Contemporary artists play surf rock

Rock 'n' roll


Rock ’n’ Roll (short for rock and roll) is a vaguely defined term for an American style of music from the 1950s and early 1960s and the associated lifestyle of a youth protest culture. Most of the music (except in some ballads) played in 4/4 time has a clear backbeat (strong accent on the even beats two and four).
In addition, rock ’n’ roll is the name of a ballroom dance associated with this music, which emerged from Lindy Hop and Jitterbug and whose main characteristics are the acrobatic interludes. In contrast to music, the odd beats (one and three) are emphasized in dance.
Contents [hide]
• 1 term
• 2 Social context
• 3 musical characteristics
• 4 Rhythm & Blues
• 5 style maps
• 6 types of rock ’n’ roll
• 6.1 Northern Band Style
• 6.2 Rockabilly
• 6.3 Handjive
• 6.4 Car sound
• 6.5 Black Doowop
• 6.6 White Doowop
• 6.7 New Orleans Sound
• 6.8 Instrumental
• 6.9 Surf / Hotrod
• 6.10 Teenage Rock ’n’ Roll / High School
• 6.11 twist
• 6.12 Other / mainstream rock 'n' roll
• 7 Rock`n´Roll Revival / Rockabilly Revival
• 8 See also
• 9 web links

Initially a slang expression for sexual intercourse, the term rock ’n’ roll was supposedly first coined in 1952 by the American DJ Alan Freed. However, the terms rock and rock and roll appeared years before in black rhythm & blues titles, for example in Eunice Davis' recording Rock little Daddy from 1951 or in the title Rock & Roll recorded by the Boswell Sisters in 1934.
Nevertheless, it remains undisputed that it was Freed who made both the term and the music itself fit for a broad public, so that rock ’n’ roll replaced the term rhythm & blues from around 1955. Freed's radio show Moondogs, which mainly played black rhythm and blues, had cult status among both white and black youth in the mid-1950s. In a time of racial segregation, many white young people had the opportunity to listen to African-American light music intensively for the first time. Freed also acted as an organizer for live concerts and as a discoverer and promoter of artists such as Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Gene Vincent, Frankie Lymon and many more. The term rock ’n’ roll, which was initially only a synonym for rhythm & blues, quickly developed into an independent generic term and referred to the new music in which the strict separation between black and white that was customary at the time was softened.
Today the term is also used in common parlance to contemporary rock music, especially in the Anglo-Saxon language area. However, the music-historical definition is narrower. Here rock ’n’ roll is a collective term for various early forms of rock music, which originated in the USA in the mid-1950s and were replaced by beat music in their subcultural function in the mid-60s.
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Social context
As early as the late 1940s, a youth protest culture began in the USA, which raised the underdog existence, freedom from bourgeois morality, drugs and restless mobility to their ideals. This movement did not initially identify itself through music, but rather through the beat literature of authors such as Jack Kerouac, films such as “The Wild One” or through books such as “Catcher in the Rye”. Even the James Dean film "Rebel Without a Cause" from 1955 had no musical rock 'n' roll reference, although otherwise it already contained all the characteristics of rock 'n' roll culture. The music of this movement initially served as black bebop jazz, especially among the followers of the beat generation in the early 1950s. As the protest movement spread, listening to rhythm & blues (often forbidden by parents), the music of the Afro-American lower class, which is explained in more detail below, became popular.
It wasn't until the 1955 film "Blackboard Jungle" (which was about juvenile delinquency in schools) that a rock 'n' roll soundtrack was included ("Rock around the Clock" by Bill Haley & The Comets), making it the first worldwide Rock 'n' roll hit. The explosive success of this music can be explained by the longing that has existed for a long time for their own youth music, through which the rebellion against the parents' generation could be expressed. Rock ’n’ Roll therefore filled a social vacuum and gave a vague attitude to life its means of expression.
Nevertheless, rock ’n’ roll has never been a uniform style, but has always been a collective term for different types of music. The music scene in the USA was strongly regionalized, not only because the dominant mass medium, radio, consisted primarily of local stations. The record industry was also organized regionally, the ethnic subcultures had their geographical niches with their own musical traditions, and the southern states were strictly segregated. So, depending on social class, ethnicity and geographic region, different styles of music established themselves, all of which can be classified under rock ’n’ roll because they have two things in common: They are all expressions of minorities and they are all rooted in rhythm and blues. Therefore, before we describe the individual varieties of rock ’n’ roll, it is worth taking a closer look at this much-mentioned genre of music, this primordial breeding ground for rock ’n’ roll.
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Musical characteristics
• The rolling bass formula in the lower part (originally from Boogie Woogie)
• The hard but swinging beat
• The throaty, rough voice of the soloist
• The band line-up with guitar and wind instruments
• The 12 bar blues form
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Rhythm & Blues
The meaning of the term, coined in the early 1940s by Jerry Wexler, has changed continuously until today. Initially just a substitute for "Race Music", in the 1940s rhythm & blues was the name for all African-American music except jazz, that is, for the music of America's black underclass. In the 1960s the term gave way to the market name Soul, and today “R&B” is a form of contemporary black pop music. Rhythm & Blues is anything but a uniform term for a uniform style of music.
At the end of the 1940s, a uniform, metropolitan style developed in the course of the urbanization of the black rural population. Many rhythm & blues combos were initially nothing more than scaled-down black big bands. Often they were sextets or quintets. The smaller ensembles they gave due to the cost advantage over the big bands, which were not affordable for poorer clubs. The lower volume was compensated for by the then new electric guitar. Furthermore, a piano style emerged in which the left hand played boogie-like bass accompaniment, the right hand played fast triplet-like double stops. In contrast to swing, the solo part of the winds receded. The alto saxophone in particular increasingly functioned as a rhythm instrument and played shuffel grooves. Purely instrumental pieces were rare. Singers - the proportion of women in rhythm & blues was significantly higher than in rock ’n’ roll - often sang with gospel-like embellishments. Quite a few rhythm & blues lyrics played with sexual innuendos and ambiguities.
For established America, rhythm & blues was considered lewd and vulgar, simply unacceptable underground music. Meanwhile, Rhythm & Blues succeeded in establishing its own music industry, which was also able to maintain larger labels such as Atlantic Records, where the producer Jerry Wexler promoted this music like no other.
Even if rhythm & blues cannot be fully classified under rock 'n' roll, it shares a large overlap with it, in the interpreters such as the early Ray Charles, Bo Diddley, of course Chuck Berry, Fats Domino, Little Richard, LaVern Baker and many others belong in it. In cities like Chicago or New Orleans, the two terms "Rock 'n' Roll" and "Rhythm & Blues" have long been used as synonyms. And even those rock 'n' roll varieties that clearly no longer belong to rhythm & blues, from rockabilly to high school rock 'n' roll, served rhythm and blues as an essential pool of inspiration. So one can rightly claim that rock ’n’ roll was a further development, often also a “whitening” of rhythm & blues, with which only parts of the black youth could identify.
Particularly frustrating was the fact that white artists like Presley made millions with black covers, while artists like Big Mama Thornton (first interpreter of "Hound Dog" by the author duo Leiber & Stoller) failed to achieve success with the mass audience. And even the successful black musicians like Little Richard and Bo Diddley were often cheated of the return on their performance (Bo Diddley earned exactly 0 US dollars from his big hits in the 1950s!)
Only a little bit later than the triumphant advance of rock ’n’ roll, black musicians and managers started a targeted counter-attempt to commercialize rhythm & blues without giving it away from black hands. Under the market name Soul (musicians usually continued to speak of rhythm & blues), new black talents were trained at a high level and then widely marketed. In terms of instrumental, dance, compositional and, above all, vocals, rhythm & blues reached its peak in the soul era. In fact, the soul succeeded in unleashing a worldwide boom that also hit the affluent white audience. Fresh talents with huge voices stormed the charts, which thanks to the commercial conception are still well known today (Martha Reeves, Aretha Franklin, Ike & Tina Turner, Stevie Wonder, Otis Redding and many more). Although this commercialized rhythm & blues was popular music, the black roots such as blues and gospel were by no means watered down, but consciously reactivated. Ultimately, the aim was to create music that was difficult for whites to copy. The Motown label was at the center of this development. In the 1970s, the originally black elements finally faded and black pop music became disco music. In the 1980s, black artists like Whitney Houston put their excellent singing voices at the service of rather insignificant pop music, which they thereby enhanced to a certain extent. The term soul came up again. However, this music no longer had much to do with rhythm & blues.
Representatives of classic rhythm & blues are: Wynonie Harris, Big Joe Turner, Etta James, Clyde McPhatter, Bobby Blue Bland, LaVern Baker
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Style map
The "style map" shows the intersection and points of contact between rhythm & blues (red) and rock ’n’ roll (yellow), as well as the most important styles and sub-styles of rock ’n’ roll. However, if you wanted to list all cross-connections and mutual inspirations, such a graphic would become an even more inextricable knot than it already is here. Therefore, many aspects are not taken into account here, including the fact that most artists do not remain static in a stylistic corner in the course of their work. An example is Ray Charles, who, strictly speaking, should appear in almost every corner of the graphic. Hank Ballard, too, should not only be listed under Twist, which he only invented later in his career. In addition, the illustration does not take into account an important development in the course of which, from around 1958, many or all rock'n'roll varieties mixed into one mainstream form.
In addition, categories and style drawers always have an academic aspect that cannot adequately explain the music. So you shouldn't see these categories as set in stone and don't forget that it was precisely the overcoming of drawers that made rock ’n’ roll possible in the first place.

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Varieties of rock ’n’ roll
(For the individual types of play, see the respective Wikipedia links, some of which have more extensive articles)
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Northern band style
White music genre that originated in the north of the USA around 1954 and enriched the big band sound with a distinctive 4/4 offbeat, provided it with boogie lines and played it with a smaller line-up. Because of the "slapped" double bass it is sometimes confused with its southern counterpart, the rockabilly, but contains a more dominant, sometimes solo percussion and also focuses on the brass, which is atypical in rockabilly. The synchronous swiveling movements of the instruments were typical in the performance, the strikingly patterned uniforms of the musicians and rhythmic heckling ("crazy man, crazy!") - all elements of big band culture. Cover versions of black rhythm & blues titles were played, as well as new compositions. In addition to the double bass and brass, the electric guitar, which stood out from the rest of rock ’n’ roll with its fast, difficult runs, was an important instrument.
Representatives: Bill Haley & The Comets, Freddy Bell & The Bellboys
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White interpretation of rhythm & blues that was created around 1954 in the southern states of the USA, mixed with elements of country and hillbilly music. The title “That's Allright, Mama”, recorded by Elvis Presley in the summer of 1954, is considered the first rockabilly. The producer was the founder of the Sun label, Sam Phillips, who had already made a significant contribution to the development of Beale Street Rhythm & Blues as the producer of "Big" Joe Turner in the early 1950s.
Initially played with a minimal line-up (“slapped” double bass, electric guitar, vocals), later drums and piano also came to rockabilly. Starting in Memphis, Tennessee, the rockabilly quickly spread throughout the south thanks to the intense touring activity of Sun Records' musicians, inspiring hundreds of musicians to copy the style. Few succeeded in going beyond a mere Sun copy and developing individual rockabilly styles, such as: B. Gene Vincent and Buddy Holly. From 1957 rockabilly dissolved into a kind of mainstream rock'n'roll, but most performers turned to pure country music. Rockabilly was also the first form of country rock.

Representatives: the early Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Johnny Burnette Trio, Eddie Cochran, Gene Vincent, the early Roy Orbison
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Hand jive
Handjive (also known as "Chicago Sound" or "Bo Diddley Sound") is an originally black version of Rock ’n’ Roll and originated in Chicago in the late 1940s as a subspecies of Rhythm & Blues. The main features are the percussion instruments (maracas), which are in the foreground, which create a trance-like, ostinate groove and alternate line by line with the vocals, the melody of which is structured in a "question-and-answer scheme".
The handjive was originally pure street music, to which the children in the ghettos of the Southside of Chicago sang counting rhymes and counterfeit verses with sometimes dirty lyrics. The hands were slapped against each other or against parts of the body in certain rhythms. The tradition of the handjive goes back to the "Hambone", that body percussion with which the black slaves of the south replaced the forbidden drum music that conveyed messages.
The Chicago street musician Sammy McGier deserves the credit of having captured the typical groove on record for the first time. His band "Hambone Kids" recorded the track "Hambone" for the Okeh label in the early 1950s, which already contains the legendary lick that would later be called "Bo-Diddley-Lick".Finally, Bo Diddley, himself a former street musician on the Southside, made his debut in 1955 with his hit "Bo Diddley" (the original lyrics of this song, which was actually called "Uncle John", were too suggestive on the Chess label, which is why Diddley defused it) and reached on First place on the Rhythm & Blues Charts. His electric guitar was slightly distorted, a new sound completely unknown to the audience at the time. Soon artists all over the US began to copy the groove: Buddy Holly with "Not Fade Away" and "Bo Diddley", Johnny Otis with "Willie and the Handjive". In the 1960s, numerous British bands such as the Rolling Stones and Animals took over the Bo Diddley sound. The Stones in particular sometimes sounded like a Bo Diddley cover band in their early years.
Representatives: Bo Diddley, Johnny Otis
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Car sound
In the 1950s, the music of the black guitarist and singer Chuck Berry was called "car sound". It all started in 1955 with the Chess publication "Maybellene", a title that deals with a kind of car race. Berry himself was a car mechanic and with his almost white-sounding voice addressed the American car cult of the 1950s. Berry's lyrics, who cracked cars in his youth to go for jaunts, tell of restless mobility across the United States and are reminiscent of Jack Kerouac's cult novel "On The Road". The decisive factor for this "Chicago Rock 'n' Roll", however, is a completely new use of the electric guitar, which sounds a bit tinny with a slight tube distortion and is reminiscent of car horns when Berry bends two strings. Berry played the rhythm accompaniment with downstrokes on the muted bass strings. Berry is one of the most covered rock musicians. His licks inspired large parts of beat music in the 1960s and are still part of the standard repertoire of many guitarists and school bands today.
Berry's colleague, Bo Diddley, who is also under contract with Chess, picked up the car sound and also played a few car titles ("Roadrunner"). The car sound from the car production cities of the north also inspired surf / hot rod musicians from California, the "Autoland". Representatives: Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley
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Black doowop
Doowop is the name for a rhythm & blues subspecies that puts a special emphasis on polyphonic vocal arrangements. The style developed from 1954 in the black quarters of American cities, where it was sung by unknown a cappella bands, especially under bridges, in subway stations and greyhound waiting halls. Doowop is closely related to the special acoustics of public spaces. Ballads alternated with fast numbers. From 1956, some former street bands made it into the rhythm & blues charts. The pure a cappella style of the street was seldom retained. As a rule, soft instrumental accompaniment in typical rhythm & blues instrumentation (saxophone, piano) was added to recordings. Gimmicks like chimes were also typical in doowop ballads. Representatives: The Penguins, The Moonglows, Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers, The Platters
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White doowop
In the late 1950s, young white Americans began copying the doowop in major cities. Descendants of Italian immigrants stood out in particular; at the center of the white doowop movement was the New York Bronx. The rough sexual allusions in the texts of the black role models like Hank Ballard were not taken over and replaced by more harmless content from everyday teenage life. An important element was the lead singer's high falsetto voice - an effect that was later picked up by surf music. The white doowop became the identification music of an entire generation of young people from the Italian-American minority in the USA. The atmosphere of the time in the Italian scene in the Bronx was successfully reconstructed in 1979 in the film "The Wanderers".
At a time when rock ’n’ roll was slowly losing its shocking effect and becoming an accepted fad, white doowop artists also became very popular with white middle-class youth. The white doowop became the forerunner of surf and high school rock'n'roll. Representative: Dion DiMucci
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New Orleans Sound
A black variety of rock ’n’ roll / rhythm & blues, the main characteristic of which is the piano played in a triplet in the high registers. The New Orleans Sound dates back to the early 1950s; As true rock ’n’ roll, he entered rock history around 1955 with Fats Domino and the more aggressive Little Richard. The tradition of this music is cultivated without interruption up to the present day and has interpreters like Dr. John and Prof. Longhair. Representatives: Fats Domino, Little Richard, Huey "Piano" Smith, Smiley Lewis
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A guitar instrumental tradition was established in the western United States in 1957, which quickly found numerous imitators. Lee Hazlewood's studio in Phoenix, Arizona, and later Los Angeles, recorded tracks with guitarists Al Casey and Duane Eddy, some of which became hits. The guitar was slightly distorted, and a saxophone played simple solos. The reverberation in the recordings came from the natural acoustics of the metal granary where Hazlewood's studio was located (one of Hazlewood's studio aids was the young Phil Spector, by the way). The "twang sound" Duane Eddies found numerous imitators throughout the western United States and influenced a number of musicians in Europe, e. B. the backing band of Cliff Richard, the "Shadows". Representative: Duane Eddy, The Ventures, The Shadows
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Surf / hot rod
Surf music is the only branch of classic rock ’n’ roll that extended well into the 1960s and offered a kind of American parallel to British-dominated beat music.
In general, the term "surf music" is associated with the sound of the Beach Boys or the duo Jan & Dean. Meanwhile, there was also a much more aggressive, instrumental rock'n'roll style that claimed the name "surf music" for itself. Dick Dale, the inventor of this game (now called "Surf Rock"), made his debut, just like the Beach Boys, in 1961 with his first single "Let's Go Trippin '". However, he claims to have applied the term "surf" to his music as early as the 1950s. Which is the "real" surf music, the rock form or the pop form, is a question that is as controversial as it is idle.
In the rock instrumental form, both the "Twang" sound and the saxophone from the Hazlewood productions from Phoenix and Los Angeles were adopted (see section "Instrumental"). Sometimes the melody lines were played by a trumpet, according to Southern California-Mexican tradition. The main instrument was the Stratocaster, the legendary guitar made by the Californian manufacturer Leo Fender, the tremolo arm of which was widely used in surf rock. The characteristic, sometimes destructively violently struck surf guitar was also played with a tape echo, which smoothed the popular glissando riffs on the bass strings, with which the rapid waves of the surfboard were musically implemented. Dick Dale was in close contact with Leo Fender, who adapted his guitar amps of the late 1950s and early 1960s to suit Dale's playing style. The sound of Dick Dales, which was almost forgotten for a long time, should be known to today's audiences primarily through the soundtracks of Quentin Tarantino's films, which ushered in a revival of the harder surf sound.
The beginning of the more well-known “other” surf style, a pleasant, polyphonic variant of surf music, was marked by the Beach Boys title “Surfin '” from 1961 (number 75 in the charts), which was musically closely aligned with the white doowop. But already the following titles of the band, published on Capitol, showed, in addition to influences from Chuck Berry and Doowop, a very independent style. A key feature of polyphonic surf music is the textual content that mostly glorifies life in California. In addition to the topic of "surfing", the topic of "hot rods" is conspicuously frequent. The strong presence of the car cult in surf / hot rod music also explains the occasional borrowing from Chuck Berry, the founder of the "car sound" (compare Beach Boys: "Surfin USA" with Chuck Berry: "Sweet Little Sixteen") .
With the growing popularity of hallucinogenic drugs in the second half of the 1960s, surf music, like beat music, which was dominated by the British, also underwent a metamorphosis into the psychedelic. The Beach Boys produced extremely creative and artistic albums, which, however, sometimes seemed a bit overloaded and lacked grip. As interesting as this late form of surf was, it had little to do with the straightforward simplicity of rock ’n’ roll, which is why it will not be discussed further here.
Both directions of surf sound, instrumental surf rock as well as polyphonic pop form, established the tradition of West Coast rock music. Bands like the Trashmen and later also the Ramones, whose vocals were initially reminiscent of the Beach Boys, provided the music with an aggressive, anarchist attitude and paved the way for punk. The studio work of the late Beach Boys set the standard for more demanding pop productions of the 1970s, such as the first albums by the Swedish pop band Abba.
Representatives: The Beach Boys, Jan & Dean, Dick Dale & The Deltones, The Rip Chords
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Teenage rock ’n’ roll / high school
In the late 1950s, the entertainment industry conceived a tamed form of rock ’n’ roll aimed primarily at the very young, white, middle-class audience. The interpreters appeared clean and "parent-compatible". Jeans or leather jackets were avoided and replaced by knitted vests, polo shirts and ties. Many of these “teen idols” were cast solely based on their looks and looked like domesticated clones of Elvis Presley. Your z. Sometimes moderate singing skills were then, as in the case of Fabian, by intensive, z. T. syllable editing work balanced in the studio. Some were also marketed as "actors" and took leading roles in B-Movies. The Dick Clark Show American Bandstand, a national television show that promoted the high school stars, played a key role in this development.
It is debatable whether teenage rock ’n’ roll should really be called real rock ’n’ roll; ultimately, this is a question of definitions. According to a widespread opinion, the teen idol phenomenon is just an attempt by the establishment to integrate rock ’n’ roll, to make it a house-clean and mass-compatible product and thus to seal its end.
Representatives: Pat Boone, Paul Anka, Connie Francis, Frankie Avalon, Fabian
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Name for a late form of rock ’n’ roll and the dance that goes with it, which was popular in the USA and Europe for around two years. The dance caused quite a stir because it was no longer danced in pairs, but alone. He initiated the dance style that is still common in discotheques today.
Musically, the twist in times of shallow high school rock 'n' roll brought a revival of the origins from rhythm & blues and was therefore something of a first rock 'n' roll revival. The Chubby Checker, promoted in the Dick Clark Show, is considered the "inventor" of the twist worldwide. As for the characteristic dance moves, this is certainly true. However, it was actually the rhythm & blues musician Hank Ballard who wrote and recorded the tracks "The Twist" and "Let's Twist Again" ("The Twist" was first recorded by Ballard in 1958). However, due to a dispute with Dick Clark (it was about the question of whether Ballard's backup tape "The Midnighters" were allowed to perform or not), a planned performance by Ballard was canceled. The previously unknown, somewhat voluminous Checker was chosen to fill the gap. It launched "The Twist" in 1959 and, thanks to regular appearances at Dick Clark, was able to place the title at number 1 in the charts in 1960. With a re-placement in the charts a year later (again at number 1), the worldwide triumphant advance of the Twist began, accompanied by a merchandise machinery that was unique up to then. Representative: Hank Ballard, Chubby Checker
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Other / mainstream rock 'n' roll
In addition to the most important varieties of classic rock ’n’ roll mentioned above, there were also a number of local styles, often with a strong folk influence. Few of them produced national successes, such as B. the titles of Ritchie Valens, the most important representative of a Latino style, which was widespread in the Los Angeles, South Texas and New Mexico area among the discriminated Spanish-speaking population and z. Some of the songs were also sung in Spanish.
In the Mississippi Delta, on the other hand, it was musicians from the Franco-Canadian minority from the swampy regions of Louisiana, the "Cajuns", who combined their traditional fiddle and accordion music with rhythm & blues and rock ’n’ roll from around 1957. This extremely lively and diverse Cajun rock scene unfortunately did not have any national hits.
The more popular Rhythm & Blues musicians from New Orleans influenced the music scene in Jamaica, where the US radio stations from Louisiana could be received. In this way, a mixture of New Orleans rhythm & blues and Jamaican folklore, such as the mento, emerged in the 1950s. From this mixture, ska and later reggae developed in the early 1960s.
The so-called "calypso music" should also be mentioned here, which was invented by Harry Belafonte in the mid-1950s. Belafonte was originally from New York City and his Caribbean accent wasn't real. But he demonstrated a keen sense of the market, which in the 1950s called for South Sea romance and the exotic in a kind of first "ethnic wave". This gave his 1956 debut album "Calypso" a sensational success. If anything, his music can be classified in the pop and entertainment corner of rock ’n’ roll.
Finally, from around 1957, with the mass media dissemination of the various regional rock'n'roll styles, a process of mutual influence began. The contours of the regional styles were becoming increasingly blurred. The resulting mainstream form of rock ’n’ roll often combined elements of two, three or more different varieties. Gene Vincent and the Bluecaps mixed their rockabilly seamlessly with elements from DooWop, Buddy Holly, originally at Texas rockabilly at home, added Chicago grooves à la Bo Diddley to his music in addition to DooWop elements. After all, many rock'n'roll performers of the "second hour", that is, performers who did not appear in public until 1957, can no longer be clearly assigned to one of the rock'n'roll varieties. They are mainstream performers.
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Rock`n´Roll Revival / Rockabilly Revival
Early 1960s. Elvis stopped playing rock'n'roll and former rockabilly / rock'n'roll bands switched back to country. The Beatles stepped into the limelight. That should actually be the end of rock and roll (Buddy Holly's death in 1959 is also referred to as the "day the music died"). In 1965 rock'n'roll was at its all-time low. Only a few clubs and bars still played rock'n'roll.
Late 1960s / early 1970s. Bill Haley's "Shake, Rattle And Roll" hit the UK charts again. Suddenly it was "hip" to wear old teddy boy clothes again, and all the clubs were playing rock and roll. Many bands mimicked the old "heroes" of the 1950s and played rock and roll. Shakin Stevens & the Sunsets hit the charts. That was the beginning of a new generation of rock and roll. This is known as the "Rock`n´Roll Revival".
Mid 1970s. Bands like Crazy Cavan or "Matchbox" changed the old rock'n'roll playing style and created their own. The guitar was more in the foreground. The rhythm got faster. 50% of all songs dealt with the content of the old teddy boy scene from England. This new Rock`n´Roll way of playing is also called "Teddy Boy Rock`n´Roll". Today she still has numerous fans, such as the German band "Foggy Mountain Rockers".
Early 1980s. Suddenly a band that made music history appeared, namely the Stray Cats.They covered old rockabilly classics (e.g. "Baby Blue Eyes" by Johnny Burnette) and played their own. They changed the original rockabilly from the 1950s and played old classics with their own style. This new rockabilly variety is now also known as "Neo Rockabilly". The appearance of Neo Rockabilly by the Stray Cats is also known as "Rockabilly Revival".
Only after the Rock`n´Roll Revival and Rockabilly Revival did bands start playing Rock`n´Roll and Rockabilly again.
Neo Rockabilly Bands: Stray Cats, Rockabilly Mafia
Teddy Boy Rock`n´Roll: Crazy Cavan, Matchbox, Teencats
"Authentic Rockabilly" or "Authentic Rockabilly" describes the genre of music that strictly adheres to the style of the 1950s. Many also refer to the "Teddy Boy Rock`n´Roll" as "British Rockabilly". The Teddy Boy Rock'n'Roll is only popular to a lesser extent in the rockabilly scene. New bands like Foggy Mountain Rockers who play the "Neo Teddy Boy Rock`n´Roll" (new way of playing the old Teddy Boy Rock`n´Roll) are all the rage.
In addition, another new style was invented through the rockabilly revival, namely "Psychobilly", a mixture of "Punk" and "Neo Rockabilly" (or, depending on the bands, influences from 50s Rockabilly bands). Bands: Meteors, Nekromantix ... In addition to the Psychobilly, other styles of Neo Rockabilly have emerged: Hellbilly, Punkabilly, Alkabilly.
Followers and lovers of the old, classic rock'n'roll and classic rockabilly of the 1950s mock and despise the newly emerged directions like Teddy Boy Rock'n'Roll, Neo Rockabilly, Psychobilly etc.
In the first years of the new millennium, a new direction within rock 'n' roll was added, especially in Europe, but also in the USA and Australia. In contrast to Teddyboy Rock 'n' Roll, Rockin '& Shakin' Cartoon Pop (R&S) aims to be suitable for the masses and primarily appeals to younger audiences who are willing to participate. Music that was more for small target groups in the 1970s is made accessible to a wide audience.
Musically, Rockin '& Shakin' Cartoon Pop is based on traditional rock 'n' roll of the 1950s and the blues, but also combines influences of teddy boy rock 'n' roll with glam rock elements and the 1980s chart blocker sound of Shakin 'Stevens . In contrast, however, R&S always comes up with a pumping piano and hearty guitar and also attaches importance to the entertainment factor. Music is not only played but presented in a very unique, mostly humorous form and with newly composed songs.
Representatives of this new trend within rock 'n' roll are mainly Big Bad Shakin 'from Germany, but the Seatsniffers (Belgium) and the Blasters (USA) also fall into this category.

This article is based on the article Rock 'n' Roll from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia and is available under the GNU Free Documentation License. A list of the authors is available on Wikipedia.