Astronomers have discovered the second planet from the Sun Kvazar J1007+2115, which existed in a time when the Universe was 700 million years. The abnormally massive quasar contains a black hole with a mass of 1.5 billion solar masses, the existence of which requires a revision of current theories of the formation and growth of supermassive black holes. Preprint published on the portal arXiv.org.
One of the important problems of modern astrophysics is the explanation of the nature of supermassive black holes, which are found in the Central regions of many galaxies. The generally accepted theory of the formation of such objects yet, it is assumed that they can be the result of intense accretion of matter onto a black hole of stellar mass or collapse of a dense star cluster or supermassive stars. To understand what were the “germ” of black holes in the early Universe, and to assess their rate of growth, astronomers searching for very distant quasars, which are the nuclei of active galaxies.
A team of astronomers led Jinli Yang (Yang Jinyi) of the Steward Observatory of the University of Arizona announces the discovery of the second planet from the Sun quasar J1007+2115, dubbed Pōniuā’ena. Translated from Hawaiian it means “unseen rotating the source of creation, surrounded by lights”. This discovery is the result of years of observations under the program of search of distant quasars, which involves telescopes in the Observatory “Gemini”, the Cake, the inter-American Observatory Cerro was Tololo, Magellan telescopes and the system of radio telescopes, ALMA, and also used archival data of ground-based surveys DECaLS, UHS, Pan-STARRS1 and WISE space telescope.
Analysis of observational data showed that the value of red shift for J1007+2115, equal 7,515, corresponds to the age of the Universe 700 million years, which means the quasar existed in the era of Reionizatsiiwhen he formed the first galaxies and stars. The Central black hole mass estimated with data from spectroscopic observations, is equal to (1,5±0,2)×109 solar masses. It is two times more massive than the supermassive black holes found in the most distant known quasar J1342 + 0928.
Such a black hole does not fit well into existing theories, as it requires an abnormally massive “germ” with a mass of ten thousand solar masses, which were formed one hundred million years after the Big Bang. Such a scenario requires either the formation of “embryo” as the result of direct collapse of massive object or a very fast speed of the black hole grows due to accretion of matter. Thus, this discovery allows to obtain the strong constraint on models of the early stages of the growth of supermassive black holes, which need to be revised.
Previously astronomers were able to determine the quasar with the highest known luminosity that existed in the days when the age of the Universe was little more than a billion years.