What is BE under education
Multi-perspective understanding of education and upbringing
In Germany, the terms "education" and "upbringing" have their own tradition, also because the distinction between education and upbringing, which is customary in the German-speaking area, only exists in a few languages. That is why the orientation plan is preceded by a description of the educational understanding on which it is based.
“Education” means the lifelong and automatic processes for appropriating the world from birth. Education is more than accumulated knowledge that a child must have. Children create their knowledge of the world and themselves through their own actions. Educational processes in children require reliable relationships and ties to adults. Education is an event of social interaction.
"Education" means the support and accompaniment, stimulation and challenge of the educational processes, e.g. B. by parents and educational professionals. It happens in an indirect way through the example of adults and through the creation of social relationships, situations and spaces. It happens in a direct way, for example, by demonstrating and stopping to practice, by imparting knowledge and by agreeing and monitoring rules of conduct.
The two bridging pillars of education and upbringing determine the educational activities of the skilled worker in everyday kindergarten life.
Strengthening the children's perspective, development appropriateness as well as holistic support and support are key concepts of the Baden-Württemberg orientation plan.
They require a multi-perspective approach that includes and connects various scientific disciplines: education (especially elementary education and social education), psychology (especially developmental psychology and motivational psychology), neuroscience and theology. The different perspectives complement each other and together enable a better understanding of the educational processes in kindergarten than any single perspective alone.
These approaches approach the topic with sometimes very different theoretical constructs and methods, in other words with humanities, social and natural sciences. That brings with it unfamiliar perspectives and statements. The pedagogical view that education - even in kindergarten age - is a construction process in which the child actively opens up his world is in line with brain research and psychology. The construction of an inner model of the world takes place in the brain and obeys laws with which the neurosciences are concerned. Learning processes play an important role, which are also reflected in the nervous system, but can also be summarized in psychological categories from the perspective of the child's experience and its motivation, joy, fear, etc. All of these approaches open up to the theological point of view, in which man also reaches into the spiritual, religious sphere and feels himself to be God's creature and associated with it.
The orientation plan for Baden-Württemberg follows on from the statement made in the “common framework of the federal states:“ Education and upbringing are viewed as a uniform, temporally extending event in the social context. It encompasses the child's activities for appropriating the world as well as the fact that these basically take place in specific social situations. In the process of world appropriation or the construction of meaning, the child and his or her social environment mutually influence one another, they interact. According to this understanding, supporting, educational and caring activities contribute to the child's educational process together with the child's education. "
This multi-perspective understanding of education and upbringing should be specified on the basis of a few points:
- Education is an active process of processing information - the child is an actor, a subject who actively develops, appropriates, and shapes the environment. This applies from the simplest perception process to the formation of terms to creative problem solving and acting in a social environment.
- Education begins with birth - the baby is already active and communicative. Education lasts a lifetime.
- Education, especially in an institutional framework, takes place in the engagement of an educational subject (child) with his world and in cooperation with other actors (educators, other children), i.e. in interaction. This mutual influence between the child and other people is reflected in the outcome of the child's educational process, both positively and negatively.
- From the view of the child as the subject of the educational process that the world actively appropriates, it follows that the educators have an important, responsible and active role in education and upbringing in kindergarten. They are observers and arrangers of the spatial environment and especially responsible interaction partners of the child and thus have a significant influence on the result and the quality of the educational process.
- Creating a stimulating environment, enabling positive emotional ties, observing and encouraging children are very important tasks of the educational staff in kindergartens. But there are also situations in kindergarten that require the educator to actively intervene, be it through the provision of information, through guidelines and demands on the child, or through corrective intervention. If children have difficult access to educational processes due to a disability or illness, the design of the environment and the positive formation of emotional relationships are of particular importance. Nobody can acquire their living space and their culture solely through their own activity and experience, solely through direct learning, but must fall back on the experiences and knowledge of others. In addition, in some situations it is impossible or too dangerous to let the child gain experience of self-appropriation. How to behave in traffic must be learned from the guidelines and role models of the adults, age-appropriate and with many clear practical exercise phases, but these are rules from the adult world that must be given to the child.
Bad posture in the fine motor area, for example when using pens, is often difficult to correct later. The educator has to intervene in a guiding manner. Or if today many children grow up with language problems and even the kindergarten group cannot offer appropriate language role models, this development will not be allowed to continue with sight, but targeted support measures will have to be tackled.
- Education has to be seen more in terms of the process. What is the subject of the educational process and what are the desired qualifications and competencies? Under this aspect, education always has two perspectives: on the one hand, it is related to the past, part of the passing on of culture to the growing generation, who should be enabled to participate in this culture. On the other hand, education is future-oriented, it must offer the next generation the prerequisites to develop knowledge, skills, skills and attitudes. Education can be understood as a connection between learning, knowledge, awareness of values, attitudes and the ability to act in the context of meaningful interpretations of life. This enables the younger generation to cope with practical daily life in a responsible and meaningful manner in terms of connectivity. This also includes adequate preparation for school, which, among other things, plays an essential part in the life of the growing child.
- In recent years, the importance of the first six years of life as a particularly development, education and learning-intensive period has been emphasized in the relevant academic disciplines as well as in educational policy. At the same time, more and more children start school without the prerequisites for a successful start to school. It can be stated that children increasingly have language development delays. In addition to the families, the kindergarten also has the task of creating the conditions for a successful transition to primary school. Regardless of the kindergarten's independent educational mandate, this is a requirement of “practical education”, because elementary school is part of the practical life requirements of the older kindergarten children. However, this is not just the task of the kindergartens; this requires cooperation with the primary school, and above all cooperation with the family. In addition, for children with disabilities, illnesses and special educational needs, the question of the place of learning must be clarified in cooperation with the relevant partners in good time before compulsory schooling begins, in order to prepare the transition to school in a differentiated manner.
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