Are biographies works of fiction

Between autobiography and fiction. Urs Widmer's novel trilogy "The Mother's Beloved", "The Father's Book" and "A Life as a Dwarf"

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2 Biographical data

3 Contemporary history

4 The Autobiography - An Overview

5 Contents of the three novels
5.1 The mother's lover
5.2 The Father's Book
5.3 Life as a dwarf

6 autobiography or fiction?
6.1 Relationship entanglements and self-image
6.1.1 Father and mother with Urs Widmer
6.1.2 Father-Son Relationship
6.1.3 Mother-Son Relationship
6.1.4 Self-image
6.2 Widmer's autobiographical fiction

7 Conclusion


1 Introduction

The present scientific treatise deals with the trilogy of novels "The Mother's Beloved"[1], "The Father's Book"[2] and "A life as a dwarf"[3] by the Swiss author Urs Widmer. The first two works were created in 2000 and 2004 and are thematically linked to one another. In it, the author tells an excerpt from his life, but focuses on a different figure - his mother and father. The third book in the trilogy, which was published in 2006, also reports on the life of Urs Widmer. This time, however, from the perspective of a dwarf who was his lucky charm throughout his life.

Urs Widmer described the first thirty years of his life up to the beginning of his activity as a writer in an autobiography entitled "Journey to the Edge of the Universe"[4]which was released in 2013. The problem arises that an autobiography is initially only a literary product in text form if it is to serve as a source for the contextualization of autobiographical novels. Every work that is written is always charged fictionally at the beginning. The literary figures appearing there, no matter how supposedly similar they are to actual contemporaries of the author or himself, have a fictional character. Nevertheless, the autobiography of the son is used as a source for the biography of the parents and the contemporary historical context.

Before doing this, however, it seems necessary to investigate the question of what the concept of autobiographical writing actually is. Where can the line between autobiographical and fictional writing be drawn - or does this not even exist? In a literary text that, in contrast to the autobiography, does not claim to reproduce real events or experiences in any form, there is always a trace of the author. So how can one differentiate from when one can speak of an autobiography? In the case of Widmer's work: “Journey to the Edge of the Universe”, it is assumed here that it is based on real facts. Following on from this, it will be investigated whether Widmer's trilogy, which was published before the autobiography, is also a biography and to what extent the novels are fictional in character. To what extent is the text of the autobiography artistically related to the trilogy? In this context, it should also be asked whether the father and mother in the first two novels are the actual parents of the author or merely literary figures. An examination of Urs Widmer's self-image as “Uti” in “A Life as a Dwarf” also appears interesting and revealing.

In order to be able to pursue these central questions, both the author and the time must first be examined. Chapter 2: “Biographical data” lists the most important facts about Urs Widmer's life. His childhood and youth as well as his family, which consisted of his parents and his sister, are in the foreground of consideration. This is followed by a chronological outline in Chapter 3, which provides information about the historical context in which Widmer grew up and lived. These are primarily Switzerland and National Socialism. Chapter 4 provides a general overview of the concept of autobiography. The most important features and characteristics of the autobiography are defined and explained to what extent this can be classified as a literary genre.

Chapter 5 then deals with the three selected works by Widmer and offers a brief description of the content of each, whereupon Chapter 6 then examines the central question of whether it is “autobiography or fiction”. To do this, it is necessary to first address the author's father and mother and examine to what extent the parents in the novels have autobiographical traits or whether they are merely literary figures. As a hypothesis, it can be assumed that the real parents can be found in the books. Another important research topic is the relationship between Urs Widmer and his mother and father, as well as Widmer's self-portrayal as a little “Uti”, primarily in his novel “A Life as a Dwarf”. In a conclusion in Chapter 7, the questions on which the paper is based should then be answered.

There is a fairly large selection of literature on Urs Widmer in research. For example, after the publication of the three works in 2007, there was an exhibition in the university library of the Goethe University in Frankfurt that revolved entirely around the author. There is also a "booklet accompanying the exhibition"[5] available, which in particular contains comments on the works "Der Geliebte der Mutter" and "The Book of the Father". Furthermore, on his 70th birthday, the work “Writing is the goal, not the book” by Daniel Keel and Winfried Stephan was published[6], in which they also deal with the works about Widmer's parents, among other things. As mentioned, Urs Widmer himself wrote the autobiography “Journey to the Edge of the Universe”, which reports from the first thirty years of his life.

Various research papers are also available on the concept of autobiographical writing. In the "Metzler Lexicon Literature"[7] as well as in the "Real Lexicon of German Literary Studies"[8] the term autobiography is defined more precisely. Martina Wagner-Egelhaaf are also busy[9] and Michaela Holdenried[10] in their introductions to “autobiography”, among other things, with “reality” and the question of who actually speaks in the autobiography.

To date, however, there have been no literary research contributions to the works “The Mother's Beloved”, “The Father's Book” and “A Life as a Dwarf”. For example, Gudrun Norbisrath describes her impressions of the “Book of the Father” and comes to the hope that “Widmer does not harbor the daring thought of a third book: the whole story all over again, from the point of view of Edwin, the lover.”[11] Thomas Gross, on the other hand, characterizes "the book like life, real and fantastic at the same time, funny and sad, always wonderfully light and ambiguous"[12].

2 Biographical data

"He had a great love for France and everything French."[13]

The author of the present trilogy, Urs Widmer, was born on May 21, 1938 in Basel, Switzerland, where he also spent his childhood[14]. After kindergarten he first attended primary school - a school on the "Erlensträschen"[15]. Following this, and due to a move within Basel, he switched to a new, stricter school in "Riehen", which no girls attended[16]. After completing primary school, Urs went to secondary school, "[t] he school where [his] father was a teacher."[17] In his autobiography he describes himself as a bad student who "was never much more than just enough"[18]. His pubescent self was also disrespectful and outrageous towards his fellow men and even friends[19]. In spite of everything, Urs successfully completed his school years with the “Matura”[20]. After that, he initially assigned seats in a theater in Basel[21]. In 1958 he began his studies at the University of Basel. He studied German, Romance studies and history and spent semesters abroad in Montpellier and Paris[22]. In 1965 he received his doctorate "with a thesis on German post-war prose"[23] and finished his studies in the same year, which he found a huge relief: “I never loved university. I wanted out into life. "[24]

After completing your doctorate, Widmer began working as a lecturer at Walter-Verlag in Olten, where he worked for two years[25]. In the meantime he had met and fell in love with a friend of his sister Nora, May Perrenoud. He and the psychoanalyst finally married in 1967[26]. In the same year, Widmer and May moved to Frankfurt am Main, where he worked as an editor at Suhrkamp-Verlag until 1968. He then began working as a freelance writer in Frankfurt. He was also an editor and translated some texts from French[27], wrote literary reviews for the "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung" and read among other things as a lecturer for modern German literature at the Goethe University in Frankfurt[28]. He wrote his first work "Alois" in 1968[29]. A year later he became one of the founders of the “Publishing House of Authors” in Frankfurt.

In 1978 their daughter Juliana was born. She spent the first six years of her life in Frankfurt until the Widmer family returned to Switzerland in 1984. There they moved to the Zurich district of Hottingen, where Widmer lived until his death[30].

In 1995 Widmer was accepted into the "German Academy for Language and Poetry" in Darmstadt and four years later, in 1999, he became a member of the "Academy of the Arts" in Berlin-Brandenburg. From 2000 to 2006 he created three of his greatest works, “The Mother's Beloved” (2000), “The Father's Book” (2002) and “A Life as a Dwarf” (2006). In 2007 Widmer held a poetry lecture at the Goethe University in Frankfurt as a guest lecturer[31]. On April 2nd of this year he died at the age of 75 in Zurich[32].

Throughout his life and also after his death, Urs Widmer received “[e] tliche literary prizes”, which “from the end of the 1980s referred to his rank as one of the most renowned writers in German-language literature”. These included, for example, the Bertolt Brecht Literature Prize (2001), the Friedrich Hölderlin Prize (2007) and the Jakob Wassermann Literature Prize, which he was awarded posthumously in June of this year[33].

His childhood was marked by his mother's mental illness, the contrast between his parents and the constant quarrel between them. Characteristic of the unsightly family relationship is above all Widmer's sentence when he wrote of "Migger", his first best friend: "His parents were very different from mine, so normal."[34] In response, Urs developed various compulsions and quirks. For example, he hit his head at night or often had a strange feeling, which accompanied him until his death: "But remnants of this feeling - a clenching in the head, and the fists start to clench - I can still find in me"[35]. Elsewhere he writes: "It took me twenty or more years until my fears barely shook me and the depressive hours became downright rare."[36] He became a child psychologist, a "doctor for crazy children"[37] skillfully but declared sane and discharged. In addition to various quirks, he was unable to cope with separations throughout his life.[38]

The author's immediate family consisted of his father, mother and younger sister. During his childhood he also had daily contact with his aunt - his mother's sister - and her husband.

Urs Widmer's father, Walter Widmer, is caricatured on the title page of the second book: “The Father's Book”. He was a high school French teacher, translator and literary critic[39]. He was also known as a children's author[40]. You hardly learn anything about his family in Urs ’autobiography. Only his brother Otto is mentioned by name, who was a pastor and who died of sudden cardiac death[41]. Walter Widmer also suffered from a heart defect that appeared to be hereditary: "For the sake of justice, I have to say that weak hearts were and are the rule in the father family."[42] During the Second World War he guarded the Swiss border as a soldier[43]. When Walter Widmer died in 1965 at the age of only 62, many famous personalities such as the writers Heinrich Böll and Wolfdietrich Schnurre, with whom he maintained close contacts throughout his life, appeared at his funeral[44].

There is hardly any information about Widmer's mother that is not based on Urs Widmer's autobiography. Unlike her husband Walter and their son, she was never in public. You only find out her real first name "Anita" when reading the autobiography[45]. The daughter of the vice director of a chemical company[46] came from Brusio in Switzerland[47], suffered from depression all her life and was unable to lead a normal family life. Because of her unfulfilled love for the conductor Paul Sacher, who is called Edwin Schimmel in “The Mother's Beloved”, it was not possible for her to have a fulfilling marriage. In his autobiography Urs remembers a mother crying all the time, whose motto was "that she could no longer"[48]. Her mental illness increased so much that she had to be treated again and again in a clinic in Münchenbuchsee[49]. The family got used to Anita's absences and a kind of silent agreement was made to just overlook the illness. Both Walter and Urs convinced themselves that everything was fine: “Then my mother came back too. Everything was the same as before. As if nothing had happened. Nobody even mentioned in a word that something unusual was behind us. "[50] Anita distracted herself with work in the house and garden, but had relapses at times. She also developed various tics, such as a constant whisper to herself[51]. In contrast to her husband, she was almost never physically ill. Until the end of her life "the sick soul" remained her "problem"[52].

Anita and Walter had a daughter named Nora Margherita[53]who was younger than her brother Urs. Over the years the family split into two parties: Urs always stood behind his mother and Nora belonged to her father. Here an important clue becomes clear that draws attention to the gap between Anita and Walter. Even the children took on different sides. Walter treated his daughter as a boy for a while and called her "Fritzli"[54]. The author writes about Nora in his autobiography that "now, it's terrible, [...] she can neither speak nor sing."[55] What this is due to, for example an illness or the early death of the sister, cannot be inferred either in the autobiography or in external sources.

Anita's closest family member was her sister Norina[56]. She spent a lot of time with little Urs and looked after him lovingly[57]. There is no information about them outside of the autobiography either. From this, however, it can be inferred that Norina's first marriage to "Uncle Emil" and her second marriage to "Uncle Erwin" fell apart. Uncle Emil - Emil Häberli - worked in the intelligence service of the Swiss Army[58]. With him, Norina had a son named Thomas. Her second husband Erwin was the owner of the house which Urs later lived in with his parents. He also owned the first car on the road and two mastiffs named Astor and Carino. As a result of a violent dispute within the family, Urs and his parents moved out of the common house at Marignanostraße 122[59] from and to another apartment at Bettingerstraße 7 in Riehen[60]:

“Behind my back, the disputes between Erwin and my parents had escalated. Especially between Erwin and my father. They shouted at each other [...] and soon wrote each other, from floor to floor, long letters that left nothing to be desired in terms of clarity. "[61]

In addition to Norina and Erwin, Urs ’mother had a large family in La Rösa[62] lived in Switzerland. The family consisted of the head of the family Guido, who was also the owner of the house there. With his wife Elsa[63] he had three children, Anita's aunts Lea and Delia and her uncle Loris. Delia had a husband named Fritz, with whom she also had three children: Reto, Ginggi and Wanda, whose cousin was Anita[64]. Her aunt Lea married Primitivo, with whom she gave birth to a daughter named Jolanda[65].

3 Contemporary history

Urs Widmer was born one year before the start of the Second World War. In his autobiography he goes into some parts of the war, but not all facts are named. In order to make the causal connection clear and to be able to better understand the context in which Widmer grew up, the following is an overview of Switzerland during the Second World War. Shortly before the start of the Second World War, the government of neutral Switzerland received the approval of the Federal Assembly to carry out unauthorized measures that appeared necessary in relation to the upcoming war. This regulation was called a "power of attorney resolution"[66] designated. This decision was publicly criticized, including by the constitutional law professor Zaccaria Giacometti in 1942. He criticized the extensive executive power that the Swiss government had been granted by the power of attorney and which it exploited throughout the war[67]. Despite the concerns, the “emergency law policy” found many advocates. In September 1939 the Swiss army was mobilized. This led to a social rethinking and an orientation towards everything military. The concept of liberal democracy was replaced by that of the "Volksgemeinschaft". Urs Widmer's father Walter was also called up for military service and guarded a bridge in the “Kessiloch” on the Swiss border[68]. Meanwhile, in May 1940, Anita and her son fled to the Swiss canton of Valais. There was general fear and unrest in Basel about a possible invasion of the German armed forces into Switzerland. However, this never took place[69].

In early September 1939 Germany attacked Poland. “My parents also talked about the war. From Göbbels, from Göring and Himmler. I knew that Hitler was the worst of these bad guys. "[70] Fear of the German Wehrmacht ruled people's lives every day, not just in Switzerland. In the "drôle de guerre"[71], a phase after Poland's surrender, there was a tense wait for further action by the Germans. “In Weil am Rhein I even saw people, little figures, walking on the promenade on the river bank. They didn't do anything special. But I knew that they were angry. "[72] Widmer also reports that the family had to completely close the black curtains in front of the windows at night. Now and then one could hear the "fatally threatening" noises of bombers from England, which flew over the houses in Basel[73].

In May 1940, the German Wehrmacht surprisingly defeated France, erasing any doubts that it would win the war for itself. Switzerland was completely surrounded by German troops and functioned as a kind of "prison". During this time, when it was not possible to leave Switzerland, the residents provided themselves with the essentials: "We became self-sufficient during the war and passed the surplus vegetables on to others."[74] Economically, Switzerland worked together with Germany and was able to relax a bit as a result. At that time, however, nobody knew that Switzerland would be spared from the war: "Switzerland, the little porcupine, we will take it on the way back." This Landser verse became a symbol of the constant fear of the Germans[75].

Parallel to the events outside of Switzerland, opinions within the same were split in two. On the one hand, supporters of National Socialism called for political adjustment to Germany. This included the Federal Council, which supported these efforts[76]. On the other side stood the opponents of National Socialism. In terms of foreign policy, Switzerland was accused decades later of having worked too closely with Germany. At the beginning of 1945 the economic relations with Germany, which had existed until then, were finally terminated. May 8, 1945 marked the surrender of the German Wehrmacht, and the Second World War ended on September 2 of the same year[77]. After the end of the war, the population of Switzerland was in a state of bewilderment about the past events for a long time.

The 1950s were marked by the opening of the borders. Everything was slowly recovering from what had happened recently. In addition to renewed optimism about the future, there was still a general depressive mood among the population[78]. A lot also changed economically in the 50s. Until the late 1940s, Switzerland had not been a particularly rich country. The general modesty that prevailed after the war was gradually replaced by a violent "consumerism"[79] replaced. The economy was booming, not just in Switzerland. Through the "economic miracle"[80] the gap between the poor and rich sections of the population also widened. Finally, the USA also found its way into Europe. You suddenly wore "jeans" and drank "Coca-Cola"[81]. People looked up to the Americans in general, because by intervening in the war they had saved Europe from fascism. By entering the Vietnam War in 1964, however, they questioned their role and showed how undemocratic and misanthropic they really were. In addition to the Cold War, which lasted until 1989, the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, and the Cuban Missile Crisis a year later[82] and the kneeling in Warsaw in 1970, Widmer reports of a new era: "A new era had begun."[83]

Widmer addresses these first thirty years of his life in his autobiography. They shaped him until his death. It seems interesting that he not only reports on the Second World War in his autobiography, but also mentions it on several pages in his trilogy.

The following chapter on autobiography is intended to provide an introduction to the definition of the genre. Furthermore, the autobiography is to be examined for its location in contrastive models. In addition, structural features are named, such as the development towards fictionalization.

4 The Autobiography - An Overview

“Autobiographical memory [...] is always an act of will, an attempt to demand the past from memory. From this point of view, memory is reconstruction; "[84]

The fundamental question everyone has asked themselves at one point or another while looking at or reading an autobiography of a famous person is "why". Why does the autobiographer write a work about himself and his life? Possibly from the general, human fear that one's own life is limited and that all traces could be erased with death. An autobiography appears as a possible way to be remembered by the bereaved[85]. But memories also fade and lose weight.

The term “autobiography” is derived from the Greek words “autos” (self), “bíos” (life) and “gráphein” (to write). The German term was first used at the end of the 18th century and at the beginning of the 20th century by Georg Misch's work "History of Autobiography"[86] to the important generic term[87]. Since ancient times, however, there have been various generic names such as "Thoughts" or "Memories"[88].

For centuries, the “Confessiones” by Aurelius Augustinus, which were written around AD 400, served as a model for the autobiography. It changed over the years, but the basic structure of the genus remained the same[89]. During the Renaissance, the initially religious, godly autobiography was replaced by an autobiography, the main aim of which was to report facts and circumstances to the reader[90]. Finally, at the transition from the 17th to the 18th century, the religious autobiography came to the fore again[91]. To date, the autobiographers have aimed very much at expressing their success story and their high social standing in words. From the 18th century this changed and the autobiography was increasingly used for the sake of self-knowledge to process and disclose what had been experienced[92]. Towards the end of the 18th century, the genre became increasingly subjective and historicizing. The author wrote down his development from the first memory to the state of writing, particularly illuminating his adolescence[93]. In terms of the history of autobiography, according to Weimar, the 19th century is divided into two halves: At the beginning of the 1940s, the autobiographers tended to show historical representations in chronological order in their autobiographies. In the second half of the 19th century, public circumstances, such as those associated with politics or society, came to the fore. According to Weimar, in the twentieth century it is hardly possible to distinguish between stages in the development of autobiography, but a tendency towards half-finished and fragmentary works is clear. From this time on, science finally found an interest in researching autobiography[94].

In the development of the genre, it should be emphasized that rules that existed in dealing with the autobiography have been overridden over time. If it was previously desired that the autobiographer had reached a certain age before he began to write his life, this is no longer necessary today. In addition, an autobiography is no longer bound to the previously existing principle of truth in statements. On the contrary, fictitious elements are intentionally adopted to make the text appear more authentic[95].

Autobiographies and biographies are in great demand these days. On the one hand, they provide an insight into the lives of other people, which can serve as a template for one's own[96], and on the other hand, they translate the artistic of life into literature[97]. The primary sense, however, is that the author tries to justify his life path through the written memories. Furthermore, the autobiography is intended to entertain and inform the reader[98]. The data that the author reveals from his life are based on both internal and external experiences and actions taken by himself[99]. It is therefore also a method of becoming aware of yourself[100]. Another special feature of the genre is its language, which is unique due to its structure and style. According to Ilse Aichinger, this uniqueness of the language is particularly evident in the variety of forms on which the genre is based[101].

The autobiography can be distinguished from other related genres such as the memoir, the personal novel ("I-novel") or the diary. These differ in that they each do not meet at least one genre criterion of the autobiography. In his “autobiographical pact”, Philippe Lejeune describes the unity of author, narrator and main character. A process of communication takes place between these three entities[102]. In a personal novel, for example, this unity of author and narrator does not exist, which means that he does not meet a criterion of the autobiography[103]. Lejeune's pact is also not recognizable in Urs Widmer's trilogy, because Widmer himself is not the main character of his works. In contrast to autobiographies, memoirs show the life of a person, which takes place outwardly. This includes, for example, his professional activity or his role in society. The autobiography, on the other hand, describes the development of the individual's self-discovery, with categorical ideal types.

In the traditional autobiography it was in the foreground that only really lived experiences should be communicated[104]. This claim is considered ideal, but the reality is in many ways different: only on the basis of the autobiography it cannot be determined whether what is written is the truth[105]. Goethe's work “Poetry and Truth. From my life. ”, Which he wrote from 1811 to 1833, was a high point in the literary history of autobiography[106]. The specialty of this work is the combination of fiction and history, more precisely of "poetry and truth". This contrast and conflict is already pointed out in the title. Goethe writes a "referential" text that claims to reproduce reality with the "subjective author's position"[107]. Goethe sees poetry as a means of representing the truth[108]. The boundary between an autobiography and a fictional text is therefore not so easy to make out.

According to Holdenried, "memory" and "memory" play important roles as "problem complexes of the autobiographical discourse"[109]. In the course of memory, past events are brought back to mind without the author subjecting them to any possible criticism. In doing so, these autobiographical “reminder sentences” initially refer to the current situation in which the person remembering finds himself[110]. Memory, which has a negative connotation, is complementary to memory. According to Wagner-Egelhaaf, this is linked to the idea that past events are reproduced mindlessly and without any inspiration, since it is not - like memory - related to feelings[111].

The following chapter deals with Widmer's trilogy. In order to decide on the autobiographical content, the content of all three works is first given briefly.


[1] Urs Widmer: “Mother's lover”. Zurich 2000.

[2] Urs Widmer: "The Father's Book". Zurich 2004.

[3] Urs Widmer: “A life as a dwarf”. Zurich 2006.

[4] Urs Widmer: “Travel to the edge of the universe”. Autobiography. Zurich 2013.

[5] Winfried Giesen: “Urs Widmer. Of life, of death and of the rest also this and that ”. Erfurt 2006.

[6] Daniel Keel (ed.): “Writing is the goal, not the book. Urs Widmer on his 70th birthday ”. Zurich 2008.

[7] Dieter Burdorf (ed.); Günther Schweikle (term): "Metzler Literature Lexicon: Terms and Definitions". Stuttgart 2007.

[8] Klaus Weimar (ed.): "Reallexikon der deutschen Literaturwissenschaft". 1. A - G. Berlin 2007, pp. 169-172.

[9] Martina Wagner-Egelhaaf: "Autobiography". Stuttgart 2000.

[10] Michaela Holdenried: "Autobiography". Stuttgart 2000.

[11] Gudrun Norbisrath: “From mother's love to father's book. Urs Widmer's new novel - a picture puzzle. ”In: WAZ. February 11, 2004. (accessed on June 24, 2014).

[12] Thomas Groß: "Empty pages full of poetry". In: Rheinischer Merkur. February 12, 2004. (accessed June 24, 2014).

[13] Entry “Widmer, Urs” in Munzinger Online / Personen - Internationales Biographisches Archiv, URL: (retrieved from the Johann Christian Senckenberg University Library on June 23 .2014)

[14] See Giesen 2006, p. 8.

[15] Widmer 2013, p. 112.

[16] See ibid., P. 93.

[17] Ibid., P. 113.

[18] Ibid., P. 92.

[19] See ibid., P. 114.

[20] Ibid., P. 118.

[21] See ibid., P. 195.

[22] See Giesen 2006, p. 8.

[23] Entry “Widmer, Urs” in Munzinger Online / Personen - Internationales Biographisches Archiv, URL: (retrieved from Johann Christian Senckenberg University Library on June 23 .2014)

[24] Widmer 2013, p. 228.

[25] See Giesen 2006, p. 8.

[26] See entry “Widmer, Urs” in Munzinger Online / Personen - Internationales Biographisches Archiv, URL: (retrieved from Johann Christian Senckenberg University Library on June 23, 2014)

[27] See Giesen 2006, p. 8.

[28] See entry “Widmer, Urs” in Munzinger Online / Personen - Internationales Biographisches Archiv, URL: (retrieved from Johann Christian Senckenberg University Library on June 23, 2014)

[29] See Giesen 2006, p. 8.

[30] See ibid., P. 8.

[31] See ibid., P. 8f.

[32] See entry “Widmer, Urs” in Munzinger Online / Personen - Internationales Biographisches Archiv, URL: (retrieved from Johann Christian Senckenberg University Library on June 23, 2014)

[33] Ibid. (retrieved from Johann Christian Senckenberg University Library on June 23, 2014)

[34] Widmer 2013, p. 84.

[35] Ibid., P. 52.

[36] Ibid., P. 228.

[37] Ibid., P. 49.

[38] See ibid., P. 88.

[39] See Giesen 2006, p. 8.

[40] See entry “Widmer, Urs” in Munzinger Online / Personen - Internationales Biographisches Archiv, URL: (retrieved from Johann Christian Senckenberg University Library on June 23, 2014)

[41] See Widmer 2013, p. 33f.

[42] Ibid., P. 34.

[43] See ibid., P. 45.

[44] See Daniel Lenz; Pütz, Eric: “Descriptions of Life. Twenty Conversations with Writers ”. Munich 2000, p. 77.

[45] See Widmer 2013, p. 10.

[46] See ibid., P. 71.

[47] See ibid., P. 119.

[48] Ibid., P. 43.

[49] See ibid., P. 47.

[50] Ibid., P. 53.

[51] See ibid., P. 58.

[52] Ibid., P. 54.

[53] See ibid., P. 41.

[54] Ibid., P. 178.

[55] Ibid., P. 176.

[56] See ibid., P. 15.

[57] See ibid., P. 35.

[58] See ibid., P. 16.

[59] See ibid., P. 85.

[60] See ibid., P. 104.

[61] Ibid., P. 94.

[62] See ibid., P. 119.

[63] See ibid., P. 134.

[64] See ibid., P. 130.

[65] See ibid., Pp. 138ff.

[66] Stefan Andreas Keller: “In the realm of the non-neutral”. Swiss book censorship in the Second World War between National Socialism and intellectual national defense. Zurich 2009, p. 39.

[67] See ibid., P. 39.

[68] Widmer 2013, p. 43.

[69] See ibid., P. 38f.

[70] Ibid., P. 65.

[71] Keller 2009, p. 41.

[72] Widmer 2013, p. 68.

[73] Ibid., P. 75.

[74] Ibid., Pp. 95f.

[75] Ibid., P. 97.

[76] See Keller 2009, p. 42.

[77] See Mario König (ed.), Jean-Francois Bergierer: "Switzerland, National Socialism and the Second World War: Final Report". Zurich (et al.) 2002, p. 94.

[78] See Widmer 2013, p. 220.

[79] Ibid., P. 99f.

[80] Ibid., P. 219.

[81] Ibid., P. 222.

[82] See ibid., P. 345.

[83] Ibid., P. 347.

[84] Wagner-Egelhaaf 2000, p. 13.

[85] See Holdenried 2000, p. 9.

[86] Ibid., P. 14.

[87] See Weimar 2007, p. 169.

[88] Ibid., P. 169.

[89] See Holdenried 2000, p. 12.

[90] See Weimar 2007, p. 170.

[91] See ibid., P. 170.

[92] See Holdenried 2000, p. 13.

[93] See Weimar 2007, p. 170.

[94] See ibid., P. 171.

[95] See Holdenried 2000, p. 14.

[96] See ibid., P. 13.

[97] See Wagner-Egelhaaf 2000, p. 1.

[98] See Weimar 2007, p. 169.

[99] See ibid., P. 169.

[100] See Wagner-Egelhaaf 2000, p. 10.

[101] See Weimar 2007, p. 172.

[102] Wagner-Egelhaaf 2000, p. 5f.

[103] Ibid., P. 6.

[104] See ibid., P. 3f.

[105] See ibid., P. 4.

[106] See Weimar 2007, p. 171.

[107] Wagner-Egelhaaf 2000, p. 2.

[108] See ibid., P. 3.

[109] Holdenried 2000, p. 17.

[110] Wagner-Egelhaaf 2000, p. 12.

[111] See ibid., P. 13.

End of the reading excerpt from 38 pages