The ALMA telescope have discovered a distant and very young galaxy, which was surprisingly orderly, reported in the journal Nature. Despite the fact that astronomers see it at a time when the Universe was only 10 percent from today, she, like the milky way, already has a rotating disk and belgem. In this case, how such a structure could form so quickly, researchers unclear.
The modern universe — it is cold (of 2.73 Kelvin) and is quite a peaceful place, but it was not always. In the past it was much more dense, hot and chaotic. Theorists suggest that the first galaxy, it was formed from blobs of gas that collapsed under its own gravity, creating stars, and then faced each other. Because of this, according to scientists, they had to be quite turbulent and unstable, but a new study shows that ancient galaxies, in fact, could have a relatively ordered structure.
Rizzo Francesca (Francesca Rizzo) from the Institute of astrophysics of the max Planck society, together with colleagues using the interferometer ALMA have discovered a very distant and, as a consequence, a very young galaxy SPT0418-47, the light from which came to us over 12 billion years. It has a redshift z = 4.2, and it is seen for what it was when the Universe was only 1.4 billion years. To see such a distant object scientists failed due to another, closer galaxy, which acted as a gravitational lens. Thanks to machine learning techniques, astronomers were able to recover the true form SPT0418-47 (due to the gravitational influence of a closer galaxy it originally looked in the pictures an almost perfect ring), and also measure the motion parameters of gas in it.
It turned out that despite the high rate of star formation and the associated high-energy processes in the galactic disk SPT0418-47 — the most orderly of all ever observed in the early Universe. Although galaxy apparently, no spiral arms, it has a disc that rotates at a speed of 272 kilometers per second, and belgem — a great cloud of stars, tightly surrounding all sides of the galactic center. In this case the bulge of the galaxy at such an early stage of evolution of the Universe, astronomers were able to see for the first time.
According to the authors, the discovered features have SPT0418-47 make it somewhat similar to the milky way. However, they note that in the development process of this galaxy is likely to be quite different from ours and is likely to join the class of elliptical.
The authors made the discovery suggests that the early universe was probably not as chaotic as it was considered, however, as so ordered the galaxy could have formed so quickly is unclear. On the other hand, the current finding resonates with the opening of another rotating disk with a redshift of z = 4,26, as well as the results of simulations. Future research should help to answer the question of how typical such “newborns” disk of the galaxy and whether or not they are generally less chaotic than previously predicted.
A few years ago a team of astronomers have found traces of peak formation of massive galaxies in the first billion years after the age of reionizatsii, which also contradicts current models of galaxy formation that does not involve the existence of these giants in the early stages of the Universe.