How is the plural formed in Swahili
The imperative in Swahili
The imperative in Swahili expresses a request or an order just like in German. However, there are two different imperative forms in Swahili: the polite form of prompting and the short form of command.
The polite form of the imperative
The polite form of prompting could be translated in German as “You may / you may ... please”. This form of the imperative is formed exactly like the subjunctive form that you have already encountered in one of the previous chapters. The personal prefixes are placed in front of the verb stem, and only in the Bantu verbs does the final "-a" change to "-e".
As a reminder, the following rule of thumb is used to form the subjunctive and the polite form of the imperative:
2nd person singular: + verb stem +
2nd person plural: + verb stem +
|Niondolee fujo tafadhali!||May you please be so kind and leave me alone!|
|Niona kesho saa moja asubuhi tafadhali.||Please come to me tomorrow at 7 a.m.|
The short form of imperative
The short command form is generally relatively easy to form.
The imperative for the second person singular simply consists of the verb stem without additional syllables, just like the verb can be found in the dictionary. In the second person plural, the “-a” at the end of the Bantu verb becomes “-eni”. In Arabic verbs, the "-u" becomes "-uni" and the "-i" becomes "-ini".
2nd person singular: verb stem
2nd person plural: verb stem with ending
|Bantu verbs in the imperative|
| Piga!|| Blow!|
In the B!
|Arabic verbs in the imperative|
| Be happy!|
|Usinikasirikishe!||Stop annoying me!|
|Funga Dirisha!||Open the window!|
|Pindukeni mara moja!||Turn around immediately!|
Exceptions in the formation of the imperative: Monosyllabic verbs
Monosyllabic verbs keep the infinitive prefix 'when forming the imperativeku- ' at, otherwise the formation is analogous to the polysyllabic verbs.
2nd person singular: + verb stem
2nd person plural: + verb stem + ending
|Monosyllabic verbs in the imperative|
But how do you say "don't stop studying?" - You'll learn that in the next chapter.
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