How old is the Canadian shield

Regions in North America - The Canadian Shield

The Canadian Shield covers the Alaska Peninsula, the Arctic Islands including Greenland and Canada.

Geologically speaking, the Canadian Shield includes the Arctic islands in the north polar region. The north of Greenland and Svalbard are Alpine phenomena from even earlier geological times than the Canadian Shield. The Canadian-Arctic archipelago lies in front of the American mainland. It consists of numerous islands such as Baffin Island, Queen Elizabeth Islands, Victoria Islands, Banks Island, Ellesmere Island ... and Greenland. It is the largest arctic and at the same time largest island on earth with 2,175,600 square kilometers. The island is bordered by the Kane Basin, Baffin Bay, Kennedy Channel, Davis Strait and Smith Sound. Greenland and all other islands are the northern continuation of the Canadian Shield.

Alaska - Peninsula and at the same time state of the USA - is the north-westerly limit of the Canadian shield. Alaska is bordered in the north by the Arctic Ocean, in the west by the Bering Sea and in the south by the Pacific. Alaska is mountainous. Its subsoil consists of crystalline slates, limestone and sandstones. Above these layers are those from the Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary. Alaska got its shape from folds and tectonic movements during the Tertiary. To this day, the earth is still in motion in this part of the world, as evidenced by the volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands. In front of the imposing Brooks chain in the north, which has a height of up to 2,816 meters, there is an offshore coastal plain. Numerous lakes and swamps can be found here. The Brooks range with its plateau landscapes is a low mountain range to which the Chugach Mountains and Alaska range run parallel. The southern part is heavily glaciated, while the north slopes down to the Yukon Basin. River floodplains extend to the Bering Sea and unite to form the Yukon and Kuskokwim. Permafrost soils that reach up to 400 meters into the ground cover most of this area. Tundra vegetation is predominant, which merges into fir and sitka spruce forests to the south.

The continuation of the Cordilleras are the Alaska chain. It is the highest point in this region. At 6,194 meters, Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in North America. The volcanic Aleutian Range is the continuation of the Alaska Range on the Alaska Peninsula.

North America's northernmost basin - the Yukon Basin - rises between the Brooks Range and the Coast Mountains. From a height of 1,200 meters in the east, it slowly descends to the west. Low mountain ranges, hills and valleys extend here. The ravine-like river valleys are typical of this landscape. The excess water of the Yukon Basin runs off over the Yukon and Kukkokwim.

The Mackenzie Mountains is a mountain range in northwest Canada. It lies on the Alaska border and is the northern continuation of the Cordilleras in North America - the Rocky Mountains. The little explored mountains are 900 kilometers long and reach 2,900 meters at their highest point.

The Laurentian massif covers an area of ​​around 5 million square kilometers. It stretches in an arc from the mouth of the Mackenzie in the north over the Great Bear Lake, Slave Lake, Athabasca Lake, Reindeer Lake, Winnepeg Lake to the coast of Labrador. The Hudson Bay Depression limits it to the west. The Canadian Arctic Archipelago joins in the north. The southern part of the islands is mostly without vegetation and the mountains rarely exceed 400 meters, while the northern regions have mountains. On average, the Canadian Shield has a height of 400 to 500 meters. On Baffin Island the mountains rise to 2,600 meters and on Ellesmere Island even up to 3,048 meters. The inner plain is bounded to the west by stratification borders and to the east by the Labrador coast. The Torgats Mountains rise to a height of 1,700 meters. The old land mass was created from archaic and Proterozoic rocks such as gneiss, granite, limestone and sandstone. Numerous rivers and lakes form the surface, which are signs of the Ice Age glaciation. Wooded hills, flat rock ridges with less vegetation and some depressions form an endlessly dividing landscape.

Part of the North Atlantic is that Baffin Baynamed after an English navigator. It is located between Baffin Island in the west and Greenland in the east and has an area of ​​689,000 square kilometers. Its length is 1,450 kilometers and the width is between 110 and 650 kilometers. Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea are connected by the Davis Strait. The depth of Baffin Bay is between 240 and 700 meters - deepest point 2,100 meters. The temperatures in the bay are extremely cold.

Labrador is the easternmost peninsula of the Canadian Shield with an area of ​​around 1.6 million square kilometers. It is a plateau that rises to the Torngat Mountains in the northeast up to 1,700 meters. The lake-rich landscape is covered with dense coniferous forests, which are replaced by the arctic tundra in the north.

The Labrador peninsula is the island to the east Newfoundland upstream, which lies in the estuary of the St. Lawrence River. In the interior of the 108,860 square kilometers island is a rump mountain range, which can be seen as the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. It rises to 814 meters. Glaciers from the last Ice Age created lakes, rivers and moors that are bordered by dense forests. Numerous fjords craggy the cliffs.

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