What is the mastery of the learning approach

professional competence development


[engl. development of vocational competencies], [AO, KOG, PÄD], In order to carry out professional activities, skills (= K., professional competence) are required that enable a person to independently and successfully cope with complex professional tasks or challenging situations. Corresponding C. are not only through receptive and purely cogn. oriented learning processes (learning) acquired, but require an active, action- and problem-oriented examination of the job requirements in the real requirement contexts. This is promoted in particular through workplace-integrated, informal and self-organized learning processes (learning, self-directed). The process of professional competence development is often described as the process of developing from novice to expert, in which various stages of expertise development (acquisition of expertise) have to be passed through, which, depending on the task domain, have different stages of development or requirement levels. The acquisition of the K. is not only promoted through the active and situational examination of the action requirements in a task domain, but also through the task and problem-oriented exchange with experienced specialists and the cooperation and integration in appropriate expert communities of the domain. In order for the desired C. for a task domain to be effectively appropriated and acquired, appropriate learning opportunities must therefore be created. Basically, action and problem-oriented forms of teaching / learning (teaching strategies, problem-oriented, learning, problem-oriented) are addressed, which situate the occupation with the learning content in corresponding task and requirement contexts.

Action theory. Well-founded learning approaches describe the structure or development of action skills as a differentiation between different action regulation levels (Schaper, 2008). The learning process should accordingly begin with simple forms of activity, which, however, already represent the complete structure of action. In the further course, these pre-forms of action regulation are gradually expanded in a more complex way through learning opportunities, which ultimately represent the difficulty and variety of real tasks. In addition to the active, acting acquisition of action c. In addition, the intellectual penetration of the action requirements in a task area is emphasized. Pure practice or the drill of courses of action does not lead to efficient action. So that the learner is able to deal with variable and new requirements, cogn. To convey strategies or heuristics for the analysis and design of action structures. In action theory. Learning approaches, learning to act is also described as a process of guided to independent acting. The execution of actions therefore requires structured and massive instructions (instruction, instructional explanations) from outside at the beginning of learning, which can be withdrawn with increasing mastery of parts of the overall action and processes of action control. On the basis of these assumptions about action-oriented learning, z. B. designed learning task systems and learning processes in the workplace and developed cognitive training (Schaper & Sonntag, 2008).

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