oneself, to be criticized, 1 to Wolfgang Seele see also StuDeO-Archiv * 0695 and * 1 ~ 97.StuDeO - five December 2015 to command and motivate coolies (workers who partly came from Java or were Chinese), etc., etc. As he wrote: Either grit your teeth and work through it, or shoot yourself in the head ... Well, as you can see: He stayed. Fields with young plants in Soengei Bahasa, 1930 First he was in tobacco active, and his letters to his mother contain many details about this time: Millions of tobacco plants were grown, then the long-awaited rain came, too much, too strong and everything was destroyed, so sow and plant again with the hope that just that enough rain would come. The location and orientation of the planting were also important. Success depended on many things, it was like a game of roulette. Most of the planters were not married because life there in the 1920s was too primitive: no electric light, instead kerosene lamps, no running water, it had to be fetched from the river and then filtered, a refrigerator that only worked ", if a long block of ice could be delivered, the loneliness, the humid heat, the mosquitoes, malaria, etc., all of this would have been very, even too difficult for a European woman to bear. But gradually the conditions and the improved Most of the assistants who were able to and were allowed to vacation for eight months in Europe after six years of stay at the end of the 20s came back with a young woman, which irritated my father. Now the beautiful bachelor life is over, the women would only disturb ", wrote he his mother. My father is starting a family At the end of November 1930 my father was able to go on vacation for the first time and went home

18 his parents. Once in Germany he had apparently changed his mind about marriage and was considering marrying Elisabeth Rohweder. She was the daughter of the farm owner in Hohenwestedt (Schleswig-Holstein), with whom my father had done his internship for two years (). His mother advised him not to be too down-to-earth. Later (1971) - after my mother's death - he made her his second wife. In February 1931 he went on vacation to St. Martino di Castrozza, went skiing, celebrated Carnival and met my mother, Elisabeth Scheu from Cologne. They both fell in love and they got married in June. The honeymoon was on the Rhine, then it went to the lakes in Northern Italy, to Venice and it ended in Genoa, where my parents embarked on the Sibajak "for Sumatra. The trip lasted three weeks, my mother quickly became seasick and did not have Much from the trip. My mother had bought china and crystal and a lot of other things in Germany and had them sent to Sumatra by Schenker. The crystal arrived completely broken, it was badly packaged. At that time there were no such things in Sumatra or maybe it was, but very expensive. Some of her trousseau was used to make furniture, she also helped Mark with buying a car and with other acquisitions. My father owned nothing, he had sold everything before the holiday. That was so common, that also helped him to spend his stay in Germany.Life on a Plantation During a very heavy rainfall there was once a huge flood Claimed that they could not do what my father asked - what, I am not sure, would probably bring part of the tobacco crop to safety. So my father put on a hand himself, the water was up to his chest, and he got pneumonia that turned into tuberculosis. At that time (1932) my mother was expecting her first child, her mother died, so it was bad for her. My father then had to do with his lungs again and again, even after the war he had TB again. The British took him to Java, where he had to stay until he was cured. It was not until the end of 1948 that he was sent back to bombed-out and destroyed Germany. The other fathers had come home earlier [at the end of 1946]. "On January 15, 1933, my brother Wolfgang was born in Tandjong Morawa near Medan (largest city in Sumatra), then I (Erika) came there on April 9, 1934 Welt and our parents were happy. My brother was very nice to me at the time, he stroked his little sister, but had trouble with the name and called me Akike. My mother nursed us despite the heat. But because she wanted to avoid hers too Drank sweat, she had to put a terry towel over her breast, because the sweat ran in rivers! Elisabeth Seele with Wolfgang and Erika, 1934 I can still partly remember the time in Sumatra, especially our last house, The one made of stone (the administrator's house), the others (for the assistants) were made of wood with a canopy of leaves and stood on concrete posts, so that cool air could get under the house at night and to prevent animals from getting in (Ants e.g. B.) came into the house too easily. You could also play wonderfully in the cool there, there was even a swing underneath. During the eight years my parents lived in Deli Province, they moved fourteen times !! Usually a young couple started with a servant couple, the man was often the cook and did the heavy work, such as chopping wood, fetching water (from a spring or a river), working in the garden, and his wife washing, ironing and cleaning . They wore local clothing, the woman wore a sarong, a piece of fabric with beautiful batik patterns was tied around and a blouse was the top. When children came along, one or two nannies were hired. Most recently, when my father became the Tuan Besar, "the great man, i.e. no longer an assistant, but Baas" (plantation manager), we had five employees, including a chauffeur. At the time, my father was earning 625 Dutch guilders per month plus royalties that varied every year. The employees' apartments were in a different building, including the kitchen, laundry room, etc. This second building was through one to the main building

19 tall, he came in, rubbed his back on the library in my father's study and disappeared again! We did enough stupid things. One evening - my parents had left us alone with the waitress - they saw a light walking around in the main house: my brother had climbed on a chair and grabbed the kerosene lamp and we were walking around the house with it. Everyone was horrified at what could have happened. There was a box filled with talc in my parents' bedroom. My father dipped his feet in there every evening to avoid inflammation between the toes. We - maybe my brother again (si- rather borrowed!) - had decided that we had to try it out too. No sooner said than done, and then we went back to bed with our white feet across the room! When my parents asked who had gone into the box, Kaki Lima "(five steps) was connected, ie a free, but covered corridor. The bathroom was in the main house, there was no bathtub, only a square, approx . 60/70 cm high stone basin that was full of water. With a small container with a handle, you scooped water from the basin, soaped yourself and poured the water over yourself. You did not go into the basin (we children sometimes did it anyway!), the water remained clean and cool for the next one.Since we lived down near the coast, it was often unbearably hot, and we waited longingly for the rain to come, it brought cooling with us and we could finally fall asleep when it went tock, tock on the canopy. To protect us from malaria, we had a Klambu bed, "that is, it was surrounded by a mosquito net made of tulle. Also on the windows that had no glass panes there was often Klambu. In front of the administrator's house in 1939 none of us did it, oh, NO, that did it, but WE didn't make it out of metal in Perbaoengan (jet ::: t Baungan)! !! duration. Of course, most of them had a guling. That was 50 Malay, which we, as a 60 cm long pillow, which we were still very small, could do better than German, although it put it between the thighs our parents didn't speak German skin on skin with us because we sweat. We always answered yes a lot and would otherwise have easy Malay and said that German was causing inflammation, which was difficult !! Red dog ", as the Dutch are playing a trick on, because they called it. I said to my aunt in Cologne on Often we heard the gecko and the beginning of Minta eia "(or something like that - Tschi-Tschaks, little nimble eggs), which should mean, please drink, those who are turned on by the light or please Water, and what brought were drawn and the mosquitos ate my aunt? Hard-boiled Eitos ate. They often stuck to the he! So I had to or Klambu windows, and they in Left Erika badly bring out my German !!! We were very interested in. The gecko (a little bigger our food was European, but once in the week than the Tschi-Tschaks) had an eerie week, there was a Malay meal made from rice (nasi and strange reputation. He often stayed under the Goreng = fried rice ), then we were allowed to go with a roof and we listened to this loud call that eats our fingers - like the natives - which was a bit annoying, because geckos are active at night - it was wonderful !! We also put our ears to the telephone poles, that hummed so beautifully. By this we meant we Ki We could hear the conversation on the wooden stakes, but in the evening we got quinine, it was horrible, unfortunately, "we didn't understand anything - it was just a bitter, and I puffed my spoon in the opinion of hearing hums!" If there were some high above us then I wouldn't get it - puff cake! once an airplane was to be seen, we waved and my brother had a blooming imagination and so he once told my parents that he had seen a "big Harimau", a tiger !! Sooo sent greetings to Grandpa and Grandpa (Aurelia and Wilhelm Seele) , to all relatives who lived in Germany

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