Are physiology and psychology the same

Psychophysiology

 

(= P.) psychophysiology; gr. ψυχή (psyche) Soul, φύσις (physis) Nature, λόγος (logos) Teaching], [AO, BIO, DIA, EM, KLI, PER], deals with the relationships between psych. Operations and the underlying physical processes. It describes how changes in consciousness (consciousness), emotions, cogn. Performance (cognition), excessive demands (stress) and other activation processes with central nervous functions, circulation, breathing, motor skills, hormone release (hormones) and others. related to biochemical parameters. Since it became possible in the second half of the 19th century, the pulse (heart rate), breathing, electrodermal activity (electrical skin resistance), later also blood pressure, electrical heart activity (electrocardiogram, EKG) and brain activity (electroencephalogram, EEG ) during a reaction task or an emotional reaction, the Polygraphy physiol. Changes as typical for this research direction. The term P. was coined in 1822 by the German psychiatrist Christian Friedrich Nasse, roughly in the modern sense. Hans Berger, the discoverer of the EEG, emphasized in his 1921 Psychophysiologythat it is on equality psychol. and physiological methods.

On the other hand, in the predominantly tierexp. working physiological psychology and often recognizing a reductionist orientation in neuropsychology, d. H. Perception, emotion, learning, etc. are best suited to the activity. Brain structures traced back and neurophysiol. explained. In contrast, in psychoanalytically influenced psychosomatics, psych. (Psychogenic) causes of physical illnesses spoken. The conceptual history of these biological ps. In the border area of ​​different disciplines reflects the debate that took place in the 19th century between Psychics and Somatics in Ps. and Psychiatry and extends to the present day. There are various phil. Opinions as to whether consciousness and brain activity can interact mutually, whether they are only two sides of the same psychophysical process or whether they are two categorically different, but complementary, complementary descriptions of brain functions (mind-body problem). These different perspectives can influence the theoretical approaches of the scientists and the choice of methods.

The area of ​​the P. can be classified according to the psychol. Questions, e.g. B. in P. of emotions, cognitive P., clinical P., after main physiol. Functional systems, e.g. B. cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, cortical P., or according to the fields of application (Rösler, 1998, 2001; Schandry, 2016). Occasionally, between the EEG-based cortical P. and the peripheral-physiol. P. distinguished. But when the functions of the vegetative, endocrine and motor effector organs are measured, these data are of interest. d. Usually only as indicators of central controls. Therefore, the local, disruptive influences must be controlled or stat. be separated, e.g. B. the separation of the movement-related (metabolic) from the emot. conditional proportions of variance in the heart rate or the elimination of "eye artifacts" in the EEG. Today there is a growing Neuro-P in many research areas. with overlapping theoretical concepts and complementary methods to recognize that together with psycho-neuroendocrinology and psychoneuroimmunology also as a part of neuroscience. you can see.

Emotions, stress, relaxation and sleep, information processing with sensory stimulation and with cogn. Achievements, motivated behavior or social affection as well as many other organismic states and changes of state can be described on three levels, each in several functional systems: (1) as processes of consciousness, experience and physical well-being, those of self-observation (introspection, interoception) are accessible and communicable linguistically, (2) as behavior patterns that obj. be observed, and (3) as physiol. Changes that have to be measured in many mutually interacting functional systems. In direct experience, e.g. For example, in strong anger about an event or in states of fear, these aspects seem to form a unit.

Activation (activation, arousal) and individual differences in Reactivity are two central terms of P. In multivariate psychophysiol. Studies involving numerous psychol. Variables and up to 20 continuously measured biosignals can be increased as the subj. Alertness and tension a typical vegetative, neuromuscular, cortical and endocrine activation profile can be determined (alarm and readiness reaction). These activation processes reveal great individual differences, and the older concept of a uniform intensity dimension of psychophysical activation has been replaced by the description of patterns (differences between or within people or differences between conditions). The response patterns are conditional: (1) situation-dependent of the current requirements or motives (the biobehavioral functional goals); (2) person-dependent of dispositions and physical constitution, d. H. individual-specific by the examined person; (3) contextual of the particular framework conditions of the investigation; (4) dependent on motivation of compliance and interaction style (Vp behavior); (5) symptom-dependent from a given somatic dysfunction.

Laboratory tests showed i. d. Usually none or only marginally, inter- and intra-individual. Correlations between the subj. Classifications of tension, strain (stress) and the physiol. and the behavioral activation variables. This fact is called Covariation problem or as Reaction fractionation (responsefractionation) designated. Accordingly, z. B. a clear feeling of fear not regularly from a measurable vegetative-endocrine fearphysiology or from a corresponding fearbehavior (Avoidance) accompanied. The low or insignificant coupling of the different reaction systems of an activation process was in the psychophysiol. Anxiety research is discussed in detail, but without a standard could be developed so far, as in practice, for example with psychophysiol. conspicuous anxiety disorders (panic attacks), discrepancies and desynchronies have to be dealt with (Fahrenberg & Wilhelm, 2009).

The psychophysiol. Emotion research tried to physiol. To prove differences between basic emotions (affects). Such patterns are clear in the experience of feelings and also in facial expressions, but the physiol. Examination results unsatisfactory. According to Stemmler's (1998, 2004) investigations and meta-analyzes, there are most likely indications of somatovisceral differentiations in anger and fear reactions. Also the psychophysiol. Interoception research led to differentiations. The perception of physical processes (interoception), d. H. normal functional changes and symptomatic functional disorders is only possible to a very limited extent or not at all. Few people can reliably detect their heartbeat or rise in blood pressure. Body perceptions are influenced by situational factors, causal attributions and personality traits and are therefore only to be interpreted in connection with the disease behavior in patients. Between subj. Complaints and the extent of obj. There are hardly any correlations, especially in the case of the chronically ill (Myrtek 1998, 2004). The psychophysiol. Personality research (personality) deals with the physiol. Basics Personality traits and current, motivational and social behavioral tendencies (Henning & Netter, 2005), e.g. with the aspects emot. and vegetative instability in the personality dimension emotionality postulated by Eysenck.

An excellent area of ​​application is the psychophysiol. Diagnostics of mental and emot. Exertion as well as excessive demands and stress at the workplace in order to be able to improve work processes, break regulations, work organization, etc. Chronic overwork is considered to be a contributory cause of some diseases, including: of high blood pressure, and can have a negative influence on many other diseases (burn-out). The outpatient psychophysiol is of great practical importance. Monitoring (monitoring, outpatient), d. i.e. regular monitoring of body functions and symptoms in everyday life. In the therap. Area have become psychophysiol. Oriented relaxation procedures have been proven, in which these exercises z. B. be supported unspecifically by feedback from breathing or muscle tension (EMG activity). In contrast, the exp. Biofeedback methodology, d. H. the visual or acoustic feedback of measured values ​​of the disturbed function in order to reduce the symptoms, e.g. B. lowering blood pressure, spec. to «learn», empirically less proven than originally expected. The use of psychophysiol. Methods to check the effectiveness of advertising material or to identify false statements (lie detection) are problematic and controversial applications. psychophysiological methodology.

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