Astronomers have recorded the most distant optical signal remaining after short gamma-ray burst SGRB181123B who went to Earth 10 billion years, reported in an article accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal Letters and available on the website arXiv.org. The discovery by researchers confirms the hypothesis that in the early Universe the stars were formed very quickly, and the merger of neutron stars, which are considered the “ancestors” fast gamma-ray bursts, occurred quite frequently.
Gamma-ray bursts — one of the most energetic processes in the Universe. They can be short (up to two seconds), long and extra long (10 thousand seconds). It is believed that short gamma-ray bursts occur as a result of fast absorption of the compact objects black holes and merging neutron stars. Today, thanks to the detectors of gravitational waves, astronomers often record the last event, but they rarely manage to catch signals from mergers of neutron stars in the early Universe (redshift z > 1).
Astronomer Kerry Patterson (Kerry Paterson) from the Harvard-Smithsonian center for astrophysics, along with colleagues reported the discovery of optical luminescence remaining after the flash when the merger of neutron stars. Gamma-ray burst was first registered in August 2018 Observatory Gehrels Swift Observatory, after which the researchers observed the event with a telescope Gemini North. For subsequent research, the astronomers used the Gemini South telescopes, the MMT and the Keck Observatory.
The scientists were able to figure out in what universe was an outbreak and determine its redshift. SGRB181123B was the second in the range of gamma-ray burst known today and the first among those whose afterglow was able to “catch” (z = 1,754). The event occurred after 3.8 billion years after the Big Bang, and the brightness opticheskogo of the outbreak reached 25,1 magnitude.
Because SGRB181123B happened when the Universe was only about 30 percent of the current, it provides a rare opportunity to explore the merger of neutron stars, which are formed in the final stages of life shone in a relatively early period in cosmic history. The researchers suggest, when there was a gamma ray burst, space was filled with emerging stars and galaxies and massive binary star apparently pretty quickly passed all the stages of evolution.
High-energy gamma-ray bursts are often used to test laws of physics. Recently, scientists through the analysis of gamma-ray burst received lower limitations on the amount of energy, which can be broken Lorentz invariance, and proposed modification of the glow of gamma-ray bursts, which implies that the matter in the jet is moving above the local speed of light in substance but not in excess of the speed of light in vacuum.