How does fog computing work

Edge and Fog Computing

Edge and fog computing are terms from product marketing for a system architecture that is a countermovement to the usual centralized cloud architectures.

Edge and fog computing bring the processing of data and the control of distributed systems from the cloud back to the devices. The data processing takes place decentrally at the edge of the network, which is why one speaks of edge computing. This improves the security, performance, scalability, flexibility and autonomy of IoT systems.

In practice, the boundaries between edge and fog computing are fluid. Edge and Fog Computing only describe the architectures of distributed IoT systems and not specific techniques.
Edge and fog computing does not mean completely doing without the cloud. The aim is to reduce the dependency on the cloud.

Edge computing

Edge computing provides for part of the data processing not first to be carried out in the cloud, but already locally, on a system close to where the action is.

With most sensor networks, the data is sent directly to a backend system, for example the cloud. There the data is processed further with rule engines, big data or machine learning. The findings are archived and decisions are sent as commands to local devices in order to intervene in a controlling or regulating manner.
If the amount of data per device is small, this is a viable option.

But if the network capacity is low and the requirements for latency, availability, reliability, security and scalability are high, then it may be necessary to process the data locally in order to reduce the load on the network and backend.

Fog Computing

If an additional processing level is introduced between the edge and the cloud, this is called fog computing. Fog is because the fog moves closer to the ground than the clouds.
With fog computing, the processing and storage of the data takes place on several hierarchically structured nodes, the fog nodes. Communication takes place both with one another and with the cloud.

Fog nodes are typically embedded systems, but can also be smartphones, PCs, local servers or specialized computers with AI support.
Mobile phone providers or local service providers who provide servers and base stations for the fog computing infrastructure can be considered as operators.

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Everything you need to know about computer technology.

Computer technology primer

The computer technology primer is a book about the basics of computer technology, processor technology, semiconductor memory, interfaces, data storage devices, drives and important hardware components.

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