What caste does Tyagi belong to

ACCORD - Austrian Center for Country of Origin & Asylum Research and Documentation

December 13, 2017

This document is based on a time-limited search of publicly accessible documents currently available to ACCORD and, where applicable, expert advice, and has been prepared in accordance with the standards of ACCORD and the Common EU Guidelines for processing Country of Origin Information (COI) created.

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Information on the "ROR" caste and possible discrimination

The IndoCanadian ROR Society, a society for the support of members of the Ror caste in Canada, describes the history of the Ror in an undated post on its website. Accordingly, it is a community that comes mainly from an area near the city of Palanpur and extends over the entire state of Gujarat to the border with Rajasthan. Historically, the community was also located around Ror (Sukkur) in the Pakistani province of Sindh. The community is estimated to consist of 750,000 people and is relatively small and tightly networked. At the present time there are almost 270 localities of the Ror in the state of Haryana and 52 more in the west of the state of Uttar Pradesh and in the district of Haridwar in the state of Uttarakhand. The IndoCanadian ROR Society states that the Ror would be classified as Suryavanshi [descendants of a mythological dynasty from ancient India, note ACCORD [1]] and Kshatriya [cast of warriors and rulers, note ACCORD [2]]. They are Hindu, speak the languages ​​Haryanvi, Khariboli, Hindi and Pahari and are located in the states of Haryana, Sindh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal, and Uttarakhand:

"The Ror (Suryavanshi Kshatriyas) (Hindi: रोड़) community hails primarily from an area, close to Palanpur, stretching across the Gujarat - Rajasthan border. Historically, the community was also found concentrated around Ror (Sukkur) in Sindh, Pakistan. It would be rather optimistic to put the total population of the Ror at one million and it would be fairer to assign a total head count of 750,000 to the community. The community is fairly small and well-knit; As of today, they hold nearly 270 villages in Haryana and 52 more in Western Uttar Pradesh and the Haridwar district of Uttaranchal. [...]

Classification: Suryavanshi, Kshatriya

Religions: Hinduism

Language: Haryanvi, Khariboli, Hindi, Pahari

Populated States: Haryana, Sindh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal, Uttarakhand ”(IndoCanadian ROR Society, undated)

The Indian daily Hindustan Times reported in an older article from December 2012 on a rally by the Indian People's Party (Bhartiya Janta Party, BJP), at which an attempt was made to address the Ror community in the state of Haryana emotionally. The article describes that a large part of the Ror community is associated with agriculture. It is a close community of people who live mainly in the Karnal, Kaithal and Panipat districts of the state of Haryana. The community is significantly represented in the parliamentary segment of the Karnal district:

"The top brass of Bhartiya Janta Party on Sunday tried to strike an emotional chord with the Ror community of Haryana that claims to be the direct descendents of Marathas who had fought the Third Battle of Panipat. At a political rally organized here this afternoon, BJP national chief Nitin Gadkari and Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha, Sushma Swaraj, lauded the brave past of the community largely associated with farming. [...] Presently, the Rors, a close knitted group of people, are largely settled in Karnal, Kaithal and Panipat districts of the state. The community has a significant presence in the Karnal parliamentary segment. " (Hindustan Times, December 16, 2012)

The English-language Indian business newspaper, headquartered in Mumbai, The Economic Times, published a blog entry by political editor Rajesh Ramachandran on its website in March 2016 on positive discrimination in the state of Haryana, which mentions the Ror caste and is considered to be an upper caste. ) describes. The government of Haryana State Chief Minister Manohar Lal would undermine the concept of positive discrimination by classifying higher castes like the Rors and Jats as backward castes. Castes like the Rors see themselves as higher castes, privileged from birth, and never as backward. The state recognition as retarded would not change the self-image of these castes and the way in which they suppress subordinate castes:

"The Manohar Lal government of Haryana has managed to subvert the very idea of ​​affirmative action by terming upper castes as backward castes. Jats, Jat Sikhs, Bishnois, Rors, Tyagi Brahmins and Muslim Jats are all those who consider themselves upper castes and privileged by birth and by no stretch of imagination backward. The governmental stamp of backwardness is not going to change the way they view themselves or oppress those below in the caste hierarchy. All that this does is to help these dominant castes to violate the ‘lane discipline’ of social traffic and push weaker candidates out of the reserved lanes in their attempt to remain ahead of the traditionally lower castes. " (The Economic Times, March 30, 2016)

A 2009 Query Response from the Australian Refugee Review Tribunal, (RRT), which conducted reviews of visa decisions by the Australian Department of Immigration and Citizenship through 2015, addresses the question of whether Rors are considered Dalits [Disqualified, Note ACCORD [3 ]] would apply. Accordingly, the Ror caste is not represented among the listed castes ("scheduled castes") of the Directorate for Social Justice and Empowerment of the State of Haryana ("Directorate of Social Justice & Empowerment" of the Government of Haryana). The Ror caste is also not on the list of "Other Backward Classes" (OBC) of the Indian national commission of the state of Haryana:

"1. Are Rors considered to be Dalits?

Information previously provided in Research Response IND34295 in February 2009 states that the Ror caste is not included on the ‘List of Scheduled Castes in Haryana State’ provided by the Directorate of Social Justice & Empowerment of the Government of Haryana. Neither are the Ror on the list of 'Other Backward Classes in Haryana' provided by the Indian National Commission for Backward Classes (Directorate of Social Justice & Empowerment, Government of Haryana (undated), 'List of Scheduled Castes in Haryana State' ”( RRT, April 28, 2009, page 1)

The Ror caste is also not listed on the list of the OBC in the state of Haryana of the Indian National Commission for Backward Classes, which was last updated in January 2015 (Indian National Commission for Backward Classes, January 9, 2015). The website of the department for scheduled castes and OBC of the government of the state of Haryana, last updated in December 2017, does not include the Ror caste on the respective lists (Welfare of Scheduled Caste & Backward Classes Department, December 12, 2017a , December 12, 2017b).

Influence of the "JAT" caste

The Indian daily newspaper, headquartered in Chennai, The Hindu, describes in an article from September 2017 the Jats in the state of Haryana as a politically influential community, which consists of almost 29 percent of the population. Jats originally worked in agriculture and now live mainly in Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Overall, the Jat population consists of around 82.5 million people. Over the years, Jats have become politically active in some states, especially in the states of Haryana and Punjab.

The article further describes that members of the Jat caste, as well as the Rors, Jats Sikhs, Tyagis and Bishnois castes, would strive to be placed on the OBC list:

"In Haryana, Jats are a politically influential community and constitute nearly 29 per cent of the population. Jats originally belonged to farming communities and now mostly live in Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, Rajasthan and UP. Their population in total is about 82.5 million. Over the years, they have become politically active in certain states, especially in Haryana and Punjab. [...] Jats, Jat Sikhs, Rors, Tyagis and Bishnois, are seeking reservation under the Other Backward Classes (OBC) category. " (The Hindu, September 23, 2017)

BBC News wrote in a February 2016 article that the land-owning jat community was relatively wealthy and traditionally perceived as a higher caste. Jats are mainly represented in Haryana and seven other states in northern India. In Haryana, Jats are a politically influential community that makes up 27 percent of the electorate and dominates a third of the 90 seats in the state assembly. Seven out of ten heads of government in Haryana were jats. Jats would currently belong to the higher castes, but protesters would demand inclusion in job quotas and educational opportunities that have been available to lower castes since 1991. In March 2014, the government announced that it would categorize the Jats caste as an OBC, thereby giving them access to employment quotas for government posts. In 2015, however, the Indian Supreme Court ruled that the Jats were not a backward community. Since there is a lack of jobs in the private sector and income from agriculture is falling, the Jat community is calling for a caste to be classified as a backward caste in order to secure jobs in the government:

"-The land-owning Jat community is relatively affluent and has traditionally been seen as upper caste.

- They are mainly based in Haryana and seven other states in northern India.

- Comprising 27% of the voters in Haryana and dominating a third of the 90 state assembly seats, they are a politically influential community. Seven of the 10 chief ministers in Haryana have been Jats.

- The Jats are currently listed as upper caste but the demonstrators have been demanding inclusion in caste quotas for jobs and education opportunities that have been available to lower castes since 1991.

- In March 2014 the Congress-led national government said it would re-categorize Jats as Other Backward Castes (OBC), opening the way to government job quotas.

- But India's Supreme Court ruled in 2015 that the Jats were not a backward community.

- As jobs have dried up in the private sector and farming incomes have declined, the community has demanded the reinstatement of their backward caste status to enable them to secure government jobs. " (BBC News, February 26, 2016)

The Indian daily newspaper The Indian Express describes the Jats in an article from February 2016 as an agricultural caste in Haryana and seven other federal states in northern India, in particular Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat. In Haryana they are the dominant caste and therefore politically influential. The article also states that nine out of ten heads of government and 27 percent of the electorate in Haryana would be jats and that jats would dominate a third of the 90 seats in the state assembly. The leaders of the two main opposition parties are Jats.

According to the K C Gupta Commission [Haryana's Government Commission on Retarded Classes, Note ACCORD [4]], Jats hold 17.82 percent of government posts in the top two ranks. In the lower ranks, the proportion of jats would be estimated at 40 to 50 percent. Jats are represented to 10.35 percent in educational institutions, among men there is a literacy rate of 45 percent, among women the literacy rate is around 30 percent.

Most of the jats would still work in agriculture. The average land ownership consists of two to three hectares, only 10 percent of the jats own no land. More than a decade ago, some groups of the Jats were not ready to assume the status of a low class, since at that time the estates of the Jats were large. Over time and due to the fragmentation of families, their land holdings have shrunk:

“Jats are an agricultural caste group in Haryana, and seven other states in North India, notably Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat. In Haryana, they are the predominant caste, and therefore politically influential. [...] The Jats currently out on the streets across Haryana are demanding reservation in government jobs and educational institutions under the OBC [Other Backward Class] category. [...] Since being carved out of Punjab in 1966, Haryana state has had 10 chief ministers, and seven have been Jats. Jats comprise 27% of the electorate, and are the state’s predominant caste group, who dominate a third of the 90 Assembly constituencies in the state. The leaders of the two main opposition political parties - Bhupinder Singh Hooda of the Congress and Abhay Singh Chautala of the Indian National Lok Dal - are Jats. Chief Minister Manohar Lal Khattar represents the Punjabi community, and belongs to the Khattar caste. [...]

According to the K C Gupta Commission, Jats had 17.82% representation in Class 1 and 2 government jobs. In the lower grades, this representation is estimated at as high as 40 to 50%. The representation of Jats in educational institutions was 10.35%. The literacy rate among Jat men is said to be 45%; among women, about 30%. The Jats' primary occupation remains farming. The average landholding is 2-3 acres. Only 10% of Jats are landless. Over a decade ago, some sections of Jats were not ready to accept the status of ‘backward class’ because at that time land was not fragmented, and most Jat landholdings were large. With changing times and dividing families, however, holdings began to shrink. " (The Indian Express, February 22, 2016)

In a 2009 book on land ownership and gender, the Indian social scientist and historian Prem Chowdhry describes that Jats belong to the largest class of landowners in Haryana and that the Jats group is also the most dominant caste in rural areas. The way of life of the Jats (“the Jat way of life”) is accepted as a decisive social and cultural way of life and all other castes, such as the Rors, Brahmins, Ahirs, Bishnoirs and Gujjars have adopted this way of life with small, specific variations. In the state of Haryana, just like in Punjab, the numerical-economic hierarchy is more important than the ritual. Therefore, jats would occupy a prime position in the state's social hierarchy:

"In Haryana, since the Jats are the most numerous landowning caste and also the most dominant caste group in the rural areas, the Jat way of life has been accepted as a major social and cultural practice and all other casts such as Brahmins, Ahirs, Bishnoirs, Rors and Gujjars have been following them with small variations specific to each one of them. In Haryana, just as in Punjab, the ritual hierarchy is less important than the economic or numerical hierarchy. It is for this reason that the Jats have been occupying a prime position in the social hierarchy of the state ”(Chowdhry, 2009, p.43 - 44)

Problems when members of a weak caste object to members of a strong caste

Mainly information on Dalits could be found on this question:

A June 2015 BBC News article on land disputes between Jats and lower class members of the Dalits (formerly known as "Untouchables") reported an incident in Rajasthan in which sixteen Dalits were attacked by members of the Jats higher caste and 3 people were killed. Badri Narayan, a well-known pro-Dalit activist, believes that the rise in such incidents is linked to cases in which Dalits have tried to assert themselves ("to assert themselves"). Narayan also said the low conviction rate for cases of inter-cast violence is worrying.

According to activists, land disputes between the dominant jat community and weaker Dalits are at the center of the rising violence between castes in Rajasthan. In March 2015, an 83-year-old woman was also killed because of land disputes and her hut was set on fire:

“A heap of mud and bricks are all that distinguish this plot of land from the rest of the village of Dangawas in the northern Indian state of Rajasthan. Last month however, it was the scene of a brutal attack on its Dalit (formerly known as untouchables) occupants, who remain at the bottom of the country's outlawed but still prevalent caste system.Members of the upper caste Jat community had assaulted 16Dalits who had been squatting there with a view to 'reclaiming their ownership of the land'. Three people died in the incident, which marks the latest confrontation between the two communities in the state. [...]

Badri Narayan, a prominent pro-Dalit campaigner, says that the low rate of convictions in cases of caste violence was worrying. He believes the rise in such incidents is linked to instances where Dalits try to assert themselves. [...]

Campaigners say land disputes between the dominant Jat community and the weaker Dalits are at the heart of increasing caste violence in Rajasthan. In March, an 83-year-old woman was killed after her hut was set on fire, again over a dispute about land. " (BBC News, June 24, 2015)

The US Department of State (USDOS) writes in its human rights report from March 2017 (reporting period 2016) that Dalits who attempted to enforce their rights are often victims of attacks, especially in rural areas. Crimes against Dalits are reportedly often not punished, either because authorities fail to prosecute the perpetrators or because victims refused to report the crimes for fear of retaliation:

“Although the law protects Dalits, there were numerous reports of violence and significant discrimination in access to services, such as health care, education, temple attendance, and marriage. Many Dalits were malnourished. Most bonded laborers were Dalits. Dalits who asserted their rights were often victims of attacks, especially in rural areas. As agricultural laborers for higher-caste landowners, Dalits reportedly often worked without monetary remuneration. Reports from the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination described systematic abuse of Dalits, including extrajudicial killings and sexual violence against Dalit women. Crimes committed against Dalits reportedly often went unpunished, either because authorities failed to prosecute perpetrators or because victims did not report crimes due to fear of retaliation. " (USDOS, March 3, 2017, Section 6)

A report on sexual violence in India published by the human rights organization Human Rights Watch (HRW) in November 2017 describes that in several federal states in northern India, such as Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Rajasthan, unofficial caste councils "), Who are called" hap panchayats ", would put Dalits and other families of so-called low castes under pressure not to prosecute crimes if the accused belonged to a dominant caste. Local politicians and police officers often understand or would turn a blind eye to the ordinances of these councils and thus indirectly support the violence:

“In several north Indian states such as Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Rajasthan, unofficial village caste councils, called hap Panchayats, pressure Dalit or other so-called 'low-caste' families not to pursue a criminal case if the accused is from the dominant caste. Local politicians and police are often sympathetic or turn a blind eye to the councils' edicts, implicitly supporting the violence. " (HRW, November 9, 2017, page 4)

In an Urgent Action from September 2015, Amnesty International (AI) describes an incident in the Baghpat district (Uttar Pradesh state) in which a man ran away with a married woman from the dominant Jat caste. His family's house had been ransacked and members of the Khap Panachayt, an unelected male-only village council, had ordered his two sisters to be raped as punishment for their brother's offense and displayed naked with blackened faces:

"On 24May, the family fled their village in Baghpat district fearing violence after their brother eloped with a married woman from a Jat (dominant caste) family. On 30May, their house in the village was ransacked. On 30July, members of a village khap panchayat – an unelected all-male village council-ordered that Meenakshi Kumari and her sister be raped and paraded naked, with their faces blackened, as punishment for the actions of their brother. " (AI, September 18, 2015)

The London, Melbourne and New York-based digital magazine Aeon published an essay on the caste system in India by Mumbai-based journalist and author Prayaag Akbar in April 2017. The article describes the murder of a Dalit man who resisted being insulted by a teacher of the Brahmin caste. The incident caused an outcry in national media and Dalit groups in Uttarakhand organized a series of demonstrations. The Brahmin teacher and his brother and father, who threatened the murdered man's family not to go to the police, were arrested and charged under the Prevention of Atrocities Act. The law is an essential part of the Indian penal code, which forbids a number of violent and non-violent acts against members of the lowest castes and ethnic groups:

"In October 2016, a young man walked into a flour mill in Uttarakhand, a state of northern India where the mist-wrapped mountains of the outer Himalayas begin. He was Dalit (Sanskrit for broken, scattered, downtrodden), a relatively recent collective identity claimed by communities across the nation that are considered untouchable in the caste system. Present in the mill was a Brahmin schoolteacher - Brahmins are the caste elite - who accused the Dalit man of having defiled all the flour produced there that day, merely by his entry: notions of purity and pollution are integral to caste. After the Dalit man objected to the insult, the schoolteacher took out a blade and slit the Dalit’s throat, killing him instantly.

The incident caused uproar in the national press. Dalit groups in Uttarakhand staged a series of protests. The Brahmin schoolteacher was arrested, along with his brother and father, who had threatened the murdered man’s family if they went to the police; booked for murder and criminal intimidation, the men were also charged under the Prevention of Atrocities ’act - a vital part of the Indian Penal Code that prohibits a range of violent and non-violent action against members of the lowest castes and tribes." (Aeon, April 20, 2017)

A July 2016 report by Amnesty International (AI) describes the implementation of the Prevention of Atrocities Act, which aims to prevent discrimination and violence against Dalit and Adivasi communities, as historically very poor. In 2014, the conviction rate for offenses under the law would have been less than 29 percent. According to civil society groups, many crimes against Dalits and Adivasis would not be registered under the law due to the reluctance of the police to apply the law:

"The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act (PoA Act) was enacted to tackle particular kinds of caste-based discrimination and violence faced by people from Dalit and Adivasi communities. Amendments to the Act that came into force in January 2016 criminalize a range of new offenses, including the wrongful dispossession of land. [...] (The implementation of this law has historically been extremely poor. In 2014, the rate of convictions for crimes under the Act was under 29 per cent. Civil society groups have said that many crimes against Dalits and Adivasis are not registered under provisions of the PoA Act because the police are reluctant to use the law.) ”(AI, July 13, 2016, p.30)


Swell:(Accessed all sources on December 13, 2017)

Aeon: Caste lives on, and on, April 20, 2017
https://aeon.co/essays/how-india-deludes-itself-that-caste-discrimination-is-dead

AI - Amnesty International: Further Information on Urgent Action: 186/15 [ASA 20/2468/2015], September 18, 2015 (available on ecoi.net)
http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1226_1442820066_asa2024682015english.pdf

· AI - Amnesty International: “When land is lost, do we eat coal?” Coal mining and violations of Adivasi rights in India [ASA 20/4391/2016], July 13, 2016 (available on ecoi.net)
http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1226_1468476815_asa2043912016english.PDF

BBC News: How land disputes are fueling caste clashes in Rajasthan, June 24, 2015
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-33132943#sa-ns_mchannel=rss&ns_source=PublicRSS20-sa

BBC News: India caste protests: Haryana police seek rape claim leads, February 26, 2016
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-35667839#sa-ns_mchannel=rss&ns_source=PublicRSS20-sa

BBC News: What is India's caste system? July 20, 2017
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-35650616

Chowdhry, Prem: Gender Discrimination in Land Ownership, 2009 (excerpts available on GoogleBooks)
https://books.google.at/books?id=i9OGAwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false

Government of Haryana: Haryana Backward Classes commission, January 28, 2015
http://www.haryana.gov.in/contacts/hbcc.html

Hindustan Times: Gadkari, Sushma try to strike emotional chord with Rors, December 16, 2012
http://www.hindustantimes.com/chandigarh/gadkari-sushma-try-to-strike-emotional-chord-with-rors/story-4BCr8jOkkfH1N18kaIdqaM.html

HRW - Human Rights Watch: Everyone blames me - Barriers to justice and support services for sexual assault victims in India, November 9, 2017 (available on ecoi.net)
http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/5228_1510126136_india1117-web.pdf

Indian National Commission for Backward Classes: Central List of OBC, State: Harayana, last updated on January 9, 2015
http://www.ncbc.nic.in/User_Panel/GazetteResolution.aspx?Value=mPICjsL1aLtSFTL0ASsWZiEMIyxBfIugsntqBSwY0wBkzHKNx3nfxopTrWzuvL2A

· IndoCanadian ROR Society: ROR History, undated
http://www.indocanadianror.com/index.asp?mid=5

· Rajputs: History of Rajputs in India, undated
http://www.indianrajputs.com/history/

RRT - Refugee Review Tribunal (Australia): RRT Research Response: India: IND34832- India - Ror Caste - Dalits - Chur Majra, April 28, 2009 (available on ecoi.net)
http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/2107_1316008998_ind34832.pdf

The Economic Times: Haryana government turns pandits backward, March 30, 2016
https://blogs.economictimes.indiatimes.com/Polibelly/haryana-government-turns-pandits-backward/

The Hindu: Jat quota protests: What is it all about ?, September 23, 2017
http://www.thehindu.com/specials/jat-quota-protests-what-is-it-all-about/article14091994.ece1

The Indian Express: Backward march: Who are the Jats, what do they want ?, February 22nd, 2016
http://indianexpress.com/article/explained/backward-march-what-the-jats-want/

USDOS - US Department of State: Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2016 - India, March 3, 2017 (available on ecoi.net)
https://www.ecoi.net/local_link/337150/479913_de.html

Welfare of Scheduled Caste & Backward Classes Department, Government of Haryana: List of Backward Classes in Haryana State, last updated on December 12, 2017a
http://haryanascbc.gov.in/list-of-backward-classes

Welfare of Scheduled Caste & Backward Classes Department, Government of Haryana: List of Scheduled Castes in Haryana State, last updated on December 12, 2017b
http://haryanascbc.gov.in/list-of-scheduled-castes



[1] See also Rajputs, no date.

[2] See BBC News, July 20, 2017.

[3] See BBC News, July 20, 2017.

[4] See Government of Haryana, January 28, 2015.