When should I italicize titles
References and citations in scientific texts
List of sources: Recommendations of the writing advice
The most important things at a glance
- Basic pattern of independent publication (= book, monograph)
Last name, first name (year): Title in italics. Place: Publisher.
- Rossberg, Richard (2006): On the material asymmetry of the human mind. Berlin: Cornelsen.
Last name, first name (year) (publisher): Title in italics. Place: Publisher.
- Rossberg, Richard and Grauschimmel, Wolf-Dieter (2005) (Eds.): The asymmetry of the human mind in its temporal dimension. Berlin: Francke.
- Article in anthology:
Surname, first name (year): Title. In: Surname, first name (Ed.): Title. Place: Publisher. S. X-Y.
- Rossberg, Richard (2005): On the educational value of philosophical treatises on the asymmetry of the human mind. In: Rossberg, Richard and Grauschimmel, Wolf-Dieter (Ed.): The asymmetry of the human mind in its temporal dimension. Berlin: Francke. Pp. 132-250.
- Article in print magazine:
Last name, first name (year): Title in italics. In: Name of the magazine, volume / issue no. S. X-Y.
- Rossberg, Richard (2005): On the didactic relevance of studies on the asymmetry of the human mind. In: Psychology 25/2. Pp. 150-156.
- Article in online magazine:
Last name, first name (year): Title in italics. In: Name of the magazine, year and / or issue no. S. X-Y. [WWW address; Date].
- Hägi, Sara and Scharloth, Joachim (2013): Is Standard German a foreign language for German-speaking Swiss? In: Linguistics Online 24/3. DOI: 10.13092 / lo.24.636. [https://bop.unibe.ch/linguistik-online/article/view/636; 18.1.2017].
Surname, first name OR abbreviation of the institution / organization / company (year). Title in italics. Place: Institution / organization / company advertised. [www address; Date].
- SERI (2017): Digitization. Education, Research and Innovation Action Plan for 2019-2020. Bern: State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation. [https://www.sbfi.admin.ch/sbfi/de/home/das-sbfi/digitalisierung.html; 10/17/2019].
- Further possible information are:
- Row + volume indication. Example: (= UTB 235).
- Edition (especially if it is an enlarged or improved edition)
- Number of volumes in multi-volume works
- Year of publication of the translation stating the name of the translator (see also under special cases)
Reference management programs
If possible, use a reference management program right from the start: This will save you a lot of work. The writing advice of the FHNW University of Education provides you with output formats with the recommendations of the writing advice for common programs.
Good reference management programs have an input mask ready, which is prepared for entering very different types of sources. A wide variety of citation styles are available for the output. You can find information on three such programs (including the output formats of the citation style described in this guide) on the writing advice website under Reference management programs.
- Numerous materials and tips, which are constantly being expanded, can be found under Offers for students.
- You will find suggestions for missing information, e-books, translations, manuscripts, etc. in the special cases.
- If you are looking for something and you cannot find it on the website: Write to us, we will be happy to receive suggestions!
If you want to include this text in your bibliography, please use the following information:
Storm, Afra; Salzmann, Martin and Mezger, Res (2019): References and citations in scientific texts. A handout. 4th, revised and supplemented edition. Windisch: Writing advice PH FHNW.
The present handout is partly based on Büntig / Bitterlich / Pospiech (2006):
Büntning, Karl-Dieter; Bitterlich, Alex and Pospiech, Ulrike (2006): Writing during your studies: with success. A guide. 5th edition Berlin: Cornelsen Scriptor. (= Compact course).
All information can also be found in the manual “References and citations in academic texts”. Ideal for printing and looking up:
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- A management degree after language certification is required