What does Matthew 5 44

What does the Greek word “ἐχθροὺς” in Matthew 5:44 mean?

First note from Matt. 5:44, "pray for those who persecute you" is synonymous with "love your enemies". Thus, those who persecute you are included in your enemies. In fact, those who persecute you are those of your enemies who are most likely to be condemned by the Holy Spirit and turn to Christ. Other enemies are likely to be apathetic.

With regard to the lexical means of ἐχθρός, the following lexicon gives the basic meaning of the word. Romans 5:10 below indicates that your enemies have the potential to become friends through Christ. Note that the lexical form says that the word is an adjective used as a noun (noun).

ἐχθρός, ά, όν: in relation to enmity with someone - "to be an enemy, as opposed to." As enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his son 'Ro 5:10.' κατὰ μὲν τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ἐχθροὶ δἰ ὑμᾶς 'in relation to the good news they are enemies for your sake' Ro 11:28.

Louw, JP & Nida, EA (1996). Greek-English New Testament Lexicon: based on semantic domains (2nd edition electronic edition, Volume 1, p. 493). New York: United Bible Societies.

The BGAD lexicon gives the various possible meanings of the word.

ἐχθρός, ά, όν (Hom. +; inscription, LXX) hostile -

  1. consist. hated (Hom .; θεοῖς ἐ. since Hes., Theog. 766, also Pla., Rep. 1, 23 p. 352B; Epict. 3, 22, 91; Ael. Aristid. 28, 15 K. = 49 p. 495 D .; Alciphr. 3, 12, 5; Achilles Tat. 7, 6, 3, likew. X., Cyr. 5, 4, 35 καὶ θεοῖς ἐ. Καὶ ἀνθρώποις.- Philo, Spec. Leg. 3, 88 πᾶς ἐ. θεῷ) Ro 11:28, where the pass. Sense becomes quite likely, at least because of the contrast w. ἀγαπητός.

  2. Plot. Hatred, hostile (Pind., Hdt. +; LXX) -

    a. adj. (X., An. 1, 3, 12; 20; PGM 36, 144; Sir 36: 9; Jos., Ant. 11, 27) ἐ. ἄνθρωπος (Horapollo 2, 35) Mt 13:28. The position of ἐ. before ἄ. (differently Esth 7: 6) suggests that ἐ. is an adj. Here; but ἄ. in itself could also serve to emphasize the insecurity: an enemy in general (see EKlostermann, Hdb. ad loc.). Then this example would also belong to b.

    b. subst. (Hes., Pind .; Zen.-P. 14 [= Sb 6720], 18 [257/6 BC]; LXX, En., Ep. Arist., Philo, Joseph., Test. 12 Patr. ; Sib.Or. 3, 727) ὁ ἐ. the (personal) enemy. >

    α. Paragraph 2 Cl 6: 3. Enemies of men Lk 1.74; 2 Th 3:15; D 1: 3b; B 16: 4. Enemies of God or Christ Ro 5:10; 1 Cor 15.25; Col 1:21; 1 Cl 36: 6th death as the last enemy 1 Cor 15.26. The devil as enemy (cf. Test. Dan 6: 3f) Lk 10.19; see Mt 13:39.

    β. w. gen. the personal Who is the object? of enmity: Men Mt 5: 43f; Luke 6:27, 35 (Delph. Commands: Dit., Syll.3 1286 I, 15; 16 [III BC] Φίλοις εὐνόει, ἐχθροὺς ἀμύνου; Sextus 213 ὴ λέγειν κακῶς, ἀλλiktikt μόδὲ; Epθρ , 54 as the principle of the cynical philosopher: HHaas, idea and ideal of love of enemies in the extra-Christian world '27; MWaldmann, D. love of enemies in the ancient Christian world 29, '15, 475-83; FKattenbusch, StKr 89, '16, 1-70; PFiebig, ibid. 91, '18, 30-64; 305f; JEYates, Theology 44, '42, 48- 51); Mt 10.36; 13:25; Luke 1:71; 19:27; Ro 12:20 (Pr 25:21); Gal 4:16. God or Christ as the object of enmity Mt 22:44; Mk 12:36; Lk 20.43; Ac 2:35; Hb 1:13; 10:13; 1 Cl 36: 5 (all Ps 109: 1). ἐχθρὸς τ. θεοῦ Js 4: 4 (cf. Aeschyl., Prom. 120 ὁ Διὸς ἐ.).

    γ. w. gen. of the thing that is the object. of enmity (Demosth. 45, 66; Philo, Conf. Lingu. 48 Somληθείας ἐ., Somn. 2, 90 λογισμοῦ; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 291ἀδικίας) ἐ. πάσης δικαιοσύνης enemy of all righteousness Ac 13:10. ἐ. τοῦ σταυροῦ τ. 3: ριστοῦ Phil 3:18 (OLinton, Con. Neot. IV '36, 9-21). - WFoerster, TW II 810-15. MM.B. 1345.

Arndt, W., Gingrich, FW, Danker, FW & Bauer, W. (1979). A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature: a translation and adaptation of the fourth revised and expanded edition of Walter Bauer's Greek-German dictionary on the writing of the New Testament and other early Christian literature (p. 331). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

This Septuagint Lexicon (LXX) shows how this Greek word was used to translate Hebrew words in the Old Testament:

ἐχθρός echthros, adj., enemy. 441x + NT + AF

Hebrew alignment

אֹיֵב - Enemy (246): Gen 49: 8; Ex 15: 6; 23: 4; Lev 26: 7, 17, 34, 37, 41; Num 10: 9; 14:42; 24:18; 35:23; Dt 1:42; 12:10; 20: 4; 21:10; 25:19; 28:25, 53, 57; 32:27, 42; Josh 7: 8, 13; 10:25; 22: 8; Jdg 2:14; 3:28; 16:23; 1 kgdms 2: 1; 12:10; 14:30; 18:25; 24:20; 25:29; 30:26; 2 kg 3:18; 5:20; 7:11; 18:19; 22: 1, 18, 49; 3 kg 3:11; 8:37.48; 4 kgd 17:39; 1 Ch 14:11; 17:10; 2 Ch 6:24, 34; 25: 8; Esd B 8:22; 14:15; 16:16; Es 7: 6; Job 27: 7; Ps 6:11; 8: 3; 12: 3; 16: 9; 17:18, 41; 24: 2; 26: 2; 30: 9; 36:20; 40: 6; 41:10; 44: 6; 54: 4; 55:10; 63: 2; 67: 2; 68: 5; 70:10; 73:18; 79: 7; 88:11, 43; 101: 9; 105: 42; 118: 98; 131: 18; 138: 22; Pr 15:28; Isa 1:24; 42:13; Jer 6:25; 15: 9; 18:17; 19: 9; 21: 7; 37:14; 41:21; Lam 1: 2, 9; 2: 3, 5, 22; 3:52; Eze 36: 2; Hos 8: 3; Amos 9: 4; Mic 4:10; 7: 6; Near 1: 2; 3:11; Zep 3:15

—2 - Enemy (31): Ge 14:20; Num 24: 8; Dt 32:41, 43; 33: 7; 2 kgd 24:13; 1 Ch 12:17; 21:12; Es 7: 6; Job 6:23; 19:11; Ps 43: 6,11; 73:10; 77:61, 66; 88:24, 43; 96: 3; 104: 24; 106: 2; 107: 14; 111: 8; 118: 139; 135: 24; 26:10 each; 27: 7; 37:16; Lam 1: 7; 4:12; Eze 39:23

שׂנא - to hate; to despise, to decrease status; (pt.) Enemy (10): Ex 23: 5; Job 8:22; 31:29; Ps 9:14; 40: 8; 80:16; 117: 7; Pr 25:21; 26:24; 27: 6

צרר 2 - to deal with hostility, attack (8): Es 9:10; Ps 6: 8; 7: 5, 7; 8: 3; 9:26; 30:12; Is 11:13

שׁוֹרֵר - Enemy (5): Ps 5: 9; 26:11; 53: 7; 55: 3; 58:11

אֹרֵב - (group in an ambush) (2): 1 kg 22: 8, 13

צַר 1 - narrow; poor; Reluctance, fear; Necessity (2): Job 36:16; 38:23

Unique Hebrew alignment

סַבָּל - Load carrier: Esd B 14:10; וְ— and; along with; This is; or; then: E flat 7: 6; —1 - Gold Ore: Job 22:25; מַת - (pl.) Men, people: Ps 16:14; עַ֫יִן— eye; Appearance, appearance; Spring; Ain: Ps 76: 5; שׁוּר 1 - wall: Ps 91:12; תְּקוֹמֵם - opponent, opponent; Rebel: Ps 138: 21; זָר - strange, different; heterogeneous, illegal; not authorised; Non-Israelite; forbidden; others: Prov 6: 1; רַע-badly made, of little value, poor; contemptible, angry, reprehensible; (subst.) bad, bad: Pr 20:12; Disaster: Eze 35: 5; They— they (m.): Eze 35: 5

Aramaic alignment

עַר - opponent; Enemies (1): Dan 4:16

(2012). The Lexham Analytical Lexicon for the Septuagint. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.

This should give you an idea of ​​the meaning of ἐχθρός.

Perry Webb

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Perry Webb

This could be a solution for more common Greek words that BDAG is too long to quote normally.

Ethos