What is the best definition of pataphysics

271 Manfred Riepe The shortest route from zero to infinity Alfred Jarrys ’pataphysics and psychoanalysis as a happy science. An investigation into what is the exception to oneself1 Born in Brittany in 1873, symbolism-related poet and playwright Alfred Jarry is commonly associated with the name of a legendary play. The first performance of Ubu Roi in the Parisian Théatre de l'Œuvre on December 10, 1896 caused a commotion after the first utterance - the artificial word “merdre” (“shit” or “scream”) - and made the then 24-year-old famous overnight. In his only 34-year life, the Breton wrote a work that not only made him a pioneer of Dada, surrealism and a theater tradition that went back to him. The exalted dandy is also considered to be an inspirational source of ideas for a large part of the French literary avant-garde, which dedicated a secret society and a periodical to him in the 1950s and 1960s, in which later celebrities such as Eugène Ionesco published their first works. Probably the most famous mention of ’pataphysics 1 The present experiment ties in with the project of a“ linguistics of joke ”. Four sections of this have already appeared: Manfred Riepe: Gustav Theodor Fechner's significance for psychoanalysis. In: Psyche 56/8, 2002, pp. 756-789; Manfred Riepe: When looks kill. In: Stefan Höltgen, Michael Wetzel (Eds.): Killer / Culture. Serial Murder in Popular Culture. Berlin 2010a, pp. 39-49; Manfred Riepe: The alphabet in a poem - From the critical study to the perception of aphasia to forgetting of names in the psychopathology of everyday life. In: RISS 76, 2010b, pp. 25-56; Manfred Riepe: Return to Saussure - Elements of a linguistics of punishment. In: RISS 76, 2010c, pp. 57–120. 272 Manfred Riepe can be found in the Beatles song “Maxwell’s Silver Hammer”: “Joan was quizzical, studied pataphysical / Science in the home / Late nights all alone with her a test tube”. For the eccentric poet who “wore women's blouses instead of men's shirts because men's underwear was too narrow”, 2 Gustav Theodor Fechner is an important source of inspiration to whom Freud also refers several times: “I was always in favor of G. Th. Fechner and I also leaned on this thinker in important points ”, 3 Freud wrote in his late“ Self-Presentation ”from 1925. With the concept of the pleasure principle going back to Fechner and the concept of the“ other scene ”, two of the To rest the main pillars of psychoanalytic thinking on the shoulders of the Leipzig physics professor. In a lecture on July 14, 2000 - given at the symposium «Transmission - Translation - Tradition», which I organized together with Christoph Tholen, Susanne Lüdemann, Gerhard Schmitz and Roger Hofmann - I pointed out that Freud's reference to Fechner was an error is based. Fechner is usually shown in the history books as the founder of that "psychophysics" which, thanks to its attempts to empirically quantify the psychic, is considered to be the forerunner of academic psychology. But between academic psychology and Freud's psychoanalysis there is a certain tension - if not to say an exclusionary relationship. However, this incompatibility between psychophysics and psychoanalysis is not the only reason for Freud's error. As I have shown variously, Fechner's psychophysics is embedded in a bizarre para-scientific pantheism. This worldview is related to an existential psychological crisis which Fechner plunged into mid-life and which brought him close to death by starvation and madness. Problematic self-experiments by persistently looking into the sun had caused a "photophobia" that banished him to a completely darkened room for several years in exile. The gradual convalescent, as an early retired civil servant, drafts a para-scientific-esoteric worldview that has numerous points of contact with the delusional system published by Senate President Daniel Paul Schreber in 1903. The universe of the Leipzig psychophysicist is a self-contained, thoroughly networked sphere without any deviations, coincidences or exceptions. In this aesthetic world, which he describes with tiresome lengthiness, he not only pleads for the "soul life of plants"; For him, every single atom is a fragment of a 2 Roger Shattuck: The Belle Epoque. Culture and Society in France 1885–1918. Munich 1958, p. 191. 3 Sigmund Freud: "Self-Presentation". Collected Works XIV. Frankfurt am Main 1999a, p. 86. 273 On the shortest path from zero to infinity World that not only inspires him throughout, but is also considered to be completely mathematisable. This brief account of Fechner is necessary to understand Alfred Jarry's reference. In the preface to the world premiere of his play Ubu Roi from 1898, Jarry referred to the comparative anatomy of angels by “Dr. Mises »: Fechner's pseudonym. Jarry became aware of the Leipzig physics professor through his university teacher Henri Bergson, 4 who formulated one of the first well-founded reviews of Fechner's psychophysics. In his Elements of Psychophysics of 1860, which he wanted to be understood as the foundation of a "Newtonian Psychology", 5 Fechner tried to measure human sensation in an empirically reliable way. Following on from Isaac Newton, who discovered the validity of mathematical laws for celestial mechanics as well as the entire area of ​​tangible nature, Fechner now wants to prove the inviolable effectiveness of natural causality also for the previously unexplored area of ​​soul life. In this context he defines the 'psychical' as follows: «In general we call the psychical function of the physical, dependent on it and vice versa, insofar as there is such a constant or legal relationship between the two that from the existence and the changes of the one to that of the Others can be inferred ».6 According to Fechner's basic conviction, the psychic has no claim to a qualitatively independent sphere; for him there is only a soul as a causal dependence on a physically demonstrable function. Fechner tries to provide empirical evidence of this functional dependence of the psychic on the physical by measuring sensation. For this purpose, he creates a formula by means of which he defines human perceptions as physical quantities in order to quantify them mathematically and operationalize them using measurement technology. In Zeit und Freiheit of 1888, however, Henri Bergson complained that psychophysics only defines sensations as a reaction to the external stimulus and thereby ignores the subjective factor of attention, which, however, has a decisive influence on sensitivity.7 Therefore, sensations cannot be combined with one another like mathematically operationalizable quantities add. In contrast to Bergson's conventionally philosophical criticism, Jarry's poetic (re) interpretation aims at the symptoms themselves of Fechner’s scientific reference. This scientific reference could be referred to as an ‹emphasis. 4 Cf. Shattuck 1958, p. 228. 5 Gustav Theodor Fechner: Elements of Psychophysics. Leipzig 1860, Vol. I, p. 68. 6 Ibid., Vol. I, p. 8. 7 See Henri Bergson: Time and Freedom. Meisenheim am Glan 1949, pp. 53–64 274 Manfred Riepe des Exakten ›which he describes as follows, for example, in his main philosophical work Zend-Avesta from 1851:“ But because nothing in the world is so special that it is not from Subordinate to one side or the other of a generality, all special combinations of circumstances and with them the laws of events and actions that apply to them are also subordinate to and subordinate to the most general and, finally, the most general, which is no longer bound by any particular provision, but binds everyone. " 8 What Jarry, who was very familiar with German literature, may have caught the eye here is that “absolutist determinism” with which Fechner literally lumps everything together. - It must be made clear that Fechner basically only wrote one and the same book in the extremely numerous specialist disciplines in which he published articles - but in a different way than the saying goes that every good philosopher pursues only one single thought . Regardless of whether Fechner turns to theological problems (The Three Motives and Reasons of Belief), discusses aesthetic questions (On experimental aesthetics) or thinks about the physical and philosophical theory of atoms - his only concern is to identify the individual object as a subfield of a mathematically operationalizable science to tap into. In theology he calculates a statistically determinable deviation from the 'correct belief'. The aesthetics and the posthumously published collective measurement theory determine the degree of comfort of an (art) object through quantifiable deviation from the golden ratio or the Gaussian normal distribution. Even more than the versatility of the scholar, a certain simplicity stands out in this incomplete list of his fields of work, which Alfred Jarry subtly impaled. As a reaction to the Leipziger's basic idea that 'nothing in the world is so special that it is not subordinate to a generality from one side or the other', he caricatures Fechner's compulsive exclusion of the exception with the playfully required systematization of the non-systematisable. For example, he contrasts Fechner's late work Die Tagesansicht (in which the latter summarized his worldview) with the novel Days and Nights9 and the elements of psychophysics with his elements of 'pataphysics.10 8 Gustav Theodor Fechner: Zend-Avesta or about the things of heaven and the beyond from the point of view of nature. Leipzig 1851, Vol. I, p. 212 (Herv. M. R.). 9 In this «A Deserter's Novel», Jarry processes his experiences in military service. The superiors, whom he addressed indiscriminately as "Monsieur", despaired of this nonconformist, who was finally discharged from the army for "premature nonsense"; See Shattuck 1958, p. 191. 10 Sylvain-Christian David has already pointed out this connection, but who rather restricts himself to the historical context and also traces the connection between Freud and Fechner in the sense of the convention criticized above; see Sylvain-Christian David: ’Pataphysique et psychanalyse. In: Europe 623-624, 1981, pp. 52-61. 275 The shortest route from zero to infinity So-called ’pataphysics is only mentioned sporadically in Jarry’s oeuvre, without it being possible to imagine anything other than a joke. In his book, which was written in 1898 but only appeared posthumously in 1911, entitled Gestes et opinions du Dr. Faustroll, ’pataphysicien (‹ teachings and heroic deeds of Dr. Faustroll. ’Pataphysicist›) the poet finally unfolds the paradoxical “principles” of this poetic-scientific (stylistic) exercise. The main character of this "neoscientific novel" is a certain Doctor Faustroll, whom Jarry introduces as the author of the "elements of’ pataphysics ". So what is pataphysics? In the literature, Jarry's invention is mostly only vaguely referred to as a "consequent inconsistency" which "systematically puts things in the wrong light ".11 In her monograph, Carola Giedion-Welcker describes Jarry's speculations as a" higher insight of irrationality ".12 In fact, we find Jarry has an abundance of splendid examples of this sensible foolishness. If, for example, the soldiers of the anarchist army practice “disobedience exercise” in the drama Ubu enchainé, 13 the literary scholar will probably only see an attitude that is mechanically reversed. But pataphysics is more. In the eighth chapter of heroic deeds, Jarry gives a 'definition' that has it all. Stylistically, he is based on formulations from natural science textbooks: "An epiphenomenon is that which is added to a phenomenon" .14 The author adds: Since "the epiphenomenon is often accidental," pataphysics should above all be the science of the particular, even if one asserts that there can only be a science of the general ”.15 One immediately senses that he is targeting the tendency to raise science to a“ totalitarianism ”, which is particularly evident in Fechner's work. In contrast to Fechner's point of view, according to which 'nothing in the world is so special that it is not subordinate to a generality from one side or the other', 'pataphysics is supposed to be a' science of the particular 'which just' examines the laws by which the exceptions are determined ”.16 'Pataphysics thus turns Fechner's determinism on its head. In doing so, it does not exhaust itself in a stereotypical reversal movement: it asks the question of what such a paradoxical science of the particular could look like at all. The novel itself is a dazzling example of the literarily celebrated logic of exception. It is said of the main character that Doctor Faustroll was "at the age of 11 Shattuck 1958, pp. 229 and 207. 12 See Carola Giedion-Welcker: Alfred Jarry. A monograph. Zurich 1960, p. 112. 13 See Alfred Jarry: König Ubu. Ubu cuckold. Ubu in chains. Munich 1970, pp. 94-95. 14 Alfred Jarry: Heroic Deeds and Teachings of Dr. Faustroll (’pataphysicist). Neoscientific novel. Berlin 1968, p. 27. 15 Ibid. (Emphasis added by M. R.). 16 Ibid. (Emphasis added by M. R.). 276 Manfred Riepe was born at the age of sixty-three […] which he retained all his life ».17 The unusual fate of this figure, who embodies a literary character and at the same time a 'figure' in the sense of a paradoxical metaphor, becomes legible, among other things, as a parody of that character Doctrine of the immortality that permeates Fechner's work. It is no coincidence that the Collège de ’Pataphysique, founded in 1948 in honor of Jarry and attempting to research this new science, chose Faustroll as its irremovable curator.18 In the description of the person we read on that Faustroll is“ a man of average height, i. That is, to be completely truthful, of (8 x 1010 + 109 + 4 x 108 + 5 x 106) atomic diameters ”.19 The 'plot' of this' neoscientific novel 'also corresponds to a subtle emphasis on that in' pataphysics conjured logic of exception. One such 'exception' already corresponds to the termination of the Paris apartment of the defaulting tenant Faustroll, who then embarks on an odyssey reminiscent of Homer with two companions, but which is also reminiscent of Rabelais ’voyage from Gargantua and Pantagruel. He undertook this land-based voyage "from Paris to Paris" (the cultural center of the fin de siècle) with a boat made of lacquered copper wire, which is actually his bed, but in Jarry literature it is also read as Noah's Ark, which is on the Deluge of the world flooded by natural science floats. Correspondingly, anchorages are - because “the life of seafarers [after all] consists of mooring and drinking” 20 - logically 'liquid places'. These 'floating islands' are not only an allusion to Jarry's excessive alcoholism, but also sublime appreciations from artist and writer friends (Gaugin, Mallarmé, Beardsley), whose works are praised as (aesthetic) exceptions in the sense of ’pataphysics. The thinking of ’pataphysics therefore not only subverts Fechner's“ view of the day ”, from which it borrows some bizarre ideas. Jarry undermines the positivism itself inherent in science, which is based on the basic principle of induction. The 'definition' of 'pataphysics therefore goes on to say:' Current science is based on the principle of induction: most people have often enough seen one phenomenon precede or follow another, and they conclude from this that it always does so have to be. But this only applies mostly [.] »21 For this reason Jarry suggests a change of perspective. His ’Pataphysik 17 Ibid., P. 16. 18 For the history of the College, see Klaus Ferentschik:’ Pataphysik. Temptation of the spirit, the ’Pataphysics & the Collège de’ Pataphysique. Definitions, documents, illustrations. Berlin 2006. 19 Jarry 1968, p. 16. 20 Ibid., P. 35. 21 Ibid., P. 27 (emphasis added by M. R.).277 On the shortest path from zero to infinity «should explain the universe that goes beyond our own; or, more modestly, it is meant to describe a universe that can be seen, and which perhaps should be seen instead of the traditional, because the laws of the traditional universe that one believes to have discovered are interrelationships between exceptions, albeit fairly frequent [. ] »22 In this perspective, Fechner's scientific universe, which we have come to know as a self-contained set of rules, is broken open. Jarry asks the question: "Do you know whether EVERYTHING is a regular crystal or not with a higher probability of a monster?" 23 Accordingly, it says: "Faustroll defined the universe as that which is the exception to itself." 24 But how should we now put this' pataphysics into practice? One could take Jarry's invitation to “describe a universe that one can see and that perhaps should be seen instead of the traditional” 25 - like the writer Boris Vian, who, as a member of the Collège de 'Pataphysique, in a radio interview reminds us that significant discoveries in the history of science, such as that of penicillin by Alexander Fleming, were not made by systematically spelling out known laws, but by sheer chance. This reference is not yet a really convincing argument in favor of ’pataphysics. The need for a science of exceptions only becomes clear when we spell out the linguistic turn suggested by Jarry himself. To do this, we have to take a closer look at those two figures who accompany Faustroll on his voyage. In addition to the drunken bailiff Panmuffel, who acts as a chronicler, there is also the "grand singe papion Bosse-de-nage" on board, which has been roughly translated as "big dog monkey backenbuckel" .26 He only knows the "monosyllabic" of human language Tautology “Ha ha, to which, as it is ironically called, he never adds anything. These sounds serve "as a breather between speeches that are too long"; 27 they are a kind of punctuation and, moreover, undoubtedly an allusion to the mechanical theory of laughter that Jarry got to know from Henri Bergson.28 Jarry's linguistic turn is hinted at in a sublime digression about this "ha ha", 29 which not only corresponds to the expression of laughter. So Faustroll pushes 22 Ibid. 23 Ibid., P. 89. 24 Ibid. 25 Ibid., P. 27. 26 Ibid., P. 31. 27 Ibid. 28 See Henri Bergson: Laughter. An essay on the importance of the comic. Zurich 1972. 29 In an essay, the ’pataphysicist Manfred Geier makes some noteworthy comments on this subject; see Manfred Geier: Doctor Ubu and me. ’Pataphysical encounters. Rheinbach-Merzbach 1983, pp. 23-40. 278 Manfred Riepe has the following explanation: Because the ‹h› is not pronounced in French, it would be “more correct to write AA”, 30 whereby this monkey sound alludes to the paradox of the concept of identity. Accordingly, Jarry writes: “The A assigned to A, which is completely identical to it, represents the formula of the principle of identity: it is a thing itself [c’est la formule du principe d’identité: une chose est elle-même]. At the same time, it is the best refutation, because the two A's, when we write them down, differ in space and even in time [.] »31 The paradoxical difference in identity thus arises only through the performative dimension of writing down or speaking. But this difference, which establishes identity itself, remains invisible from the perspective of the conventional science of physics and also of metaphysics. In science all formulas exist in an ideal, timeless present; the subjective act of writing down or visualizing a rule plays no role: Faustroll only discovers this role. For this reason, Jarry / Faustroll define 'pataphysics as the science that rises "just as far above [metaphysics] as that above physics", and so "whose etymology is' επι (μετά τά φυσιχά)" - that is, “Epi (metaphysics).” 32 Backenbuckel's supposedly innocent utterance “Ha ha” should not be misunderstood as laughter too quickly. As a comment on Faustrolls' pataphysical debauchery, nothing else insists in this "Ha ha" than the stereotypical repetition of the physical or metaphysical principle of identity: ‹A≡A› .33 One could therefore interpret the novel in such a way that every exception, the Faustroll dem On his fantastic language trip, the reader demonstrates that Backenbuckel can only stubbornly repeat the rule A≡A - which, however, refutes itself in the process. So one could read this figure as anticipation of what Heidegger meant with his much-quoted saying: "Science does not think" .34 The grotesque figure Backenbuckel thus serves to emphasize a contrast between the thinking of science and that 'pataphysical logic of exception . 30 Jarry 1968, p. 67. 31 Ibid. (Emphasis added by M. R.). We shall see later that Jarry works imprecisely here: things cannot be identical to one another. It is their designations in the sense of the signified that make the concept of identity possible in the first place because, from the perspective of the linguistic structuring of the world, we recognize those features of things that allow us to infer an identity in the first place. The 'identity' is therefore not given 'outside' in things; it only arises in language. This idea, touched on in the 'Linguistics of Kalauers', will be developed further below. 32 Ibid., P. 27. Here Jarry alludes to Aristotle's definition of metaphysics: ta meta ta physika, d. H. what is beyond physics. 33 See ibid., P. 67. 34 Martin Heidegger: What does thinking mean? Tübingen 1954, p. 4. 279 The shortest route from zero to infinity Jarry describes another approach to the logic of exception in chapter 41 of his Faustroll novel, in which he incidentally subverts Fechner's obsession to reconcile theology with mathematics: “God is by definition without extension, but for the sake of clarity of our thesis we must be allowed to ascribe any number of dimensions greater than zero to him, knowing that he has none if those dimensions are on either side of our equation "35 In the style of a deadly serious scientific hypothesis, it says:" Until we have more comprehensive information and for temporary relief, we imagine God on the plane [.] "36 The Almighty becomes the Almighty with regard to representability, following on from the Holy Trinity to the equilateral triangle. Through skillful manipulation of algebraic symbols Jarry comes to the conclusion that the surface of this triangle “is at most a line” .37 And since this line connects zero with infinity, it is said: “God is the shortest path from zero to infinity” 38 - so a point. This "tangent point from zero to infinity" 39 corresponds to the ’pataphysical paradigm of the identity of opposites. A look at Freud's dream interpretation shows that this identity of opposites also points the way to the unconscious: “The no does not seem to exist for the dream. Opposites are drawn together or represented in one unit with particular preference [...] so that one does not know of any element capable of an opposite, whether it is contained in the dream thought positively or negatively. ”40 The literary scholar Thomas M. Scheerer, who explains this connection between 'Pataphysik and Psychoanalysis' suggested in his essay from 1982, which is well worth reading, also refers to the linguist Karl Abel, who inspired Freud to write his little essay On the "Opposite Sense of Urwords". As we shall see, however, Freud's idea, according to which the unconscious preserves the identity of the opposites stemming from an alleged 'original language', turns out to be a dead end. 41 35 Jarry 1968, p. 100. 36 Ibid. 37 Ibid., Pp. 100-101. 38 Ibid., P. 101. 39 Ibid. (Herv. M. R.). 40 Sigmund Freud: Interpretation of Dreams. Study edition 2. Frankfurt am Main 2000a, p. 323. 41 It is true that Freud discovered the linguistic structure of the unconscious. But when he expressed himself explicitly in terms of language theory, he fell short of his own discovery. For example, the French linguist Émile Benveniste showed that Freud's speculative reference to Karl Abel was not 280 Manfred Riepe Scheerer's reference to the connection between 'pataphysics and the implicit psychoanalytic' linguistics of punishment 'nevertheless points the right way: “If you do what Freud described If you find condensations, shifts, mixtures and reversals in 'pataphysical thoughts, then you can easily see what' dream work 'is being done here [with Jarry] [.] »42 Thus' pataphysics gradually becomes understandable if one does not understand the paradoxical identity of the opposites refers to the fact that opposing things or 'referents' are identified with one another. Since ’pataphysics is realized as a poetic practice, it is more about the fact that signifieds or Freud’s ideas merge with one another in a surprising way. When it was first mentioned in his literary debut Minute Glasses with Memory Sand from 1894, ’pataphysics is therefore described as a poetic technique. H. she wants to (in French) "bring up a thought", she wants to interpret instead of "call it by name, make a junction out of all words on the street of sentences." 43 With this, Jarry applies the technique that Freud wrote in his book in 1905 about the joke and its relationship to the unconscious is described as a 'jump from one circle of ideas to another': A joke comes about «when, by means of an ambiguous or little modified word, I have quickly got out of one circle of ideas and into another [.] “44 Jarrys' pataphysical interpretations consequently have the structure of more or less subtle jokes. When Freud analyzes the technique of wit, the comic and humor in his book, then in jokes, in slip of the tongue - but also in failures, dream formation and symptoms, as we see them in the initial patients Elisabeth v. R. and Cäcilie M. got to know from the studies on hysteria - a paradoxical structure can be recognized: Symptoms undoubtedly have something in common. Nevertheless, Freud insists that the symptom and the joke have a form of uniqueness due to their structure - precisely that singularity that Jarrys ’pataphysics concedes to the epiphenomena. That's why we only laugh once at a joke with the explosive intensity. So it becomes understandable that the joke with Jarry corresponds to an exception that occurs 'quite often'. is convincing; see Émile Benveniste: Problems of general linguistics. Munich 1974, pp. 95-96. 42 Thomas M. Scheerer: Fantasy Solutions. Small textbook of ’pataphysics. Rheinbach-Merzbach 1982, pp. 29-30. 43 Alfred Jarry: Minute glasses with memory sand. Collected works, ed. v. Klaus Völker. Frankfurt am Main 1993, p. 8. 44 Sigmund Freud: The joke and its relationship to the unconscious. Collected Works VI. Frankfurt am Main 1999b, p. 135. In ‹Linguistik des Kalauers› I pointed out that Freud's unconscious is only conceivable against the background of a model which, as Ferdinand de Saussure suggests, assumes a principally unstable structure of language; see Riepe 2010c. 281 The shortest route from zero to infinity The joke is not the only example of Jarry's epiphenomenon, which in its everyday life is subject to a law, but eludes scientific formalization in the sense of predictability. Every dream must be interpreted according to one and the same rationally comprehensible method: But the essence of this method itself - which Freud does not accidentally describe in the sense of a scientific induction - is that a key or lexicon of the dream symbols is 'in principle' impossible. Although there is no direct connection between Freud and Jarry, apart from the simultaneous emergence of their basic ideas, ’pataphysics still takes into account the problem according to which regularity the symptom and the dream can actually be interpreted in a rationally binding manner. So why is there no fixed dream key? From a pataphysical point of view, it suddenly becomes clear that dream structures and symptoms, because of their metaphorical expression, embody the structure of the exception that escapes positive science. From the perspective of ’pataphysics, dream structures can be read as a form of“ poetics ”that cannot be described in the context of positive science or that of conventional linguistics. Because the interpretation of dreams and symptoms does not work according to a code, it is basically applied ’pataphysics. The supposed similarity of the symptoms that different patients develop can therefore only be recognized in retrospect. With every interpretation of a symptom that remains singular, Freud's basic gesture of the discovery of the psychoanalytic principle as such is repeated. That is why the interpretation of the symptoms in Jarry’s sense is always redesigned as an 'interrelationship between exceptions, albeit fairly frequent ones'. The exception addressed by ’Pataphysics has a“ special ”relationship with the law. The concept of the law itself is expanded (but not 'deconstructed'). The exception is not a chaotic phenomenon that escapes the law. The ’pataphysical logic of the exception can only be described with paradoxical figures. Lacan's infamous maths, with which he tries to describe the unconscious, are such paradoxical figures. In contrast to the erroneous reading, which we find in biographer Elisabeth Roudinesco, among others, Lacan is by no means concerned with formalizing the logic of the unconscious again in a mathematical sense: “The analytical trick will not be mathematical. This is precisely why the discourse of analysis differs from the scientific discourse. ”45 Instead, Lacan uses a trick related to 'pataphysics, which we only learn to understand with Jarry: he uses the binding nature of a conventional mathematical formula to define its logic in the Jarryian sense to judge against yourself. The result is a 45 Jacques Lacan: Encore. The seminar. Book XX (1972-1973), trans. by Norbert Haas, Vreni Haas, Hans-Joachim Metzger. Weinheim 1991a, p. 126. 282 Manfred Riepe's paradox or an antinomy that takes on a mathematically stringent form for the first time in Gödel's incompleteness theorem.46 While the conventional formula subsumes the empirical phenomenon without remainder - and thus deletes the particular as such - , Lacan's maths are used to evoke a non-inscribable residue. In this sense, ’pataphysics is the science of the rest, it deals with everything that somehow does not work out. From this point of view, “strictly speaking, the 'rule' is only an exception to the exception” .47 46 See Manfred Riepe: The big other and the little difference. From Gödel's incompleteness sentence to the name-of-the-father in Lacan. In: RISS 47, 2000, pp. 41-69. 47 François Lachenal, Henri Bouché: What is ’pataphysics? Offenbach 1959, p. 8 (not paged).