Which philosopher had the most appropriate theory of knowledge?

Summary of The State

Ancient Greece

Plato is considered to be one of the greatest, if not the greatest, philosophers of antiquity. This historical epoch dates from around 1100 BC. BC to AD 476, the year when the last Roman emperor was deposed by a German. Greece experienced the so-called “classical” heyday of antiquity in the 5th and 4th centuries BC. In the fields of art, literature (the most important poets include: Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides), historiography (including Herodotus), science and philosophy (in addition to Plato, above all his teacher Socrates and his pupil Aristotle are to be mentioned) Greece sets the tone. Under Alexander the Great, Greek supremacy spread to the entire Mediterranean, and Greek culture mixed with other cultures in many ways.

Greece's location on the Mediterranean was extremely favorable for trade and shipping. The Greeks developed into a seafaring nation that carried on a prosperous trade with their colonies and other peoples - slave trade included. Greek colonies emerged in Italy, Sicily, Spain and France as well as around the Black Sea. Athens, which formed the center of Greece alongside its militarist rival Sparta, had the form of polis (city-state). Under the leadership of Pericles, Athens gained supremacy. Years earlier, namely 508 BC. After the defeat of the last tyrant rule, Kleistenes introduced the ancient form of democracy. The defeat in the war with Sparta led to Athens being placed under the oligarchic "rule of the 30 tyrants". Plato dealt with all these forms of government in the state.


The exact history of the origins of Plato's state is not known. However, it is undisputed among philologists that the first book was written earlier than the rest of the scriptures. If one wants to research the motives for Plato's utopia of the state, one is inevitably dependent on speculation. It is assumed that the Peloponnesian War and the accompanying unstable political conditions in Athens motivated Plato to develop his own political theory. The victorious Spartans, who themselves preferred an oligarchy (rule of a minority) and, as a warrior nation, could do little with the cultural achievements of Athens, also enforced oligarchic rule in Athens. However, this did not last long: the rulers were chased away by the Athenians after just eight months. The radical democratic government that followed did not seem to many to be any better. Plato in particular recognized it as a corrupt gang who condemned his teacher Socrates to death for flimsy reasons. The state can be seen as Plato's answer to the politics of his time and as a blueprint for a new beginning.

Impact history

Plato's influence on the history of philosophy and on the theory of the state can hardly be measured. In the 3rd century AD, the philosopher Plotinus resorted to Plato's theory of ideas and brought Neoplatonism into being. The fact that we can still read Plato's works today is thanks to the fact that he was received again and again in the Christian Middle Ages. Important theologians and church fathers such as Augustine and Clement of Alexandria tried to link Platonic philosophy with the teachings of Christianity. In the 15th century, during the Renaissance, an Academia Platonica was founded in Florence in memory of the Platonic Academy, which was closed by Emperor Justinian I in 529.

Many philosophers felt inspired by Plato's ideas and influenced others with these ideas. The French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau found an ancient pedagogy in Plato: “To get an idea of ​​public education, one has to read Plato's state. This is not a political work, as the people claim, who judge the books only by the title: It is the most beautiful treatise on education that has ever been written. "Around 100 years later, Friedrich Nietzsche found it in his Götzen -ämmerung (1889) on the other hand, these are not good words for the ancient philosopher who moralizes in his eyes: “I find him so lost from all the basic instincts of the Hellenes, so mororalized, so pre-existent Christian - he already has the term 'good' as the highest concept - that I think of the Whole phenomenon Plato rather the hard word 'higher vertigo' or, if you prefer to hear it, idealism - than anyone else would like to use "Mere footnotes to the work of Plato". The English theorist of science Sir Karl Popper railed against Plato's theory of the state and saw in it the first intellectual foundation stone of modern fascism. In his book The Open Society and Its Enemies, published in 1954, Popper even went so far as to draw a direct connection between the Nazis and Plato: “So I went looking for traces in history; from Hitler back to Plato: the first great political ideologue who thought in terms of classes and races and suggested concentration camps. "