Which business type is the best

Choice of shops

Business loyalty, brand choice

Various aspects can be distinguished in the purchasing behavior of private consumers. The spatial aspect is addressed with the behavior in choosing a shopping location. The question of where the purchases are made can be answered in two ways: a) Purely geographically: At which locations are the retail establishments that are preferred by a consumer (e.g. near the place of residence or the place of work, in an inner city location, on the outskirts , in a shopping center, etc.), or what distances does the consumer cover to make his purchases? b) What type of business does the consumer prefer? Business types can be formed according to numerous criteria, but the classification according to so-called business types (business types) is particularly important. Examples of such types of business are the specialty store, the specialist market, the hypermarket, the discounter. If a sequence of purchases is considered, one speaks of store loyalty. A geographical identification of the behavior in choosing a shopping location requires that the immense number of specific locations (every retail establishment has an individual location) is classified according to abstract criteria. Some classifications are mentioned below: 1) Federal Statistical Office (trade and restaurant census)
1. In municipalities with suburbs running
1. 1 Indian inner city No. - main business location - secondary business location 1
1. 2 In a suburb 2 - main business location - secondary business location 3
1. In municipalities without suburbs 4 - main business location - secondary business location 5
1. Outside of closed 6 localities 7 For the total of seven locations, it is shown for each branch of industry how large the number of shops is, what turnover they generate, how large the number of employees is and what sales and parking space they have. 1) Real estate exchanges and brokers: serial no. Outskirts of the core area / outskirts / outside the residential area Main traffic situation in the city center / Average traffic situation in the city center / Main traffic situation in the suburbs or outskirts (subdivision for places with more than 1000 inhabitants) a) Ifo: Interurban / on the outskirts / residential area / City / Places in the catchment area of ​​larger cities / Places that are not in the catchment area of ​​larger cities Main business location / secondary business location / scattered position b) BAG: main business center / inner city / district centers c) according to a classification of spatial planning: core city / supplementary area / urbanized zone / peripheral zone / Satellite zone / Rabant zone / Neighboring city zone In particular due to the motorization of broad sections of the population Due to the rising rents in the city center and the shortage of parking spaces in the inner city districts, consumer purchases have shifted from traditional locations to the so-called “green field”. Tietz (1989) gives the following sales ratios for 1985:
1. Primary store retail network in city centers and residential areas, supplemented by city center-oriented shopping centers EUR 340 billion
2. Secondary store network at car customer-oriented locations on the outskirts or outside of residential areas (especially hypermarkets, hypermarkets, specialist markets and shopping centers on greenfield sites) EUR 90 billion
3. Tertiary network of mail order and direct sales EUR 30 billion Already due to the emergence of more and more new types of business, the market shares of individual types of business are constantly shifting. The individual types of business (types of business, types of business) are usually differentiated on the basis of their sales policy (type of price policy, breadth and depth of the range and others). A rough impression of the competition between the different types of business for market share is provided by the compilation shown in the figure, which is not based on the classic definitions of the various types of business, but makes it clear that the unorganized retail trade, which in many cases operates small-scale specialist shops, loses market share. With the choice of a certain business, the consumer decides at the same time about the preferred geographical location and about the other characteristics of the type of business. He has to weigh the distance to be bridged to the individual shops against other differences between the shops, for example in the price policy or in the selection. It is the subject of the so-called gravitation models to address the influence of distance on the choice of shopping location. With the help of the family life cycle concept, it is worked out why consumers who are in different phases of life prefer different types of business. The preference for certain types of business is shown in the buyer's behavioral models that deal with the choice of shopping location, v. a. but explained with the construct “business image”. Recently, attempts have also been made to determine the exchange rates between individual features (more in one relationship must be weighed against less in another relationship) with the help of conjoint analysis.


Literature: Heinemann, M., choice of shop and loyalty of the consumer. Wiesbaden 1976. Tietz, B., Why the city and the green meadow cannot exist without each other, in: Marketing-ZFP, 11th Jg. (1989), pp. 77-85.

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