How does the handwriting analysis work

What is graphology and how does it work?

Ines Grämiger, 2011

(Note: the masculine word form also stands for the feminine in the following text)
Graphology is an area of ​​expression psychology and makes use of the interpretation principles of expression psychology, the interpretation of spatial symbolism, the interpretation of movement and shape, etc.

In handwriting, character and personality structures are expressed through brain activity and fine motor skills of the hand.

In the handwriting, psychological peculiarities come in connection with brain physiology and motor skills.

That means: The soul, the character and the personality structures flow via brain processes into the fine motor skills of the hand and are then visually visible in the handwriting trace on the paper.

So writing is a very complex, holistic process.

The handwriting analysis is also a kind of psychological "test". And it is almost the only psychological test (apart from the drawing tests) where brain physiology also plays a role and is included in its effect.

The graphology is based on the thesis and experience that the soul and character are reflected in the handwriting in:

a) Forming b) Room design c) Movements d) Line (if you look at the line of the writer under an eight-fold magnification).

The graphologist therefore interprets the shapes (even measures them in millimeters with the ruler) as well as the motion sequences, the room design or the structure on paper and the line.

The movements on the paper create the shapes and structure the space. And during the movement, an individual texture of the line arises unnoticed, comparable to the texture of a fabric, which is beyond conscious control!

So that the graphologist can do a line analysis with an eight-fold magnification, he always needs an original handwriting and not a copy.

When we have a script in front of us, we can apply the so-called kinaesthetic principle (combination of movement sensitivity with visual perception of the static forms): we can continuously understand the sequence of movements, empathize with them and understand how the forms are created by the movement.

All cultures and countries have developed their own school typeface, which is taught to the students in detail. These school fonts from the various countries are taught and learned as standard fonts.

The graphologist now mainly interprets the individual deviations of the handwriting of a writer from this learned standard school script.

Everything that deviates from the learned norm is an expression of your own personality!

That's why graphology always needs to know in which country someone learned the school script.

It is also important that the graphologist knows the school education and professional training. Because, above all, the job often results in certain "deformations professional" / professional deformations of the writing (e.g. technical draftsmen are often very correct, legible to compulsive writing due to their profession)

What does the handwriting show?

The manuscript can provide information about the following areas:

General character and personality structure - typologies (intro or extraversion according to CG Jung, the Jungian types - temperaments - constitutional types - fate-psychological typology) - instinctual needs - instinctual wishes and processes as well as their control and defense - vitality, elemental force, activity potential - coarse - and fine motor skills - affects and emotions - ego strength - resilience - intelligence and talents - inclinations and aptitudes - work character - ability to become an all-rounder or specialist - leadership ability, ability to work in a team, independence - assertiveness - self-confidence and self-esteem - awareness - will - maturity - relationship characteristics - Communication - strengths and weaknesses, limits, stress factors of personality - balance, harmonies, integrated - imbalance, disharmonies, contradictions and ambivalences in the overall personality - "shadow" (according to CG Jung), ie. What is split off, what has been rejected - lived and unlived potential

Applications of graphology

On the one hand, graphology is suitable for one's own self-knowledge. on the other hand, also for professional and career counseling.
for personnel selections in companies and apprenticeships.
for crisis counseling, location determination of the individual.
but also for partner search, couple and marriage counseling and coaching and in partner crises ..
but also for the analysis of entire groups such as families, work teams, boss and employees, subordinates ...
or even for the scientific research of entire professional groups (as it was and is often done at the HAP, University of Applied Psychology in Zurich, partly under my Aegide).

The handwriting analysis can now be used as a sole instrument or in combination with other methods (such as personal interviews, assessments, other psychological tests such as drawings, Wartegg test, Rorschach, Szonditest, astropsychology, etc.)

For more extensive clarifications and personnel selections, a combined application is always recommended, certainly paired with discussions, references, etc.

For the training of the graphologist

In order to meet the highest demands, the graphological training should be combined with a psychological training (as required by the SGG, Swiss Graphological Society), ideally also with a psychotherapeutic and depth psychological training.

Only then is it guaranteed that the graphologist also has a sound knowledge of psychological relationships, the theory of neuroses and pathology and can spontaneously and psychologically advise the author of the script in an oral conversation, possibly right up to a beginning therapeutic conversation.

Only the psychologically trained can vividly present the real psychodynamics between desires, instinctual needs and their control or defense, or explain phenomena that the client describes in terms of their roots and causes.

This then ensures a dynamic representation, which leads to aha experiences, and not just a static listing of properties - as it sometimes occurs with graphologists who are not psychologically trained.

The combination of graphology with depth psychology, especially with fate psychology (and the Szondi test) has proven to be extremely fruitful for more in-depth clarifications.

The combination of classical graphology and analysis of fate then leads to a further training level for the classical graphologists at the level of theory formation: to an extended training, namely the training for the specific fate psychological graphologistwho can also do a needs analysis in Scripture.
(Further training offers for classical graphologists: see button ISCHAP Institute).

Interdisciplinary graphology

Since the handwriting also comes about through the effects of brain physiology, brain physiological peculiarities can also be recognized in the script (e.g. manifestations of the left or right hemisphere, their dominance or their integration), possibly also neurological disorders and irritations that are not only psychological, to be established.

ADHD (attention deficit syndrome, formerly called POS), epileptic disorders, disorders in the tension-relaxation rhythm, effects of addictions can be seen as motor and stroke abnormalities in the writing.

Often even the graphologist is the first to recognize slight cerebral physiological disorders through line analysis, e.g. if he perceives slight tremors, derailments in motor control, etc., which are caused by an incipient neurological disease or by addictions, drug effects, etc.

It is therefore important that the work of the graphologist is taken very seriously by doctors and neuroscientists in the event of an initial suspicion and that an interdisciplinary clarification is carried out with the client.

The handwriting can namely not only be used as a psychological instrument, but also give first suspicions about medical and neuroscientific problems!

Handwriting changes
(through mental, physical, neurological, medicinal and other influences)

Normally, the handwriting with its typical core features remains relatively constant over decades and its incomparability is similar to a fingerprint, which is also used for criminal cases and written reports in court.

Shapes in writing could be changed and adjusted consciously, but not the line!

Trauma, shock experiences and severe impairments to physical and mental health, on the other hand, can change the script massively and suddenly.

The general practitioner and university lecturer Prof. Dr. Reinhard Ludewig, internationally recognized author of standard works in clinical pharmacology and toxicology / poisoning theory has been campaigning for over a decade to ensure that the medical and psychological interpretation of handwriting changes is included in basic medical studies and advanced training!

In 1993 the first interdisciplinary teaching assignment for "Medical Graphology and Writing Psychology" granted.

Ludewig emphasizes that in addition to mental disorders, numerous diseases of the nervous system, poisoning and intolerance, the effects of drugs, medication, environmental and pleasure poisons manifest themselves early in the form of a handwriting change:

For example, tremors / tremors and ataxias (disorders of the target movement) are caused by a wide variety of diseases and typically also by poisoning. Omitted letters and words or repetitions of words can be an expression of damage to the nervous system. An increasingly smaller font can indicate Parkinson's disease or the side effects of a neuroleptic (a drug for more severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia, etc.) at an early stage. In the latter case, handwriting can also be used to help with the dosage of a drug!

A change in handwriting that is noticeable to the trained eye of the graphologist, but often not clearly visible to the layman, is often the reason for a more detailed medical examination.

Conversely, however, the recovery of a font can also indicate the success and good progress of medical and medicinal treatment.

Reinhard Ludewig
a) "Acute poisoning and drug dosages" 1st edition 1966, 10th edition 2007
b) "Key symptom change in handwriting", in Aerzteblatt Sachsen, edition 10/2007 to 1/2008 or at (