In the list of modifiable risk factors of dementia have included excessive alcohol consumption, head injury and air pollution. As stated in the article, published in the journal The Lancet, now the number of these factors is 12, and since they can affect (and even eliminate), all the forces of public health should be aimed at the prevention of this disease. According to the authors, modification of all factors will help to prevent or delay up to 40 percent of cases of dementia.
The person with dementia, there is a persistent reduction of cognitive activity with loss of existing knowledge and skills. Often the patient can’t find a logical connection between phenomena, changing his attitude to himself and to the world. Dementia is a syndrome, so she acts not as a separate disease, but as a manifestation of many diseases. Dementia is observed in Alzheimer’s and Peak in vascular disorders and even with a strong lack of b vitamins and folic acid.
Globally, about 50 million people live with dementia and this number is projected to increase to 152 million by 2050. The most difficult situation develops in low-and middle-income countries, where two-thirds of the total number of people with dementia. The global cost of caring for sick people is estimated at $ 1 trillion annually.
An interdisciplinary team of scientists from eight countries, led by Gill Livingston (Gill Livingston) from the Research center for the study of dementia in the UK summarized the results of many studies on dementia, and submitted a detailed report with recommendations for the prevention of dementia and the care of sick people.
In its previous report, scientists presented nine modifiable risk factors of dementia: low education, hypertension, hearing impairment, Smoking, obesity, depression, physical inactivity, diabetes and lack of social interactions. In many developed countries like USA, UK and France, the indicators of age the incidence of dementia have become lowerthan in the previous decade. This is probably due to accessibility of education, health, socio-economic development of the society and the changing way of life. However, in these countries, there is also a growing number of people with obesity, diabetes and physical inactivity that can change the trend of reducing the age of dementia. For example, the study models the incidence of dementia by 2040 in the UK is expected to 1.2 million patients.
The number of people with dementia in developing countries is growing faster due to the increase in life expectancy and the implementation of most risk factors, although large and reliable studies in these countries have carried out little.
The study 28815 older adults with concussion showed that the risk of dementia is doubled after injury, and on average, one of six dementia has evolved over 3.9 years, while those who took statins had a 13 percent lower risk of developing dementia compared with those who did not take statins. Apparently, this is due to the fact that statins can reduce brain edema, oxidative stress, aggregation of amyloid protein and inflammation.
French five-year study of more than 31 million people have shown that excessive alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of dementia calculated separately for men and women (hazard ratio for women 3.3 V, DI 3,3-3,4; hazard ratio for men 3,4, DI of 3.3 and 3.4). The relationship of dementia with increased alcohol use was particularly noticeable before the age of 65 years. A systematic review of 45 studies of small and moderate alcohol consumption, showed a reduced risk of developing dementia compared with nondrinkers (relative risk of 0.7; DI 0,6-0,91). Drinking less than 21 units of alcohol with alcohol content of up to 25 percent of working per week (1 unit of alcohol = 10 millilitres or 8 grams of pure alcohol) can be associated with a lower risk of developing dementia.
Animal models suggest that airborne particulates accelerate neurodegenerative processes and cerebrovascular, cardiovascular disease, deposition of amyloid and processing of the precursor protein of amyloid. As it turned out, the high concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (> 41.5 micrograms per cubic meter; the adjusted hazard ratio of 1.2, DI 1,0-1,3), fine solid particles from the exhaust gases of vehicles (hazard ratio of 1.1, CI 1.0 to 1.2) and the solid particles from the combustion of wood (hazard ratio of 1.6, CI 1,0-2,4) are associated with higher incidence of dementia. Review articles, including 13 years of research with subsequent monitoring of the effects of air pollution for 15 years, showed the relationship of elevated concentrations of particulate matter, NO2 and carbon monoxide and a high risk of developing dementia. One major U.S. ten-year study showed that African Americans from socio-economically disadvantaged areas with elevated concentrations of particulate matter in the air, the risk of dementia was especially high.
In connection with the new data relative to old risk factors of dementia and the addition of three new researchers offer the following recommendations to prevent the development of dementia:
- Support systolic blood pressure 130 millimeters of mercury or less than about 40 years (antihypertensive treatment is the only known effective drug for the prevention of dementia for high blood pressure).
- The use of hearing AIDS in reducing hearing and protect ears from excessive noise exposure.
- Reducing the impact of polluted air and tobacco smoke.
- Prevention of head injuries.
- Limited consumption of alcohol.
- The rejection of tobacco use.
- Providing children in primary and secondary education.
- Moderate physical activity in middle age and perhaps at a later age.
- Prevention of obesity and diabetes.
Previously, we were toldthat dementia did not prevent the sexual activity of older people.