How did Aryabhata discover zero

Aryabhata, Indian mathematician, teacher of Arabic mathematics

Āryabhata is the first great Indian mathematician and astronomer whose name has been passed down to posterity. To distinguish him from another astronomer of the same name who lived in the 10th or 11th century, he is often referred to as Āryabhata I. or Āryabhata the Elder. There is evidence that Āryabhata was born in Kusumapura, near present-day Patna (state of Bihar), the capital of the once powerful Gupta Empire, which stretched from Punjab (present-day Pakistan) to the Bay of Bengal, and that he worked there as head of the university and as a teacher. Other sources give Ashmaka (Assaka) in southern India as the region of birth. The importance of Āryabhata in the history of science in India becomes clear from the fact that the first Indian earth satellite, which was transported into space using a Soviet launch vehicle in 1975, bore the name of the famous scientist.

Āryabhata wrote at least two books, the existence of one of the two books only being assured by quotations from authors who lived later. The other work, from posterity Āryabhatīya called, was written in the year 499, as one can deduce from the calendar calculations contained in the work. It was one of the writings that appeared around 820 im House of Wisdom in Baghdad have been translated into Arabic. Mohammed Al Khwarizmi took in his algebra Regarding this book.

Āryabhatīya is in Sanskrit , the ancient Indian language of scholars and ritual language of the scriptures of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism (comparable to the earlier role of Latin in Europe), for which Pānini created a grammar in the 4th century BC, the first grammar in the history of the Mankind.

Āryabhatīya consists of 118 verses dealing with topics from mathematics, astronomy and the calculation of time. Scripture begins with praise Brahmas, the creator of the earth and the universe. Then follows a description of the astronomical system. Āryabhata assumes that the earth revolves around itself every day, and thus explains the movement of the starry sky. Otherwise he represents a geocentric view of the world: the sun, moon and planets move around the earth; He explains deviations from uniform movement by differently sized epicycles. He determines the orbital times of the sun, moon and planets and calculates from this that the common conjunction of these celestial bodies is repeated every 4.32 million years. A day for Brahma is 4.32 billion years for humans. His explanation of lunar and solar eclipses as natural processes replaces the traditional belief that these eclipses are caused by demons.

The last verse of the first part contains a list of 24 numbers. It says: The 24 values ​​of the sine are: 225, 224, 222, 219, 215, 210, 205, 199, 191, 183, 174, 164, 154, 143, 131, 119, 106, 93, 79, 65 , 51, 37, 22, 7.

Āryabhata explains later: If you divide a quarter circle with radius 3438 into 24 sectors of equal size, they have angles of 3 ° 45 ', 7 ° 30', 11 ° 15 ', 15 °, ..., 90 ° opposite heights the lengths 225, 225 + 224 = 449, 449 + 222 = 671, 671 + 219 = 890, ..., 3438. The unusual value for the radius can be explained as follows: A full angle encompasses 360 ° = 360 \ ( \ cdot \) 60 '= 21600'; the circumference of a circle with a radius of 3438 units of length is almost exactly 21600 units of length, so that an arc of length 1 unit of length can be assigned to every minute of arc.