How did Hyde Park get its name

London Hyde Park and the Diana Memorial


1 Hyde Park in London and the Diana Memorial

2 Outline Table of contents London urban development Hyde Park Spatial situation Historical development Description of the open space design Park entrances Serpentine Lake and fountain Statues and buildings The Diana Memorial Reason and aim of the tender Competition winner: Kathryn Gustafson Planning Office Gustafson Porter Redesign of the memorial fountain Main idea and concept of the redesign Project description Problems according to of completion Summary ... 14 Sources Bibliography List of Figures

3 1. London urban development London is the capital of England. It is located on the north bank of the Thames. The city developed from what is now called the City of London. Today's metropolis grew out of several villages. There are 32 districts, also called boroughs. The best-known districts are, besides the City of London, the City of Westminster, Kensington, Chelsea, Richmond and Greenwich. These include the names of the earlier villages. The appealing thing about the individual districts is that each one is different. This is based on the colorful mixture of peoples who, as is well known, came to London from different countries before, after and during the 1st and 2nd World War. It comes from Europe, India, Pakistan, Arabia, China and the Caribbean, among others. Thus, over time, London has developed into a multi-cultural and lively city that is constantly changing. Almost 200 languages ​​are spoken, with English being the most widely represented. Today London has a population of around 8 million and together with the surrounding area around 12 million people. The best way to avoid the big city traffic is to take the subway, or tube for short. The subway system is the oldest in the world, because the first subway ran since 1863 and this has been expanded to 12 lines to this day. There are a total of 275 underground stations that can be reached with speed and efficiency. Furthermore, London has 2 major airports, London City Airport in the east and London Heathrow Airport in the west. The capital can also be reached via the ring-shaped motorway. At that time, the landscape around London was flat and surrounded by thick forests, until these had to give way to agriculture and further urban development. This created some green areas that offered shelter to the many wild animals. The extent of some parks is impressive. In the greater London area there are now about parks that were formerly partly used as royal hunting grounds. Today there are still nine royal parks among the numerous green spaces, which are very worth seeing. The largest of these royal green spaces are in central London, including Regent s Park, Kensington Garden, Hyde Park (see Chapter 2), Green Park and St. James s Park. The visitor can walk in these for more than 3 kilometers. There is also Richmond Park, Greenwich Park and Bushy Park. The parks all have different origins such as Hyde Park, which Henry VIII received in exchange for lands in Berkshire. By and large, all royal parks were once lands belonging to the monarchs of England. As London became increasingly urbanized, the green spaces were opened to the public, with St. James Park being the first to be opened by Charles II. Today there is a casual atmosphere in the parks, which is not affected by regulations. The Metropolitan Police are responsible for keeping the parks safe and orderly. Gardeners and Fig. 1: Green areas Conservationists strive to protect the impressive grounds and the animals. The Royal Parks Agency finances the maintenance of the parks through commercial activities such as restaurants and concerts. 1 1 see Eisenschmid (2001) and Nestmeyer (2000) and Nicholson (2001) and TT20 (2007) and Wikipedia (2007b) and Wikipedia (2007c) and Wikipedia (2007d) -2-

4 2. Hyde Park 2.1. Spatial situation Hyde Park is one of the most famous royal parks. It is located in the west of the London capital, in the Knightsbridge district and merges with Kensington Garden. Together they form the green lung of the cosmopolitan city 2, which Londoners are rightly proud of. Hyde Park is divided in half by the Serpentine Lake (see chapter) and the West Carriage Drive leading over it from Kensington Garden to the west and is the border between the two parks. Hyde Park is 2km long, 900m wide and has an area of ​​approximately 145ha.3 The park can be reached by car, subway or on foot. Driving is not recommended due to the heavy traffic. But there are three parking options directly at Hyde Park. Two parking areas are located directly on the Serpentine Lake. This can be approached from West Carriage Drive and Serpentine Road. There is also an underground parking garage under Hyde Park accessible from North Carriage Drive and Park Lane. It is recommended to reach Hyde Park on foot or by subway. The underground stations Marble Arch and Lancaster Gate on the north side, Hyde Park Corner and Knightsbridge on the south side are right on Hyde Park. The park could also be reached by bus, here it would be bus routes 9, 10, 14, 19, 38 or 74. Hyde Park is open daily from 5:30 am to midnight. 4 Fig. 2: Overview map Nowel (1998), p. 255 see Nestmeyer (2000) and Wikipedia (2007b) 4 see Eisenschmid (2001) and Reisen.ciao (2003) and Wikipedia (2007b)

5 2. Hyde Park 2.2. Historical development Hyde Park was named after Anne Hyde and was owned by Westminster Abbey until 1536. Henry VIII then took possession of the area in order to use it for a generous hunting ground from now on. From 1196 to 1783 the park became the most frequented execution site in London. Here, on the infamous Tyburn Tree, the delinquents from the Tower of London or Newgate Prison were executed. This was a three-legged gallows, on which people publicly gave their lives. At the north-east entrance, the Marble Arch (see chapter), a sign today marks the former location of the execution site. 5 Fig. 3: Tyburn Tree The park later became a popular venue for glamorous carriage races and duels and was opened to the public for the first time in 1640. The first public street, Rotten Row, ran through Hyde Park. This is a bridle path that was originally created for a path connecting Kensington Place and St. Jame s Place. As the word Rotten Row might suggest, it would be a scruffy riding trail, but Fig. 4: Rotten Row is not. The word is derived from the French Route du Roi and means the road of the king. This is still a bridle path today, which is used by the royal family and other riders. 6 May 1, 1851 was the triumph of the century 7 at this point in time Prince Albert held the first world exhibition, the Great Exhibition, in Hyde Park. It took place in a huge crystal palace that was built especially for the large international industrial exhibition. Almost exhibitors from all over the world came together here to showcase their products and technical achievements. The leitmotif of the exhibition Fig. 5: Great Exhibition was not progress, but peace between peoples, which is why the Crystal Palace was also referred to as a temple of peace. 8 The Crystal Palace was dismantled after the exhibition in Hyde Park and rebuilt in south-east London. Here, however, he fell victim to a fire. 9 5 cf. Booktops (2007) and Eisenschmid (2001) as well as Nestmeyer (2000) and Wikipedia (2007b) 6 cf. Booktops (2007) and Nestmeyer (2000) and TT20 (2007) 7 Nowel (1998), S also 9 cf. . Nestmeyer (2000) and Wikipedia (2007a) -4-

6 2. The Hyde Park 2.2. Historical development The 19th century made Hyde Park world famous with its Speakers Corner. Because until 1872 there was no basic right to freedom of assembly in the English constitution. This was granted to the population for the first time after several large demonstrations. From this time onwards, every citizen was allowed to present his or her opinion in public or here in Hyde Park. This place manifested itself in the following years as the epitome of freedom of speech and expression. Heated debates and controversial political discussions were the main topics. Whether sensible or a little crazy - there is usually no audience. 10 Nowadays, Fig. 6: Preachers, more religious fanatics dominate this scene. Especially on Sundays, here in Hyde Park, near the north-east entrance, the Marble Arch (see chapter), it is very busy. Description of the open space situation According to the author Nicholson L., the routing and landscaping looks like a beautiful landscape park 12. There are three main routes leading from the main entrance to Hyde Park Corner and Wellington Arch. On the left the South Carriage Drive leads to the neighboring Kensington Garden and its remarkable Albert Memorial. To the right, East Carriage Drive goes to the Northeast Entrance, Marble Arch, and Speakers Corner. In the middle, the Serpentine Road leads to Fig. 7: Green and white sun loungers Serpentine Lake in Hyde Park. The hiking trails in the park are axially laid out and lead visitors into and through the park from the outside. In summer, green and white striped deck chairs are available to relax on the spacious lawns, with visitors keeping a reasonable distance from nudity. This is not welcomed here. Furthermore, numerous events such as open-air concerts attract in the summer months. A specially constructed podium is available for this. The most famous events are e.g. Last Night of the Proms or the numerous rock and pop concerts such as the Live 8 concert. This attracted whole fans on July 2nd, 2005. 13 Fig. 8: Live 8 concert 10 Kossow (2004), S cf. Booktops (2007) and Nestmeyer (2000) as well as TT20 (2007) and Wikipedia (2007b) 12 Nicholson (2001), S cf. Eisenschmid (2001) and Nestmeyer (2000) and Reisen.ciao (2003) and TT 20 (2007) and Wikipedia (2007b) -5-

7 park entrances 2. Hyde Park Hyde Park has three designed entrance situations. Both Hyde Park Corner and Wellington Arch are to the southeast. Marble Arch, on the other hand, is to be found in the northeast of the park. For many visitors, Hyde Park Corner is the main entrance and the start of a stroll through the park. It is to the left of Apsley House, the Wellington Museum (Chapter). It's a triple archway created by Decimus Burton in 1828. It is adorned with reliefs that show a representation from the famous Parthenon frieze. This complex formerly formed London's border with the formerly independent parishes of Kensington and Knightsbridge. 14 The triumphal arch Wellington Arch is located a little upstream on a busy traffic island. A triumphal arch (Arcus or Fornix triumphalis) is a free-standing, gate-shaped building, which was originally erected in Rome in honor of triumphant emperors or generals. 15 In modern times, a triumphal arch became an important type of state monument and often appeared in connection with equestrian statues. Fig. 10: Wellington Arch The Wellington Arch is a militarily strict arch, which Decimus Burton also designed in 1826. This arch was previously erected at Buckingham Palace in honor of the Waterloo winner Duke of Wellington. It was only moved stone by stone in 1828 and rebuilt at its current location. In addition, he was crowned in 1912 with a bronze Quadriga Peace Descending on the Quadriga of War by Captain Adrian Jones. 16 It shows an angel driving a chariot with four harnessed horses. This is one of the largest English bronze sculpture. In April 2001 the monument was opened to the public and contains a three-story exhibition and a viewing platform at a height of 25m. 17 Marble Arch stands at the northeast entrance to Hyde Park. It was designed in 1827 by John Nash. Like Wellington Arch, it is located on a busy traffic island in front of it and was the entrance passage at Buckingham Palace from 1827 to 1951. Here, however, it was too narrow for the royal state coaches to pass through. It was moved to its current location in 1851, where the Tyburn Tree used to be (see Chapter 2.2.). 18 Fig. 9: Hyde Park Corner Fig. 11: Traffic island, Wellington Arch with a view of Hyde Park Corner and Apsley House Fig. 12: Marble Arch 14 see Eisenschmid (2001) and TT20 (2007) 15 Wikipedia (2007h) 16 Reisen .ciao (2003) 17 cf. Booktops (2007) and Reisen.ciao (2003) and Thomas Gransow (2007) and Wikipedia (2007h) 18 cf. Booktops (2007) and Eisenschmid (2001) and Wikipedia (2007e) -6-

8 2. Hyde Park Serpentine Lake and Fountain Serpentine Lake was created as an artificial lake in 1730 by Queen Caroline, wife of George II. It was created from several ponds that were dammed with the diversion of the small river Westbourne. It got its name from its curved shape, is about 11 hectares in size and up to 7m deep. The north end of the lake is in Kensington Garden and is natural. The north bank of Serpentine Road is very popular with inline skaters and joggers. The eastern part is open and suitable for various leisure activities such as rowing, fishing and swimming. The latter is also possible in the Lido Fig. 13: Serpentine lake and bridge (see chapter). There are also cafes and restaurants in the West Carriage Drive area around the lake. 19 Next to the large lake there are fountains and fountains that can be found all over the park. One of these fountains is the Diana Memorial (see Chapter 3), the Diana Memorial Fountain. It is located in the immediate vicinity of the Serpentine Lake. There is also a water reservoir and, at the same height, the Joy of Life fountain on Lover's Walk. Near Hyde Park Corner, on South Carriers Drive, are the Boy and Dolphin Fountain and the Huntress Fountain buildings and statues. In close proximity to Hyde Park Corner is the Apsley House. This house was built by Robert Adam in 1771 and was the house of Count Bathurst, also known as Baron Apsley, until 1778. Wellington acquired the property in 1871 and had it converted into a prestigious palace with an imposing portico. This is now also called the Wellington Museum. It is open to the public and houses elegant and richly decorated rooms with a valuable picture gallery. These include, for example Works by Velázquez, Goya, Rubens, van Dyck, Correggio. Most of these paintings are spoils of war that Wellington brought back from Spain in 1813. 21 Fig. 14: Apsley House On the south bank of the Serpentine Lake is the Lido, one of the few outdoor pools in London. Visitors can bathe there every day for eleven weeks during the summer months. It was built in 1930 and from that time you can still find huge windows with curtains. There is also a bowling and tennis club with adjoining football fields south of the Serpentine Lake, where visitors can do sports. To the north of the lake is the nursery, a day care center and an adjoining bird sanctuary, a bird enclosure see Booktops (2007) and Eisenschmid (2001) as well as Nestmeyer (2000) and Wikipedia (2007g) 20 see Milesfaster (2007) 21 see Nestmeyer (2000) 22 cf. Eisenschmid (2001) -7-

9 2. The Hyde Park buildings and statues The Achilles statue is in the southeast corner of the park. With the Wellington Arch triumphal arch, this is entirely dedicated to the Duke of Wellington. It was designed by Richard Westmacott in 1822 and, like Wellington Arch, is intended to commemorate the general's victories. The statue was cast from French cannonballs that Wellington captured in the battle against Napoleon. It is a replica of a horse tamer from the Quirinal in Rome. This caused a scandal as it was the first public portrayal of a naked man in Great Britain. 23 There is also a Rima statue that stands north of the lake. This was designed by Epstein and also shows a scandalous figure, a naked woman. The title of this statue is Spirit of Nature. 24 The Norwegian-British Monument is a war memorial Fig. 15: Achilles statue and stands near the Rima statue. This staue is intended to commemorate the animals that perished in the First and Second World Wars. The statue shows two mules loaded with military equipment. Other animals have been engraved on the mules themselves. 25 The inscription reads: You had no choice 26 This confirms the tragic end of many animals, which are represented here by a bronze statue. There are far more statues in Hyde Park, but these are not listed here cf. Eisenschmid (2001) and Nestmeyer (2000) 24 Shortnews (2004) 25 N-TV (2004) 26 and 27 cf. Eisenschmid (2001 ) as well as Shortnews (2004) and N-TV (2004) -8-

10 3. The Diana Memorial 3.1. Occasion and aim of the tender Princess Diana, who was previously married to the British heir to the throne Prince Charles, lived in Kensington Place. She was killed in a tragic car accident in Paris in 1997. Her death was the reason for the tender because he was mourned by thousands of people worldwide.This was once again made clear by Queen Elisabeth's statement. Diana's death shook the world. For this reason, a fountain was to be built in London's Hyde Park to commemorate the popular British princess. 29 Fig. 16: Princess Diana In the invitation to tender for the new monument, a large stone fountain was required. About three million pounds (about 4.8 million euros) were made available for its construction. This should be created by 2003 on the shores of the Serpentine Lake in central London's Hyde Park. The planning committee had previously considered what kind of monument it should be. So far in British history only queens have been honored with monuments, but not princesses yet. In the end, an international competition was announced with the aim of finding a “fresh and imaginative” design in which the “emotional reaction of the public” to Diana's death would be expressed. 30 and to record the "importance of water as a life-giving element". 31 The invitation to tender ran from September 12 to October 22, 2001 and a total of 58 proposals were submitted. The planning committee could not decide between two draft proposals. These were the Indian Anish Kapoor and the American landscape architect Kathryn Gustafson with her office Gustafson Porter. Ultimately, in July 2002, the British Minister of Culture Tessa Jowell selected the design proposals from the team of US landscape architect Kathryn Gustafson as the winner. The fountain is something you can touch, it reflects Diana’s ability to touch people. The city council considers the construction of the fountain to be «an important national project» «therefore it needs a modern monument» 32 The completion date was postponed to the summer of 2004 due to a time constraint. (2007) 29 see Princess- Diana (2002b) 30 Princess Diana (2001b) 31 also 32 Princess Diana (2003) 33 see Princess Diana (1999) and Princess Diana (2001a) and Princess Diana (2001b) and Princess Diana (2002a) as well as Princess Diana (2002b) and Princess Diana (2003) -9-

11 3. The Diana Memorial Competition winner: Kathryn Gustafson The American landscape architect was born in 1951 as the daughter of a surgeon in Yakima, Washington, USA. At the age of 18 she went to the University of Washington in Seattle, where she studied applied arts. A year later, at the age of 19, she went to the fashion school in New York City to study textile design and fashion there for three years. She married a Frenchman from the advertising industry. They traveled together through the cities of Los Angeles, Seattle, New York and Mexico, both of which moved back to Paris, Fig. 17: Kathryn Gustafson to work in various fashion companies there. But after a while she felt that the fashion world was about to change. So she wanted to change herself. She enrolled in Versailles for landscape architecture in 1977 and separated from her husband in 1979 after completing her studies. In 1980 she founded her first own office in Paris, she worked several times with Neil Porter and founded a second office with him, Gustafson Porter. In 2000 she founded her third office, Gustafson Guthrie Nichol in Seattle, with Jennifer Guthrie and Shannon Nichol as partners. Mary Bowman joined Gustafson Porter's partnership office in 2002. As a result of the economic changes in France, she relocated her Gustafson Porter office to London, as better opportunities were visible here. Gustafson Porter planning office At the moment, in addition to Gustafson, Porter and Bowman, twenty employees are still working at times in the areas of landscape architecture and architecture. Of the architects who are employed in the Gustafson Porter office, Fig. 18: Porter, Gustafson, Bowman, ten employees work from the John Lyall architecture office. Due to the large number of employees, renovation, planning and monument protection can be carried out for a project at the same time. Neil Porter studied at the Architectural Association in London, where he was later a teacher. He became director of Gustafson Porter and previously worked in various offices. At an invitation from Neil Porter, Mary Bowman joined the Gustafson Porter office in 2002. Her career is similar to that of Neil Porter. She also studied at the Architectural Association in London, but before that also in Virginia, and gained professional experience in several offices. 35 Kathryn Gustafson describes the development of a design process in pictures of ladders and levels. She is entering a level rich in things to be discovered; once the questions have been resolved to a certain extent, a new ladder comes into focus; it is climbed without knowing the destination. Today the partners are pushing ideas in new directions so that they go beyond the intuition of a single designer. The openness contained therein finds its balance in the six process topics, which function as fundamental design principles and serve as a common language for the independent offices in London and Seattle cf.Topos (2007) 35 cf.Topos (2007) and Stöberl (2007) 36 Amidon / Betsky (2005), p

12 3. The Diana Memorial Planning Bureau Gustafson Porter The six process themes are: (1) The importance of a creative and critical analysis of the site; (2) scale, horizon, potential for discovery; (3) The terrain as a contextualized body; (4) refinement of the sensual experience, (5) narrative open-ended; (6) Innovation in presentation, execution and site-specific solutions 37 These process topics are not about flowers. It's not about emptiness. It's about shape. 38 By that she means creating landscapes. But that does not mean that she would give up planting and planting. But the plants do not dominate in their design. In the course of her professional experience, she has acquired a typical language of forms. In Versailles, Gustafson began working with models made of clay, a technique she has continued to this day. In the third dimension you can't cheat like you would when drawing ... The third dimension is real bodies. 39 It is also said that she modeled landscapes like bodies. This means that she has the remarkable ability to extract sculptural and narrative potential from any terrain. This is reflected in many of their projects. The connecting, concentrating element in almost all of her works is water. It continuously forms a line that connects contrapuntally and from purely sensual needs. The water ultimately forms an autonomous element. 40 At the height of her career, she became the leading international designer of public spaces. Many of her projects and awards show that she has grown into a self-confident and committed landscape architect. The most famous projects range from the interiors of the Great Glass House, a botanical garden, in Wales to the Westergasfabriek Cultuurpark in Amsterdam to the park and retention basin in Morbras and the Hadiqat As-Samah in Beirut. She also won the competition for the Crystal Palace in London. Here she designed a park landscape with historical elements, Fig. 19: Clay model retention basin, Morbras Fig. 20: Park and retention basin, Morbras water features and lighting. The memorial fountain for Princess Diana in London's Hyde Park is one of a whole series of projects in the inner-city open space. Among other things, she won the Natural Stone Award from London for the Diana Memorial Fountain in 2006 in the Innovation and Design & Technology categories. Furthermore, it won numerous architecture prizes and thus high recognition in the industry see Amidon / Betsky (2005), S Amidon / Betsky (2005), S Topos (2007) 40 see Amidon / Betsky (2005) and Topos (2007 ) 41 see Amidon / Betsky (2005) and Gustafson-Porter (2007) and Topos (2007) -11-

13 3. The Diana Memorial 3.2. Redesign of the memorial fountain Both of Kathryn Gustafson's offices were involved in the redesign of the memorial fountain. These were the offices of Gustafson Porter in London and Gustafson Guthrie Nichol in Seattle. The planning team consisted of Kathryn Gustafson, Neil Porter, Mary Bowman, Julia Wessendorf, Tamara Hall, Frances Christie, Max Norman, Mark Gillingham and Jose Rosa. Collaborators like Barron Could - Taxxus and Shelagh Wakeley were also involved in the planning. The memorial fountain was sponsored by The Royal Parks. Main idea and concept of the redesign The main idea for the concept was to offer a space of happiness and thoughtfulness. It should encourage children and adults to linger and play. The ambitious concept of the US landscape architect was called Reaching Out / Letting in 43 and was heavily discussed by the planning committee. For the presentation model, Kathryn Gustafson first formed clay by hand and then poured the soft topographies in synthetic resin in a second step. The concept includes a water ring which, like a necklace made of water, is supposed to reflect Diana’s character. It is a monumental stone ring through which the water flows at two different speeds. On the one hand, the water flows rather temperamentally. This is reminiscent of Diana's turbulent life. On the other hand, the water flows more calmly, which is the inward-facing side of Diana. The accessibility of the fountain and the contact to the water should also symbolize the contemporary and accessible personality of Diana. Kathryn Gustafson wanted to create a happy memorial for a wonderful woman. 44 Fig. 21: 3D model animation Fig. 22: Synthetic resin model 42 see Gustafson-Porter (2007) 43 Amidon / Betsky (2005), p. 112 and Amidon / Betsky (2005), S Amidon / Betsky (2005) , S cf. Amidon / Betsky (2005) and Wikipedia (2007f) -12-

14 3. The Diana Memorial Project Description The memorial fountain was located in the south-western area of ​​London's Hyde Park, on the edge of the Serpentine Lake. It is a sloping terrain without a frame and with slightly curved shapes. The inclusion of the surrounding landscape reinforces the desired effect of accentuation and integration in the planning. In this way, the fountain adapts to the terrain without isolating it. 45 The construction of the memorial fountain is an oval stone ring made of granite in which the water flows. The sloping terrain supports the different flow of water. On one side the water flows with slight ripples and on the other side over several steps. The water from both sides meets in a silent collecting basin, which can be found at the bottom of the fountain. From this point the water is pumped back up to the outlet point. This is fed from an artificial spring with 100 liters of water per second Fig. 24: light waterfall. The companies Barron Gould-Taxxus and SDE scanned the clay or synthetic resin model created by Kathryn Gustafson to scale. This data was converted into a digital model. On this basis, they created the granite oval. The stone ring consists of a total of 542 individual granite elements that are between 3m and 6m wide. The monument has an area of ​​50 x 80 m and is accessible to visitors in the middle via three Fig. 26: strong waterfall bridges ... a self-contained system is created that looks at the site, the surroundings and their different Visitor reacts and yet maintains bold, contemporary form. 46 On the inside of the gray granite fountain you can read in silver-plated capital letters Diana Princess of Wales memorial fountain, opened by Her Majesty the Queen on July 6, 2004. 47 Work began in June 2003 and the cornerstone was laid in September 2003 by Queen Elisabeth II. The Princess Diana Memorial Fountain was only opened and inaugurated in July 2004. 48 Fig. 23: Adaptation of the terrain Fig. 25: Slight ripples Fig. 27: Bridge Fig. 28: Silent collecting basin The financial framework for the redesign was initially estimated at around 3 million pounds. The cost, however, was £ 3.6 million. That is the equivalent of around 5.4 million euros. The costs for the security measures (see Chapter 3.3.) Were not yet available at this time. According to the planning committee, the costs would ultimately rise to a total of 5.2 million pounds cf.Amidon / Betsky (2005) and Wikipedia (2007f) 46 Amidon / Betsky (2005), S Princess Diana (2004a) 48 cf. 2005) and Princess Diana (2004a) and Wikipedia (2007f) 49 see Princess Diana (2006) and Wikipedia (2007f) -13-

15 3. The Diana Memorial 3.3. Post-Completion Problems The most serious problem occurred with the smooth surface of the granite. Due to its accessibility, many visitors and especially children who ran and played in the water had slipping accidents. Because of accidents, the fountain was also called Der Graben ohne Schloss 50. A severe storm in the fall of 2004 clogged the water drains and the water from the well overflowed its edges. The surrounding lawns softened. The well was closed again shortly after it was opened in order to first eliminate and repair the problems. A new system was installed to improve drainage of the soil and the busy walking areas were paved. Furthermore, the surrounding lawns were planted with a more resistant lawn. In addition, an access for wheelchair users was built. After the deficiencies had been remedied, the memorial fountain was reopened. Summary My conclusion on the design of the open space and the individual sights of Hyde Park is that there are very different elements to marvel at. Wellington Arch with its viewing platform is particularly interesting for the first visit. From there, the visitor receives an overview of the site. In addition, the extensive lawns of Hyde Park invite the visitor to rest after a strenuous sightseeing tour. The different and varied design of the park is worth seeing. Especially the Serpentine Lake invites you to do some sport. On the other hand, the many statues and monuments show the cultural and historical backgrounds. Finally, I have to say about the American landscape architect Kathryn Gustafson that her concept for the design of the memorial fountain has paid off. This is proven by the many pictures, press reports and tourist statistics. Fig. 30: Visitors at the Diana Memorial 50 Johnstone / Masters (2005) S see Hamburger Abendblatt (2005) Princess Diana (2004b) and Princess Diana (2005a) and Princess Diana (2005b) and Wikipedia (2007f) - 14-

16 Bibliography References Amidon / Betsky (2005) Amidon, Jane with a contribution by Betsky, Aaron: Moving Horizons, Die Landschaftsarchitektur by Kathryn Gustafson and Partners - Basel / Berlin / Boston: Birkhäuser, 2005 ISBN book tops (2007) book tops: London URL: Eisenschmid (2001) Eisenschmid, Rainer: London 11th edition Ostfildern: Baedeker, 2001 ISBN Gustafson-Porter (2007) Gustafson-Porter: Homepage URl: Hamburger Abendblatt (2005) Hamburger Abendblatt: Diana: Memorial fountain is being rebuilt URL: Status:, Johnstone / Masters (2005) Johnstone, Sarah & Masters, Tom: London - 1st, German edition, based on 5th, English edition - Melbourne / Oakland / London: Lonely Planet Publications, 2005 ISBN Kossow (2004) Kossow, Anette: London Cologne: DuMont Reiseverlag, 2005 ISBN Milesfaster (2007) Milesfaster: Yoy-of-life-fountain URL: Nestmeyer (2000) Nestmeyer, Ralf: London Erlangen: Michael Müller, 2000 ISBN Nicholson (2001) Nicholson, Louise: London, National Geographic Tr aveler Washington D.C .: Carlo Lauer & Partner ISBN

17 Bibliography References Nowel (1998) Nowel, Ingrid: London, Biography of a Cosmopolitan City Cologne: DuMont, 1998 ISBN N-TV (2004) n-tv: War memorial for animals You had no choice URL: n-tv.n-tv.weiht Diana fountain a URL: subaction = showfull & id = & archive = & cnshow = news & ucat = 6 & start_from = & Stand: ,, page 9-16-

18 Bibliography References Princess Diana (2004b) Princess Diana's fountain gushes again URL: subaction = showfull & id = & archive = & cnshow = news & ucat = 6 & start_from = & Status: ,, page 7 Princess Diana (2005a) : Diana fountain cannot hold water URL: subaction = showfull & id = & archive = & cnshow = news & ucat = 7 & start_from = & Stand: ,, Page 1 Princess Diana (2005b) Aon: Diana fountain will be back in operation from Friday URL: subaction = showfull & id = & archive = & cnshow = news & ucat = 7 & start_from = & Status: ,, Page 1 Princess Diana (2006) St. Galler Tagblatt: Committee criticizes Diana Monument URL: subaction = showfull & id = & archive = & cnshow = news & ucat = 8 & start_from = & Status: ,, Page 1 (2007) Princess A memorial to Lady Di URL: Reisen.ciao (2003) Miss.Sophie: Wellington Arch, London URL: Test_ Status:, Retrieved: Shortnews (2004) SlimShady82: New war memorial is exclusively dedicated to animals URL: Status:, Stöberl (2007 ) Stöberl, Nicole: Kathryn Gustafson between innovation and tradition Scientific elaboration on landscape architect Kathryn Gustafson Höxter, 2007 Status: January 2007 Thomas Gransow (2007) Thomas Gransow: London Hyde Park URL: Access date:

19 Sources Bibliography Topos (2007) Lisa Diedrich: Kathryn Gustafson Fantasy and Form URL: TT 20 (2007) tt20: Hyde Park URL: Wikipedia (2007a) Wikipedia: Great Exhibition URL: Status:, Access date: Wikipedia (2007b) Wikipedia: Hyde Park URL: Wikipedia (2007c) Wikipedia: Royal Parks in London URL: Status:, Access date: Wikipedia (2007d) Wikipedia: London URL: London Wikipedia (2007e) Wikipedia: Marble Arch URL: Status:, Wikipedia (2007f) Wikipedia: Princess Diana Memorial Fountain URL: Wikipedia (2007g) Wikipedia: Serpentine URL: Wikipedia (2007h) Wikipedia: Triumphal Arch URL: Status:, Access date:

20 Sources List of Figures Figure 1: Green areas ... 2 URL: Figure 2: Overview map ... 3 URL: (basis) as well as changed according to your own use Date of retrieval: Figure 3: Tyburn Tree ... 4 URL: Figure 4: Rotten Row. ..4 URL: Access date: Figure 5: Great Exhibition ... 4 URL: Access date: Figure 6: Preacher ... 5 URL: Access date: Figure 7: green and white deck chairs ... 5 URL: jpg Figure 8: Live 8 concert ... 5 URL: Figure 9: Hyde Park Corner ... 6 URL: Figure 10: Wellington Arch ... 6 URL: Figure 11: Traffic island with a view of Hyde Park Corner and Apsely House ... 6 URL : Figure 12: Marble Arch ... 6 URL: Figure 13: Serpentine Lake and Bridge of West Carriage Drive ... 7 URL: Figure 14: Apsely House ... 7 URL: as well as enlarged for your own benefit -19-

21 Sources List of Figures Figure 15: Achilles Statue ... 8 URL: _Monument_1822 _-_ Achilles.jpg Figure 16: Princess Diana ... 9 URL: Figure 17: Kathryn Gustafson ... 10 URL: Figure 18: Porter, Gustafson, Bowman. ..10 URl: Figure 19: Clay model, retention basin Morbras ... 11 Amidon / Betsky (2005), p. 34 Figure 20: Park and retention basin, Morbras ... 11 Amidon / Betsky (2005), p. 35 Figure 21 : 3D model animation ... 12 URL. Figure 22: Synthetic resin model ... 12 Amidon / Betsky (2005), p. 112 Figure 23: Adaptation of the terrain ... 13 Amidon / Betsky (2005), p. 117 Figure 24: Light waterfall ... 13 URL: Figure 25: slight ripples ... 13 Amidon / Betsky (2005), p. 117 Figure 26: strong waterfall ... 13 Amidon / Betsky (2005), p. 113 Figure 27: Bridge ... 13 URL: Figure 28: silent collecting basin ... 13 URL: Figure 29: Removal of the deficiencies ... 14 URL: Figure 30: Visitors to the Diana Memorial ... 14 Prof. D. Slawski: Current projects in landscape architecture, or places of pilgrimage in landscape architecture - Scientific work SS07 - PowerPoint file -20-