Where is the brain located

Brain: structure and function

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Next update of Lydia Kloeckner • Medical editor

The human brain (cerebrum) weighs an average of 1,400 grams - depending on gender and height. With this relatively small mass, it controls almost all vital body functions, enables thinking, emotional experience and many other processes. There is no correlation between the weight of a healthy person's brain and their intelligence.

The brain processes sensory impressions, coordinates the functions of the body and maintains them. The prerequisite for this: billions of brain nerve cells (neurons, stimulus-conducting cells) must constantly communicate with one another and exchange information. This is done via electrical impulses.

The brain is made up of two halves (Hemispheres), which are connected by the so-called bar (corpus callosum). 80 percent of the brain mass are accounted for by the cerebrum.

The brain needs special protection from injuries. This is ensured by the cranial bones as well as envelope and buffer structures that act like a shock absorber.

The various services the brain provides in specially responsible brain regions. These regions correspond to certain areas of the brain, which can also be understood using the anatomy. Certain cell groups and areas are responsible for the different tasks.

The brain can be simplified in

  • Cerebrum (Telencephalon) with cerebral cortex (cortex or cortex)
  • Cerebellum (Cerebellum, metencephalon)
  • Diencephalon (Diencephalon); includes, among other things, the pituitary gland and thalamus
  • Brain stem (Truncus cerebri) with midbrain (mesencephalon) and posterior brain (myelencephalon)

The Brain activity Scientists can partially make visible on the basis of the accompanying metabolic processes. This can be done, for example, by observing the brain's oxygen or sugar consumption. These are functional examinations of the cerebral (from: Cerebrum) metabolism. The brain can be examined in this way using positron emission tomography (PET) or functional magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), for example.

In addition, the brain waves can be derived from the outside through the skin in the form of an EEG (electroencephalogram).

Read more on the topic: 5 Amazing Facts About The Brain

Structure of the brain

The central nervous system (CNS) consists of two large parts: the one located in the head brain and the Spinal cord. The brain is surrounded by the bones of the skull and within the skull by three meninges. In this solid shell, it swims, so to speak, in the cerebral water, the liquor. It protects the brain from injuries and shocks.

The brain is made up of nerve cells, so-called Glial cells (Supporting and supply tissue) and blood vessels together. Inside the brain there are also cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid: the so-called cerebral chambers or ventricles.

The ventricles are in communication with the external liquor spaces. The spinal cord is also surrounded by liquor. Because all CSF spaces are connected to each other and the CSF in them circulates, the doctor can obtain cerebrospinal fluid for examination by inserting a cannula (puncture) at the level of the lumbar spine.

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