What is an escape tunnel
A tunnel is an underground traffic route. You often dig tunnels so you don't have to climb a mountain. Tunnels run under a river less often if you cannot build a bridge. There are also tunnels under the sea, such as the Eurotunnel between France and Great Britain. Some tunnels are also built in order to be able to build roads through areas that one does not want to be cut by a road, for example forests or cities.
Some tunnels are there for pedestrians, others for the railroad or the road. Shorter tunnels, especially for pedestrians, are usually called underpasses. Canals, on the other hand, allow water to flow to a specific location. Canals can also flow through a tunnel.
The word "tunnel" comes from the English language. A "tunnel" was a shaft in English at the beginning. The word only got its current meaning around 100 years ago. It is related to our word "bin".
Already in the Bronze Age and in ancient times there were tunnels that served to make it easier to get to water. Other tunnels were tunnels or mines that were used to get coal or metal in a mountain. Some road tunnels are also known from the Romans.
The great age of tunnel construction only came in the era of the railways. The first railway tunnel was built in England, starting in 1826. Thanks to dynamite, which was soon invented, large holes could be blasted in mountains. They also learned to drive large drills with compressed air.
Most tunnels are built from below. That means that they are bored directly into the earth. Today, this is mainly done with huge drills. Tunnels are seldom built from above. This means that the entire stretch of the tunnel is first dredged from above. Then the resulting hole is covered from above, so that the tunnel is created.
Modern tunnels have ventilation so that you can get good air in them. The longest subway tunnel with over 60 kilometers in length is the Guangzhou Tunnel in China from 2010. The longest rail tunnel through a mountain with over 57 kilometers in length is the Gotthard Base Tunnel from 2016. The longest road tunnel is the Laerdal tunnel with a length of over 24 kilometers through the Scandinavian mountains from the year 2000.
What other tunnels are there?
Some tunnels are built secretly. Prisoners have escaped from prisons or camps by digging tunnels to the outside. People came to the West from the GDR through tunnels. Even today people dig tunnels to get from one country to another because they are not allowed to cross the border. One example is the border between Mexico and the United States. A lot of goods are smuggled through such tunnels.
Some tunnels were not built for humans at all, but for animals. You want to help the animals get to the other side of the street. There are amphibious tunnels for frogs and toads, for example. Other tunnels are used for cables and wires.
When the Thames Tunnel was built in London in 1830. The tunnel was initially intended for pedestrians and later for the underground.
A painting from 1946: It shows a prisoner of war trying to break out of a camp using an escape tunnel.
The egg tunnel in Bad Kleinen in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. It was built in 1896 to allow pedestrians to cross the railway line.
A canal tunnel or ship tunnel in Saint-Aignan, France
Here the autobahn near Hamburg gets a "lid". So this tunnel is not drilled from below, but built from above.
The Eurotunnel or Channel Tunnel runs under the English Channel. You travel by rail from France to Great Britain.
There are also other search results for "Tunnel" from Blind Cow and Ask Finn.
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