What are some examples of biochemical compounds



In chemistry, compounds that are similar, e.g. show similar reaction behavior, become Substance classes or. Compound classes summarized.

Chemical elements

The elements can be classified according to

Organic chemistry

In organic chemistry, the functional group of a compound is decisive for this classification. For example, compounds that have a hydroxyl group in their carbon chain belong to the alcohol class.

Examples of substance classes

  • Hydrocarbons, alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alkanols (alcohols), alkanoic acids, aromatics, hydrogen halides, alkanones (ketones), alkanals (aldehydes), carboxylic acids, amines, esters, ethers.

Inorganic chemistry

  • Classification according to main and subgroups of the PSE. These elements have similar chemical properties, e.g. the copper / silver / gold subgroup.
  • Substance-related classification: silicon chemistry, phosphorus chemistry, etc.
  • Metal classification according to chemical stability in the environment: precious metals and base metals
  • Classification by type of tie
    • Salts (ionic bond). The salts are mostly divided according to their anions. Examples are
      • Chlorides, fluorides, iodides, bromides, chlorates, bromates, iodates (halides and halogen-oxygen compounds)
      • Sulfates, sulfides, sulfites (sulfur and sulfur-oxygen anions)
      • Nitrates, nitrites, amides (nitrogen compounds)
    • Organometallic compounds (atomic bond)
    • Complexes (complex binding, association)

Natural substances

Plastics

Plastics are classified on the one hand according to the type of polymerization and on the other hand according to the type of monomers. Examples are polyester, polyvinyl chloride and polystyrene.

A distinction is also made as to whether a plastic consists of one type of monomer or of several, the latter being referred to as a copolymer.

biochemistry

Typical substance classes in biochemistry are, for example, enzymes, proteins, fats and sugars.

Drugs

Drugs are (bio) chemical substances that affect a person's consciousness and, in a more general sense, physiologically active substances. The two most important classes of substances are alkaloids and terpenoids with various subclasses.

Warfare agents

Warfare agents are poisons that are used against people. A classification takes place according to the affected biochemical system and the effect.

acids and bases

Both organic and inorganic substances can form acids and bases. The decisive factor is the ability to be able to release (acids) or absorb (base) protons, mostly in aqueous solution. Organic acids are, for example, carboxylic acids, inorganic acids are, for example, nitric acid, sulfuric acid and hydrogen chloride. Organic bases are almost all amines, inorganic bases are all hydroxide salts of alkali and alkaline earth metals (such as sodium hydroxide).

Category: Chemistry