American biologists have transplanted the reconstructed rat liver: the skeleton in it was a rat, and all types of cells — the human. The resulting mini-the liver was very similar to the real thing as to structure and function: they produce blood proteins, urea and bile. They caught several rats and there was in their body for several days. However, to avoid the formation of blood clots, scientists have not managed, as well as the join of the bile duct a liver with the intestines — it has yet to work. Work published in the journal Cell Reports.
To grow human organs in a laboratory seems a far more promising strategy than to transplant the donor is the last poorly stored and may be unappealing, besides appropriate donors are always in short supply. But not all bodies are easy to assemble from scratch. The fastest reconstruction succumbed to the walls of hollow organs — probably due to its simple device. To collect, for example, the wall of the urethra or vagina, enough turns to plant cells on layers of extracellular material.
With other bodies that are not similar to a layer cake, is more complicated. To restore their structure, scientists still did: took out a fragment of the real body, washed out the cells, leaving a bare frame (this is called decellularization), and then populated it with new cells. Using this method have managed to reconstruct, for example, the ovaries of mice.
But for the liver — one of the most in-demand for organ transplants is to do is not possible: the obtained liver was not working fully. Probably the fact that the liver tissue is densely permeated by vessels, and its work depends on continuous blood flow, so to create this body needs to recover and its constituent capillaries.
A group of researchers under the leadership of Alejandro Soto-Gutierrez (Alejandro Soto-Gutierrez) at the University of Pittsburgh decided to gather a complete liver using induced pluripotent stem cells (adult cells is that reprogrammable in embryonic state), and test it on rats. The researchers had planned to frame on method of decellularization liver rats and to fill its derivatives in human cells.