What is literature according to the author

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So that you don't make mistakes when citing academic papers, we will show you how to make correct references. *

Get the bibliography right

In your term paper, bachelor thesis or master thesis, but also in yours skilled work It is not only important to use good sources, but also them to quote correctly. In the bibliography you give all the necessary information from your source. Depending on whether you have a book, an academic article or a Internet source cited the bibliography looks different. The references in your text can also vary, as there are different ways of citing it. We'll show you how to handle the Harvard citation style and the APA citation style Make references in your text and explain how to use them in the footnote and in the bibliography being constructed.

Table of Contents

  1. definition
  2. Where are they made?
  3. construction
  4. literature

1. Definition: This is a literature reference

The bibliography is also called a bibliography, bibliography or bibliography and belongs in every scientific work. A reference is the exact listing of the information from your sourcesthat you used for your term paper, bachelor thesis or master thesis.

2. Where are references made?

References are made at various points in your academic work: in the bibliography, in the text and in the footnote. It is important here that you always take the exact information from the sources you use. In addition, when listing the references, you should always uniformly proceed so that the whole thing remains clear.


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Bibliography in the bibliography

You can always find the references in the bibliography at the end of your scientific work. They are used to look up the sources used. The references must be listed precisely in the bibliography. You give in the bibliography, so to speak a complete overview of the sources you are usingwhich are arranged there chronologically.

References in the text

Depending on which citation style you choose in your work, the references in the text look different. Most of the time, it is information in brackets that makes the quote recognizable in your text. The most common citation styles you use in the text are the Harvard citation style and the APA citation style. With both variants, however, you only give the necessary references in brackets, which refer to the complete information in your bibliography.

References in the footnote

The references in the footnote are made after you have quoted a quote in your text with a superscript number identified. A will appear at the bottom of the page Footnote with the information about the source used. This citation is also called German citation known. When referring to the literature in footnotes, the complete information as in the bibliography should be given each time a cited text is mentioned for the first time. For every further footnote of this source, the necessary information referring to the bibliography is sufficient.



3. Structure: This is what literature references look like

Depending on where in your work you cite the literature, it looks different. In the bibliography you give more information in your bibliography than, for example, in your text or footnotes. We'll show you how Bibliography in the various parts of your academic work look.

Structure of the references in the bibliography

The bibliography of your sources used is in the bibliography detailed and chronological listed. It is, so to speak, the reference work of all of your sources that you have used for your work. In the bibliography it is important to include the correctly list different types of sources. Regardless of whether it is books, internet sources or scientific articles - when citing references in the bibliography, you should make sure that the sources are given correctly. We'll give you examples of the most frequently used sources in academic papers and tell you how to deal with missing information. In our Word template you can find more examples of how to cite sources in the bibliography.

Bibliography in the bibliography for books

  • Surname and first name of the author (publisher, if applicable)
  • Publishing year
  • Title of the work
  • Edition (in the case of several editions)
  • Place of publication
  • Example: Mustermann, Max (Ed.) (2020), make references, 1st edition, sample location.

Bibliography in the bibliography for internet sources

  • Last name and first name of the author or the website
  • Publishing year
  • Title of the message or document
  • Publication date
  • Url
  • Last access date to the website
  • Example: Mustermann, Max or Unicum.de (2020), provide references, February 1st, https: //www.unicum.de ..., last accessed: January 30th, 2020.

Bibliography in the bibliography for scientific articles

  • Surname and first name of the author
  • Publishing year
  • Title of the essay
  • Name of the trade journal
  • vintage
  • output
  • Page numbers of the article
  • Example: Mustermann, Max (2020), "Bibliography", Journal for Scientific Work, 2019, 5, pp. 10-20.

If you use a source for your work, it is always better if you include all relevant information about the source in your references. However, it can occasionally happen that you use a source for your work that does not have an author or a year. Therefore there is Abbreviations that you include in the bibliography in these cases. Here is a list of the common abbreviations for missing information:

  • without author: "o.V."
  • without year: "no year"
  • without location: "o.O."
  • Pages: "S."
  • Booklet: "H."
  • Vintage: "Jg."
  • Volume: "Bd."

Structure of the references in the text

In the text, you only make brief references to your quotations with your literature references. They can usually be found in brackets directly after the quoted passage in your text. The most common citation styles in brackets are the Harvard citation style and the APA citation style. Both are similar in terms of application, but differ from one another in a few ways. Our examples show how you can use the Harvard citation method and the APA citation method to cite references in the text.

Structure of the references in the text according to the Harvard citation style

The Harvard citation is a Author-year system. In the brackets in the text you only give these references. They are so to speak Short referenceswhich refer in the text to the complete references in the bibliography. They usually look like this:

  • Text (name year: page).
  • Example: ... (Mustermann 2020: 5). / (see Mustermann 2020: 5).

For indirect quotations, remember to include a "see." for "compare" to put in front of the surname.

Structure of the references in the text according to the APA citation style

The APA citation style is also an author-year system, in which you only give this information in brackets in your text. Thus, these are also short references that point to the exact listing of your sources in the bibliography. Compared to the Harvard citation style, you separate the references in brackets with the APA citation style with a comma. The references in the text usually look like this:

  • Text (name, year, page).
  • Example: ... (Mustermann, 2020, p. 5). / (see Mustermann, 2020, p. 5).

Again, for indirect quotations, that you have a "see." for "compare" you have to put before the last name.

Structure of the references in the footnote

The reference in the footnote is also known as German citation. Unlike the Harvard and APA citation styles, you enter one the first time you mention your quoted text complete bibliography in the footnote as you can find them in the bibliography. For every further mention, the surname, year, title and page number are sufficient. The Bibliography in the footnote is structured as follows:

  • ¹ First name and surname of the author, year, title, place.
  • Example: ¹ John Doe, 2020, provide references, sample location.

You can find more examples in the Word template, which you can download here:

Download the Word template for citation


4. Helpful literature

So that you can keep track of the various references during your studies, it is advisable to Literature about scientific work to get. In this way you can get an overview of the various references and always know how to use them correctly.

Further reading ≫

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